Melbourne Veterinary School - Research Publications

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    Tumour cells surviving in vivo cisplatin chemotherapy display elevated c-myc expression
    Walker, TL ; White, JD ; Esdale, WJ ; Burton, MA ; DeCruz, EE (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 1996-03-01)
    The c-myc oncogene has been extensively implicated in cell proliferation, cell differentiation and programmed cell death. Aberrant expression of the c-myc gene product has been observed in a range of tumours and has also been implicated in cisplatin (cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum)-mediated chemoresistance. A solid transplantable tumour model in syngeneic DA rats was subjected to treatment with cisplatin to determine the impact of such therapy on endogenous c-myc gene expression. Serially transplanted tumours were intravenously treated with a single cisplatin dose (1 mg/kg) and c-myc expression analysed 2 and 7 days after treatment. The surviving tumour cells display a significant 2-fold elevation in c-myc expression at 48 h and 7 days after treatment. Primary cell cultures have been derived from untreated in vivo tumours of the same model and subjected to treatment with a c-myc phosphorothioate antisense oligomer. Administration of 5 microM c-myc antisense oligomer directed at the initiation codon and first four codons of c-myc mRNA results in total inhibition of c-myc expression and coincident suspension of cell growth for a period of 4 days in culture. Antisense therapies directed at the c-myc gene may well prove an effective tool for treating tumours in conjunction with cisplatin as these findings show that tumour cells surviving cisplatin chemotherapy display elevated c-myc expression.
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    ASPECTS OF THE DIAGNOSIS, PATHOGENESIS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CANINE PARVOVIRUS
    STUDDERT, MJ ; ODA, C ; RIEGL, CA ; ROSTON, RP (AUSTRALIAN VETERINARY ASSN, 1983-01-01)
    Between 18 July 1980 and 2 January 1981, 188 samples (145 faeces and 43 intestinal contents) were submitted from dogs with suspected canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis. CPV was demonstrated in 56 (30%) of these samples; the weekly rate of positive CPV identification was remarkably constant at approximately 30% even though clinical and often post-mortem findings strongly supported a diagnosis of CPV enteritis. The simplest, most sensitive and most rapid method for detection of virus was haemagglutination (HA) which was twice as sensitive as isolation of virus and 8 times as sensitive as electron microscopy (EM). Forty nine of 56 (88%) samples positive for CPV were from dogs less than 1 year old and 44 (79%) CPV-positive samples were from pups less than 6 months old; only one sample from a pup less than 2 months old (pup was 7 weeks old) was positive. An additional 68 samples (53 faeces and 15 intestinal contents) were submitted from Beagle dogs that were part of a colony of approximately 1200 dogs. Epidemiological data pinpoints the entry of CPV into the colony in November 1978 at which time most dogs including pups less than 6 months of age developed antibody to CPV without developing clinical disease. From these data an overview of some aspects of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of CPV is constructed.
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    VIRUSES AND VIRUS-LIKE PARTICLES IN THE FECES OF DOGS WITH AND WITHOUT DIARRHEA
    MARSHALL, JA ; HEALEY, DS ; STUDDERT, MJ ; SCOTT, PC ; KENNETT, ML ; WARD, BK ; GUST, ID (AUSTRALIAN VETERINARY ASSN, 1984-01-01)
    Negative staining electron microscopy was used to identify viruses in 157 normal and 29 diarrhoeal faecal samples collected from 156 dogs admitted to an animal shelter during an 8 month period (March to October) in 1982. Seven distinct viral types were detected: 21-26 nm parvovirus-like particles, 28-31 nm astrovirus-like particles, a previously undescribed 34-35 nm "round" virus particle, coronavirus, coronavirus-like particles ( CVLP ), rotavirus and papova-like virus. Parvovirus-like particles alone were detected in 14 diarrhoeal and 50 normal faeces, astrovirus-like particles in 3 normal faeces, "round" viruses in 4 normal faeces, coronavirus in 2 diarrhoeal and 5 normal faeces, CVLP in one diarrhoeal and one normal faeces, rotavirus in 2 normal faeces, papova-like virus in one normal faeces, both parvovirus-like particles and coronavirus in 2 diarrhoeal and 2 normal faeces, parvovirus-like particles and rotavirus in one normal faeces and parvovirus-like and papova-like virus in one normal faeces. The significance of these findings in canine and human disease is discussed.
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    VIRUS AND VIRUS-LIKE PARTICLES IN THE FECES OF CATS WITH AND WITHOUT DIARRHEA
    MARSHALL, JA ; KENNETT, ML ; RODGER, SM ; STUDDERT, MJ ; THOMPSON, WL ; GUST, ID (WILEY, 1987-04-01)
    Negative staining electron microscopy was used to identify viruses in 166 normal and 62 diarrhoeal faecal samples from 208 cats admitted to an animal shelter during a 16-month period (March 1984 to June 1985). On the basis of size and shape 7 distinct viral types were detected: 24 nm parvovirus-like particles, 30 nm astrovirus, 30 nm picornavirus-like particles, reovirus, rotavirus, coronavirus and a 75 nm "togavirus-like" particle. The incidence of these particles in the 208 cats was 11%, 7%, 6%, 0.4%, 5%, 1% and 1% respectively. Virus isolation studies using 40 of the faecal samples succeeded in isolating reovirus 1 in 2 cases. Immune electron microscope studies demonstrated the presence of antibody in a human serum to cat astrovirus, but failed to clarify the identity of the parvovirus-like particles and picornavirus-like particles, other than showing that some of the parvovirus-like particles were not related to feline panleukopenia virus. It was found that parvovirus-like particles, astrovirus, picornavirus-like particles, reovirus and rotavirus could be excreted by cats with normal faeces as well as cats with diarrhoeal faeces. Parvovirus-like particles, astrovirus, picornavirus-like particles and rotavirus could be excreted in high concentration in normal faeces. There was no simple relationship between age and diarrhoea in the population of cats studied. Age was not a critical factor in the excretion of parvovirus-like particles, astrovirus, picornavirus-like particles and rotavirus. The incidence of diarrhoea was not clearly associated with the seasons.