Physiology - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Deletion of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) in muscle stem cells does not alter muscle regeneration in mice after injury
    Swiderski, K ; Caldow, MK ; Naim, T ; Trieu, J ; Chee, A ; Koopman, R ; Lynch, GS ; Alway, SE (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2019-02-27)
    Muscles of older animals are more susceptible to injury and regenerate poorly, in part due to a persistent inflammatory response. The janus kinase (Jak)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) pathway mediates inflammatory signaling and is tightly regulated by the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins, especially SOCS3. SOCS3 expression is altered in the muscle of aged animals and may contribute to the persistent inflammation and impaired regeneration. To test this hypothesis, we performed myotoxic injuries on mice with a tamoxifen-inducible deletion of SOCS3 specifically within the muscle stem cell compartment. Muscle stem cell-specific SOCS3 deletion reduced muscle mass at 14 days post-injury (-14%, P < 0.01), altered the myogenic transcriptional program, and reduced myogenic fusion based on the number of centrally-located nuclei per muscle fiber. Despite the delay in myogenesis, muscles with a muscle stem cell-specific deletion of SOCS3 were still able to regenerate after a single bout or multiple bouts of myotoxic injury. A reduction in SOCS3 expression in muscle stem cells is unlikely to be responsible for the incomplete muscle repair in aged animals.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Muscle-specific deletion of SOCS3 does not reduce the anabolic response to leucine in a mouse model of acute inflammation
    Caldow, MK ; Ham, DJ ; Chee, A ; Trieu, J ; Naim, T ; Stapleton, DI ; Swiderski, K ; Lynch, GS ; Koopman, R (ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2017-08-01)
    Excessive inflammation reduces skeletal muscle protein synthesis leading to wasting and weakness. The janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (JAK/STAT3) pathway is important for the regulation of inflammatory signaling. As such, suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3), the negative regulator of JAK/STAT signaling, is thought to be important in the control of muscle homeostasis. We hypothesized that muscle-specific deletion of SOCS3 would impair the anabolic response to leucine during an inflammatory insult. Twelve week old (n=8 per group) SOCS3 muscle-specific knockout mice (SOCS3-MKO) and littermate controls (WT) were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1mg/kg) or saline and were studied during fasted conditions or after receiving 0.5g/kg leucine 3h after the injection of LPS. Markers of inflammation, anabolic signaling, and protein synthesis were measured 4h after LPS injection. LPS injection robustly increased mRNA expression of inflammatory molecules (Socs3, Socs1, Il-6, Ccl2, Tnfα and Cd68). In muscles from SOCS3-MKO mice, the Socs3 mRNA response to LPS was significantly blunted (∼6-fold) while STAT3 Tyr705 phosphorylation was exacerbated (18-fold). Leucine administration increased protein synthesis in both WT (∼1.6-fold) and SOCS3-MKO mice (∼1.5-fold) compared to basal levels. LPS administration blunted this effect, but there were no differences between WT and SOCS3-MKO mice. Muscle-specific SOCS3 deletion did not alter the response of AKT, mTOR, S6 or 4EBP1 under any treatment conditions. Therefore, SOCS3 does not appear to mediate the early inflammatory or leucine-induced changes in protein synthesis in skeletal muscle.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Skeletal muscle-specific overexpression of IGFBP-2 promotes a slower muscle phenotype in healthy but not dystrophic mdx mice and does not affect the dystrophic pathology
    Swiderski, K ; Martins, KJB ; Chee, A ; Trieu, J ; Naim, T ; Gehrig, SM ; Baum, DM ; Brenmoehl, J ; Chau, L ; Koopman, R ; Gregorevic, P ; Metzger, F ; Hoeflich, A ; Lynch, GS (CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE, 2016-10-01)
    OBJECTIVE: The insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are thought to modulate cell size and homeostasis via IGF-I-dependent and -independent pathways. There is a considerable dearth of information regarding the function of IGFBPs in skeletal muscle, particularly their role in the pathophysiology of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). In this study we tested the hypothesis that intramuscular IGFBP-2 overexpression would ameliorate the pathology in mdx dystrophic mice. DESIGN: 4week old male C57Bl/10 and mdx mice received a single intramuscular injection of AAV6-empty or AAV6-IGFBP-2 vector into the tibialis anterior muscle. At 8weeks post-injection the effect of IGFBP-2 overexpression on the structure and function of the injected muscle was assessed. RESULTS: AAV6-mediated IGFBP-2 overexpression in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of 4-week-old C57BL/10 and mdx mice reduced the mass of injected muscle after 8weeks, inducing a slower muscle phenotype in C57BL/10 but not mdx mice. Analysis of inflammatory and fibrotic gene expression revealed no changes between control and IGFBP-2 injected muscles in dystrophic (mdx) mice. CONCLUSIONS: Together these results indicate that the IGFBP-2-induced promotion of a slower muscle phenotype is impaired in muscles of dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, which contributes to the inability of IGFBP-2 to ameliorate the dystrophic pathology. The findings implicate the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) in the signaling required for this adaptation.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Antibody-directed myostatin inhibition enhances muscle mass and function in tumor-bearing mice
    Murphy, KT ; Chee, A ; Gleeson, BG ; Naim, T ; Swiderski, K ; Koopman, R ; Lynch, GS (AMER PHYSIOLOGICAL SOC, 2011-09-01)
