Computing and Information Systems - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 67
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    6. Silenced by Power: Repression, Isolation & Persecution
    Hale, D ; Dreyfus, S ; Colvin, N ; Myers, A ; Halgand-Mishra, D ; Brown, B (transcript Verlag, 2021-12-03)
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Modelling the Economic Impacts of Epidemics in Developing Countries Under Alternative Intervention Strategies
    Geard, N ; Giesecke, JA ; Madden, JR ; McBryde, ES ; Moss, R ; Tran, NH ; Madden, JR ; Shibusawa, H ; Higano, Y (Springer, 2020)
    Modern levels of global travel have intensified the risk of new infectious diseases becoming pandemics. Particularly at risk are developing countries whose health systems may be less well equipped to detect quickly and respond effectively to the importation of new infectious diseases. This chapter examines what might have been the economic consequences if the 2014 West African Ebola epidemic had been imported to a small Asia-Pacific country. Hypothetical outbreaks in two countries were modelled. The post-importation estimations were carried out with two linked models: a stochastic disease transmission (SEIR) model and a quarterly version of the multi-country GTAP model, GTAP-Q. The SEIR model provided daily estimates of the number of persons in various disease states. For each intervention strategy the stochastic disease model was run 500 times to obtain the probability distribution of disease outcomes. Typical daily country outcomes for both controlled and uncontrolled outbreaks under five alternative intervention strategies were converted to quarterly disease-state results, which in turn were used in the estimation of GTAP-Q shocks to country-specific health costs and labour productivity during the outbreak, and permanent reductions in each country’s population and labour force due to mortality. Estimated behavioural consequences (severe reductions in international tourism and crowd avoidance) formed further shocks. The GTAP-Q simulations revealed very large economic costs for each country if they experienced an uncontrolled Ebola outbreak, and considerable economic costs for controlled outbreaks in Fiji due to the importance of the tourism sector to its economy. A major finding was that purely reactive strategies had virtually no effect on preventing uncontrolled outbreaks, but pre-emptive strategies substantially reduced the proportion of uncontrolled outbreaks, and in turn the economic and social costs.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Social Planning for Trusted Autonomy
    Miller, T ; Pearce, AR ; Sonenberg, L ; Abbass, HA ; Scholz, J ; Reid, DJ (Springer International Publishing, 2018)
    In this chapter, we describe social planning mechanisms for constructing and representing explainable plans in human-agent interactions, addressing one aspect of what it will take to meet the requirements of a trusted autonomous system. Social planning is automated planning in which the planning agent maintains and reasons with an explicit model of the other agents, human or artificial, with which it interacts, including the humans’ goals, intentions, and beliefs, as well as their potential behaviours. The chapter includes a brief overview of the challenge of planning in human-agent teams, and an introduction to a recent body of technical work in multi-agent epistemic planning. The benefits of planning in the presence of nested belief reasoning and first-person multi-agent planning are illustrated in two scenarios, hence indicating how social planning could be used for planning human-agent interaction explicitly as part of an agent’s deliberation.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Guilt in DayZ
    Carter, M ; Allison, F ; Jorgensen, K ; Karlsen, F (MIT Press, 2019-01-11)
    Death in most games is simply a metaphor for failure (Bartle 2010). Killing another player in a first-person shooter (FPS) game such as Call of Duty (Infinity Ward 2003) is generally considered to be as transgressive as taking an opponent’s pawn in chess. In an early exploratory study of players’ experiences and processing of violence in digital videogames, Christoph Klimmt and his colleagues concluded that “moral management does not apply to multiplayer combat games”(2006, 325). In other words, player killing is not a violation of moral codes or a source of moral concern for players. Subsequent studies of player experiences of guilt and moral concern in violent videogames (Hartmann, Toz, and Brandon 2010; Hartmann and Vorderer 2010; Gollwitzer and Melzer 2012) have consequently focused on the moral experiences associated with single-player games and the engagement with transgressive fictional, virtual narrative content.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Bring-your-own-device usage trends in australian hospitals a national survey
    Wani, TA ; Mendoza, A ; Gray, K (IOS Press, 2021-04-19)
    Background: Healthcare is among the leading industries which drives the use of personal devices for work purposes (BYOD). However, allowing BYOD for healthcare workers comes at a cost, as it puts sensitive information assets such as patient data residing on personal devices at risk of potential data breaches. Objective: Previous review of the literature has highlighted the dearth of empirical studies in hospital settings regarding BYOD usage. As such, this paper aims to report BYOD usage trends in Australian hospitals through a national survey, first of its kind in Australia. Methods: An anonymous survey was conducted online among health IT personnel, asking them about their experiences about BYOD usage in their hospitals. 28 responses were collected based on public Australian hospitals, which included 21 hospital groups and 7 standalone hospitals, likely to represent more than 100 hospitals in total. Survey responses were quantitatively analysed through descriptive statistical analysis and cross tabulation. Results: BYOD is allowed in majority of the hospitals, and among all major staff groups, with doctors being the leading group. Participants ranked reasons for allowing BYOD, and most of them were related to improvement in clinical productivity, efficiency and mobility for clinical staff. Challenges were generally related to data security such as patient data breaches and compliance with data security laws, according to them. More than two thirds of hospitals had a cybersecurity officer employed, and CIOs were the most dominant group who held responsibility for managing BYOD within the hospital. Conclusion: This paper provides a starting point for better understanding of BYOD usage in a complex healthcare environment based on empirical evidence, one which highlights the security-usability conundrum, confirming previous literature themes.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Abstract interpretation, symbolic execution and constraints
