Physiology - Research Publications

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    Insulin Resistance and Altered Systemic Glucose Metabolism in Mice Lacking Nur77
    Chao, LC ; Wroblewski, K ; Zhang, Z ; Pei, L ; Vergnes, L ; Ilkayeva, OR ; Ding, SY ; Reue, K ; Watt, MJ ; Newgard, CB ; Pilch, PF ; Hevener, AL ; Tontonoz, P (AMER DIABETES ASSOC, 2009-12)
    OBJECTIVE: Nur77 is an orphan nuclear receptor with pleotropic functions. Previous studies have identified Nur77 as a transcriptional regulator of glucose utilization genes in skeletal muscle and gluconeogenesis in liver. However, the net functional impact of these pathways is unknown. To examine the consequence of Nur77 signaling for glucose metabolism in vivo, we challenged Nur77 null mice with high-fat feeding. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Wild-type and Nur77 null mice were fed a high-fat diet (60% calories from fat) for 3 months. We determined glucose tolerance, tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, oxygen consumption, muscle and liver lipid content, muscle insulin signaling, and expression of glucose and lipid metabolism genes. RESULTS: Mice with genetic deletion of Nur77 exhibited increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies revealed greater high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in both skeletal muscle and liver of Nur77 null mice compared with controls. Loss of Nur77 expression in skeletal muscle impaired insulin signaling and markedly reduced GLUT4 protein expression. Muscles lacking Nur77 also exhibited increased triglyceride content and accumulation of multiple even-chained acylcarnitine species. In the liver, Nur77 deletion led to hepatic steatosis and enhanced expression of lipogenic genes, likely reflecting the lipogenic effect of hyperinsulinemia. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data demonstrate that loss of Nur77 influences systemic glucose metabolism and highlight the physiological contribution of muscle Nur77 to this regulatory pathway.
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    Low affinity nerve growth factor receptor gene co-segregates with decreased bodyweight and increased left ventricular weight in spontaneously hypertensive rats
    Kapuscinski, MK ; Nemoto, K ; Ueyama, T ; Charchar, F ; Kageyama, H ; Fukumachi, K ; Sekimoto, M ; Senba, E ; Tomita, T ; Tomita, I ; Harrap, SB (WILEY, 1996)
    1. The sympathetic nervous system influences the cardiovascular and hormonal systems and sympathetic innervation is dependent on nerve growth factor (NGF). The NGF gene is linked genetically to high blood pressure in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and there exists a mutation in the SHR low affinity NGF receptor (LNGFR) gene. 2. To determine whether the LNGFR mutation was linked genetically with cardiovascular phenotypes we studied an F2 population derived from SHR and normotensive Donryu (DRY) rats. 3. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), left ventricular mass (LVM) and related phenotypes were measured in 127 20 week old male F2 rats and correlated with the inheritance of the SHR mutation (S) and/or the DRY allele (D) of the LNGFR. 4. Analysis of variance revealed that the S mutation was associated with a significantly lower bodyweight in F2 rats (P < 0.0001). 5. The S mutation was associated with a significant (P < 0.007) increase in LVM:bodyweight ratio, but not with differences in right ventricular or kidney weights corrected for bodyweight. We found no association between MAP and LNGFR alleles or genotypes. 6. These results suggest that the mutation in the signal peptide of LNGFR may serve as a useful marker for the analysis of genetic factor(s) involved in the differential determination of body size and heart weight.