    Cancer cachexia describes the progressive skeletal muscle wasting and weakness in many cancer patients and accounts for >20% of cancer-related deaths. We tested the hypothesis that antibody-directed myostatin inhibition would attenuate the atrophy and loss of function in muscles of tumor-bearing mice. Twelve-week-old C57BL/6 mice received a subcutaneous injection of saline (control) or Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumor cells. One week later, mice received either once weekly injections of saline (control, n = 12; LLC, n = 9) or a mouse chimera of anti-human myostatin antibody (PF-354, 10 mg·kg⁻¹·wk⁻¹, LLC+PF-354, n = 11) for 5 wk. Injection of LLC cells reduced muscle mass and maximum force of tibialis anterior (TA) muscles by 8-10% (P < 0.05), but the muscle atrophy and weakness were prevented with PF-354 treatment (P > 0.05). Maximum specific (normalized) force of diaphragm muscle strips was reduced with LLC injection (P < 0.05) but was not improved with PF-354 treatment (P > 0.05). PF-354 enhanced activity of oxidative enzymes in TA and diaphragm muscles of tumor-bearing mice by 118% and 89%, respectively (P < 0.05). Compared with controls, apoptosis that was not of myofibrillar or satellite cell origin was 140% higher in TA muscle cross sections from saline-treated LLC tumor-bearing mice (P < 0.05) but was not different in PF-354-treated tumor-bearing mice (P > 0.05). Antibody-directed myostatin inhibition attenuated the skeletal muscle atrophy and loss of muscle force-producing capacity in a murine model of cancer cachexia, in part by reducing apoptosis. The improvements in limb muscle mass and function highlight the therapeutic potential of antibody-directed myostatin inhibition for cancer cachexia.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Tranilast administration reduces fibrosis and improves fatigue resistance in muscles of mdx dystrophic mice
    Swiderski, K ; Todorov, M ; Gehrig, SM ; Naim, T ; Chee, A ; Stapleton, DI ; Koopman, R ; Lynch, GS (BMC, 2014-01-01)
    BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe and progressive muscle-wasting disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene that result in the absence of the membrane-stabilising protein dystrophin. Dystrophic muscle fibres are susceptible to injury and degeneration, and impaired muscle regeneration is associated with fibrotic deposition that limits the efficacy of potential pharmacological, cell- and gene-based therapies. Novel treatments that can prevent or attenuate fibrosis have important clinical merit for DMD and related neuromuscular diseases. We investigated the therapeutic potential for tranilast, an orally bioavailable anti-allergic agent, to prevent fibrosis in skeletal muscles of mdx dystrophic mice. RESULTS: Three-week-old C57Bl/10 and mdx mice received tranilast (~300 mg/kg) in their food for 9 weeks, after which fibrosis was assessed through histological analyses, and functional properties of tibialis anterior muscles were assessed in situ and diaphragm muscle strips in vitro. Tranilast administration did not significantly alter the mass of any muscles in control or mdx mice, but it decreased fibrosis in the severely affected diaphragm muscle by 31% compared with untreated mdx mice (P < 0.05). A similar trend of decreased fibrosis was observed in the tibialis anterior muscles of mdx mice (P = 0.10). These reductions in fibrotic deposition were not associated with improvements in maximum force-producing capacity, but we did observe small but significant improvements in the resistance to fatigue in both the diaphragm and TA muscles of mdx mice treated with tranilast. CONCLUSION: Together these findings demonstrate that administration of potent antifibrotic compounds such as tranilast could help preserve skeletal muscle structure, which could ultimately increase the efficacy of pharmacological, cell and gene replacement/correction therapies for muscular dystrophy and related disorders.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Muscle-specific deletion of SOCS3 increases the early inflammatory response but does not affect regeneration after myotoxic injury
    Swiderski, K ; Thakur, SS ; Naim, T ; Trieu, J ; Chee, A ; Stapleton, DI ; Koopman, R ; Lynch, GS (BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2016-10-24)
    BACKGROUND: Muscles of old animals are injured more easily and regenerate poorly, attributed in part to increased levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. The Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling cascade is a key mediator of inflammatory cytokine action, and signaling via this pathway is increased in muscles with aging. As a negative regulator of JAK/STAT signaling, a key mediator of myogenic proliferation and differentiation, altered expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3) is likely to have important consequences for muscle regeneration. To model this scenario, we investigated the effect of SOCS3 deletion within mature muscle fibers on injury and repair. We tested the hypothesis that reduced SOCS3 function would alter the inflammatory response and impair muscle regeneration after myotoxic injury. METHODS: Mice with a specific deletion of SOCS3 within mature skeletal muscle fibers were used to assess the effect of SOCS3 deletion on muscle injury and repair. Twelve-week-old or 24-month-old SOCS3 muscle-specific knockout (SOCS3 MKO) mice and littermate controls were either left uninjured or injured with a single injection of notexin (10 μg/ml) into the right tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. At 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, or 14 days post-injury, the right TA muscle was excised and subjected to histological, western immunoblotting, and gene expression analyses. Force production and fatigue were assessed in uninjured muscles and at 7 days post-notexin injury. RESULTS: In uninjured muscles, SOCS3 deletion decreased force production during fatigue but had no effect on the gross or histological appearance of the TA muscles. After notexin injury, deletion of SOCS3 increased STAT3 phosphorylation at day 1 and increased the mRNA expression of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, and the inflammatory cell markers F4/80 and CD68 at day 2. Gene expression analysis of the regeneration markers Pax7, MyoD, and Myogenin indicated SOCS3 deletion had no effect on the progression of muscle repair after notexin injury. Inflammation and regeneration were also unchanged in the muscles of 24-month-old SOCS3 MKO mice compared with control. CONCLUSIONS: Loss of SOCS3 expression in mature muscle fibers increased the inflammatory response to myotoxic injury but did not impair muscle regeneration in either adult or old mice. Therefore, reduced SOCS3 expression in muscle fibers is unlikely to underlie impaired muscle regeneration. Further investigation into the role of SOCS3 in other cell types involved in muscle repair is warranted.