    Amadini, R ; Gange, G ; Schachte, P ; Sondergaard, H ; Stuckey, P ; de Boer, F ; Mauro, J (Schloss Dagstuhl-Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, 2020)
    Abstract interpretation is a static analysis framework for sound over-approximation of all possible runtime states of a program. Symbolic execution is a framework for reachability analysis which tries to explore all possible execution paths of a program. A shared feature between abstract interpretation and symbolic execution is that each – implicitly or explicitly – maintains constraints during execution, in the form of invariants or path conditions. We investigate the relations between the worlds of abstract interpretation, symbolic execution and constraint solving, to expose potential synergies.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Scicurious as method: Learning from GLAM Young People Living in a Pandemic about Cultivating Digital Co-Research-Creation Spaces that Ignite Curiosity and Creativity
    Coleman, K ; Healy, S ; Wouters, N ; Martin, J ; Campbell, L ; Peck, S ; Belton, A ; Hiscock, R ; Kara, H ; Khoo, S-M (Policy Press, 2020)
    Could COVID-​19, this unexpected crisis, act as a comma 6 in a co-​research-​creation project to become a breathing space and not a full stop? Maybe this pause is a colon: the two different periods of the project (and life in general) on either side of the pandemic, equally important and dependent on each other for full meaning. In this chapter, we tell the story of how a co-​research-​creation event (the Sci Curious Project) unfolded before and during the COVID-​19 pandemic 7 ; the lead-​up to its irruption (St. Pierre, 1997) and then what came after. ‘Scicurious as method’ emerged out of the unexpected pause and recalibration of the project; a method that emphasizes the creation of research spaces that activate scicuriosity in situated practice. We understand scicuriosity as emerging from collaborative research-​creation events that ignite curiosity and creativity. Scicurious as method is presented through an encounter with speculative fiction and scicurious zine travels. Scicurious as method has significant ethical implications, these reify the potential of co-​designed speculative inquiries with creativity and curiosity at their heart. This is, in part, due to its contingency on cultivating digital co-​research-​creation spaces that enfold rather than eschew the analogue and highlight the joyous potential of a deeply situated, co-​designed speculative inquiry; an inquiry with galleries, libraries, archives and museums (GLAM) young people living in a pandemic.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Business Process Model Abstraction
    Polyvyanyy, A ; Smirnov, S ; Weske, M ; Vom Brocke, J ; Rosemann, M (Springer-Verlag, 2010-01-01)
    In order to execute, study, or improve operating procedures companies document them as business process models. Often business process analysts capture every single exception handling or alternative task handling scenario within a model. Such a tendency results in large process specifications. The core process logic becomes hidden in numerous modeling constructs. To fulfill different tasks companies develop several model variants of the same business process at different abstraction levels. Afterwards, maintenance of such model groups involves a lot of synchronization effort and is erroneous. We propose an abstraction technique that allows generalization of process models. Business process model abstraction assumes a detailed model of a process to be available and derives coarse grained models from it. The task of abstraction is to tell significant model elements from insignificant ones and to reduce the latter. We propose to learn insignificant process elements from supplementary model information, e.g., task execution time or frequency of task occurrence. Finally, we discuss a mechanism for user control of the model abstraction level - an abstraction slider.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Transfer Learning to Enhance Amenorrhea Status Prediction in Cancer and Fertility Data with Missing Values
    Wu, X ; Khorshidi, HA ; Aickelin, U ; Edib, Z ; Peate, M ; Reddy, S (Productivity Press (Taylor & Francis), 2020)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Modeling cultural dynamics
    Kashima, Y ; Kirley, M ; Stivala, A ; Robins, G ; Vallacher, RR ; Read, SJ ; Nowak, A (Routledge, 2017)
    This chapter provides a broad and selective introduction to diverse literatures on computational approaches to cultural dynamics. It explains the social psychological models of cultural dynamics, and then move to two prominent approaches to cultural dynamics— Axelrod's model of cultural dissemination and evolutionary game theoretic approaches to evolution of cooperation. These approaches focus on complementary aspects of cultural dynamics, and that each has unique strengths in dealing with some aspects, but not others. The Axelrod model has been used to explore the dynamics deriving from transmissions of cultural information and the role of drift and to some extent of importation; however, it does not address invention, or most importantly, selection. The evolutionary game theoretic approaches have a unique strength in examining the importance of the selection process in cultural evolution. The chapter discusses how the existing approaches complement each other, and also point to the gap in the existing theory— neither has addressed the process of invention.