Melbourne Veterinary School - Research Publications

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    Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for the detection equine rhinitis B viruses and cell culture isolation of the virus
    Black, WD ; Hartley, CA ; Ficorilli, NP ; Studdert, MJ (SPRINGER WIEN, 2007-01-01)
    Equine rhinitis B virus (ERBV), genus Erbovirus, family Picornaviridae occurs as two serotypes, ERBV1 and ERBV2. An ERBV-specific nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) that amplified a product within the 3D(pol) and 3' non-translated region of the viral genome was developed. The RT-PCR detected all 24 available ERBV1 isolates and one available ERBV2 isolate. The limit of detection for the prototype strain ERBV1.1436/71 was 0.1 50% tissue culture infectious doses. The RT-PCR was used to detect viral RNA in six of 17 nasopharyngeal swab samples from horses that had clinical signs of acute febrile respiratory disease but from which ERBV was not initially isolated in cell culture. The sequences of these six ERBV RT-PCR positive samples had 93-96% nucleotide identity with six other partially sequenced ERBV1 isolates and one ERBV2. ERBV was isolated from one of the six samples at fourth cell culture passage when it was shown that the addition of 20 mg/mL MgCl(2) to the cell culture medium enhanced the growth of the virus. This isolated virus was antigenically similar to ERBV2.313/75. Determination of the nucleotide sequence of the P1 region of the genome also indicated that the isolate was ERBV2, and it was therefore designated ERBV2.1576/99. This is the first reported isolation of ERBV in Australia. The study highlights the utility of PCR for the identification of viruses in clinical samples that may initially be considered negative by conventional cell culture isolation.
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    Effect of DLK1 and RTL1 but Not MEG3 or MEG8 on Muscle Gene Expression in Callipyge Lambs
    Fleming-Waddell, JN ; Olbricht, GR ; Taxis, TM ; White, JD ; Vuocolo, T ; Craig, BA ; Tellam, RL ; Neary, MK ; Cockett, NE ; Bidwell, CA ; Zhang, B (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2009-10-09)
    Callipyge sheep exhibit extreme postnatal muscle hypertrophy in the loin and hindquarters as a result of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the imprinted DLK1-DIO3 domain on ovine chromosome 18. The callipyge SNP up-regulates the expression of surrounding transcripts when inherited in cis without altering their allele-specific imprinting status. The callipyge phenotype exhibits polar overdominant inheritance since only paternal heterozygous animals have muscle hypertrophy. Two studies were conducted profiling gene expression in lamb muscles to determine the down-stream effects of over-expression of paternal allele-specific DLK1 and RTL1 as well as maternal allele-specific MEG3, RTL1AS and MEG8, using Affymetrix bovine expression arrays. A total of 375 transcripts were differentially expressed in callipyge muscle and 25 transcripts were subsequently validated by quantitative PCR. The muscle-specific expression patterns of most genes were similar to DLK1 and included genes that are transcriptional repressors or affect feedback mechanisms in beta-adrenergic and growth factor signaling pathways. One gene, phosphodiesterase 7A had an expression pattern similar to RTL1 expression indicating a biological activity for RTL1 in muscle. Only transcripts that localize to the DLK1-DIO3 domain were affected by inheritance of a maternal callipyge allele. Callipyge sheep are a unique model to study over expression of both paternal allele-specific genes and maternal allele-specific non-coding RNA with an accessible and nonlethal phenotype. This study has identified a number of genes that are regulated by DLK1 and RTL1 expression and exert control on postnatal skeletal muscle growth. The genes identified in this model are primary candidates for naturally regulating postnatal muscle growth in all meat animal species, and may serve as targets to ameliorate muscle atrophy conditions including myopathic diseases and age-related sarcopenia.
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    Immune response to allergens in sheep sensitized to house dust mite
    Bischof, RJ ; Snibson, KJ ; Van Der Velden, J ; Meeusen, ENT (BMC, 2008-10-20)
    BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergens are a major cause of allergic asthma. Most studies using animal models of allergic asthma have used rodents sensitized with the 'un-natural' allergen ovalbumin. It has only recently been recognized that the use of animal models based on HDM provide a more relevant insight into the allergen-induced mechanisms that underpin human allergic disease. We have previously described a sheep model of human allergic asthma that uses Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus HDM. The present study extends our understanding of the immune effects of HDM and the allergens Der p 1 and Der p 2 in the sheep model of asthma. METHODS: Peripheral blood sera from non-sensitized (control) sheep and sheep sensitized to HDM was collected to determine immunoglobulin (Ig) reactivities to HDM, Der p 1 and Der p 2 by ELISA. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid collected following allergen challenge was also assessed for the presence of HDM-specific antibodies. To examine the cellular immune response to HDM allergens, T cell proliferation and cutaneous responses were assessed in sensitized and control sheep. RESULTS: Strong HDM- and Der p 1-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG2 and IgA serum responses were observed in sensitized sheep, while detectable levels of HDM-specific IgG1 and IgA were seen in BAL fluid of allergen-challenged lungs. In contrast, minimal antibody reactivity was observed to Der p 2. Marked T cell proliferation and late phase cutaneous responses, accompanied by the recruitment of eosinophils, indicates the induction of a cellular and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) type II response by HDM and Der p 1 allergen, but not Der p 2. CONCLUSION: This work characterizes the humoral and cellular immune effects of HDM extract and its major constituent allergens in sheep sensitized to HDM. The effects of allergen in HDM-sensitized sheep were detectable both locally and systemically, and probably mediated via enzymatic and immune actions of the major HDM allergen Der p 1. This study extends our understanding of the actions of this important allergen relevant to human allergic asthma and its effects in sheep experimentally sensitized to HDM allergens.
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    Multilobular tumour of the caudal cranium causing severe cerebral and cerebellar compression in a dog
    Psychas, V ; Loukopoulos, P ; Polizopoulou, ZS ; Sofianidis, G (KOREAN SOC VETERINARY SCIENCE, 2009-03-01)
    Multilobular tumour of bone (MTB) is an uncommon tumour and is usually located in the skull. A 13-year-old mixed breed dog was presented with a two-week history of progressively worsening vestibular dysfunction and cognitive abnormalities; it appeared demented and showed asymmetric ataxia and hypermetria of all limbs. The owner opted to have the animal euthanised. Necropsy revealed a large mass occupying the right occipital, parietal and temporal bones, severely compressing the cerebellum and the right occipital lobe. Histologically, it was characterised by the presence of multiple lobules containing osteoid or cartilage and separated by fibrous septae, features typical of MTB. Lung metastases were evident. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an MTB causing both severe cerebral and cerebellar compression and the second detailed report of an MTB of the occipital bone. MTB should be included in the differential diagnosis of bone tumours as well as in cases with central vestibular disease.