Electrical and Electronic Engineering - Theses
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ItemResource allocation in energy harvesting relay networksPilanawithana, Bhathiya Maneendra ( 2019)As the demand for low power Internet-of-things (IoT) devices rises, connectivity becomes a major challenge. Cooperative communication with radio frequency energy harvesting can improve connectivity. Sensor nodes which do not have a direct link to a computation node may form a communication link through other nodes that act as relays. In an energy-scarce environment, low power devices tend to go into a sleep state whenever they do not generate information to transmit. This is counterproductive to cooperative communication which requires nodes to transmit information from other nodes. A promising alternative is to use radio frequency energy harvesting at the relay node. In this thesis we consider a three-node communication network in which a source node communicates with a destination node through a relay node. The direct link between source to destination does not exist, and the relay node relies on the energy harvested from the source transmitted information signal. Our goal is to determine the source transmit power, relay transmit power and relay energy harvesting parameters such that the performance of the system is optimized. Moreover, a long-term battery at the relay can reduce the randomness in relay transmit power. This can be exploited by an efficient resource allocation policy to improve the system performance. However, energy in the battery depends on the resource allocations decisions made earlier, which makes the analysis of the system more complicated than the situation where no long-term battery is available at the relay. We determine the optimal resource allocation for both situations, which can be used to compare the performance gain due to relay battery.
ItemWired and wireless services over next generation WDM/TDM PON systemsFeng, Hao ( 2016)Passive optical networks (PON) have been the most popular networking approach for fibre-to-the-home network deployments. The incorporation of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) along with time division multiplexing (TDM), delivered over a PON with longer feeder network, has been studied as a promising solution. This is widely known as the Long Reach WDM/TDM PON and is considered as a suitable option for a cost effective access network offering higher bandwidth, potentially to a larger customer base compared to PON. Future access networks like this will be expected to support the increasing level of fixed mobile convergence in wireless communications by offering cost-effective backhaul for such access networks. Future access networks will also need to offer better support for peer-to-peer (P2P) networking between customers. Increasingly, these network alternatives need to offer improved energy efficiency to help lower the carbon footprint of future access networks. As future networks will support the increasing mix of fixed and mobile wireless access, network needs to consider better mechanisms for the management of medium access control (MAC) layer functions to deal with the complexity of delivering wired and wireless services over a WDM/TDM PON architecture. This thesis explores long-reach WDM/TDM PON networks with a view to answering the following key questions: (a) how to support wireless networks through MAC layer design, (b) how to provide P2P networking interfaces, (c) how to support energy efficient operation, and (d) how to offer low latency in such networks. To understand the performance of optically networked wireless base stations, the MAC layer performance of wireless networks was investigated using radio-over-fibre (RoF) and picocell based architectures. Through mathematic analysis and simulations, it is shown that picocell solutions offer better performance compared to RoF solutions. The performance effect of contention-based bandwidth request mechanisms in mobile networks (using WiMAX as an example) is studied. A rigorous analysis of MAC layer performance is formulated using an accurate Markov chain mode, including new parameters for maximum bandwidth request retries and three waiting states during this procedure. Traditional P2P overlay networks, which are built on top of the network hierarchy, lead to long transmission distance for P2P traffic, crossing core networks and several Internet Services Providers systems, even though the peer node is located very close or even in the same passive optical network. In this case, to improve the performance of P2P traffic, a new P2P network architecture employing channel combine/splitting module is proposed to implement a low latency, flexible and scalable P2P overlay network over long-reach WDM/TDM PON systems. P2P traffic is localized at a remote node, to avoid long roundtrip delays due to long-reach system. Through the experiment and simulation, it is shown the P2P overlay network has negligible physical performance degradation and P2P data transmission delay is reduced. Furthermore, the overlay network shows good flexibility in constructing optical virtual private networking. To enable energy-saving design of the optical line terminal (OLT) by activating the ‘sleeping mode’, a tunable grating-based monitoring technique in RSOA-based WDM PON systems is proposed to wake up the sleeping OLT when the subscriber is active and connected to the network. The experimental evaluation shows good feasibility, and the tunable grating-based technique shows a 10dB distance gain compared to the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE)-based technique. Moreover, to support cost-effective and energy efficient network deployment and operation, a remote channel combine/split (CCS) module for long-reach WDM/TDM PON systems was proposed to achieve a higher energy saving by adopting subscriber take-up rate and traffic adaptive power management. Through experimental evaluation and simulation, it is shown the proposed CCS module only causes 0.15dB negligible physical link performance degradation. Also, simulation shows up to 60% investment saving at the initial network deployment stage, and over 20% energy saving compared to traditional full operating systems. To achieve less registration latency during network transition, a contention-free low-latency handover scheme is proposed to implement the smooth transition of optical network units between different PON groups. Through the simulation, it is shown the proposed handover scheme produces only 3.2-ms handover delay, which is far below the stringent delay requirement for voice services and shows a negligible degradation on QoS performance and ONU’s buffer size. Moreover, to support an energy-efficient networks operation, a globalized OLT cluster structure with energy-aware dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation (EA-DWBA) algorithm was proposed to save the power consumption of the OLT cluster itself and the edge router in the central office. The simulation shows up to 40% power consumption saving of the OLT at the lower traffic load, and up to 30% power consumption saving on the edge router based on realistic proportional edge router technology.
ItemEnergy efficient wireless system designKudavithana, Dinuka ( 2015)The demand for telecommunication networks is increasing rapidly. Wireless access is a major contributor to this trend. On the other hand, wireless is considered as a least energy efficient transmission medium mainly due to its unguided nature. The general focus of increasing wireless system energy efficiency is on reduction of the transmit power. However, this strategy may not save energy in short distance communication systems as the processing energy in hardware becomes more significant compared to the transmit radio energy. This thesis focuses on looking at the energy consumption of wireless systems by modeling the energy consumption as a function of several parameters such as receiver SNR, RF bandwidth, information rate, modulation scheme and code rate. We propose energy models for synchronization systems and other digital signal processing modules by considering the computational complexity of the algorithm and the required circuitry. Initially we focus on the synchronization aspects of wireless receivers. We study various algorithms on symbol timing recovery, carrier frequency recovery and carrier phase recovery and compare the performance in order to identify the suitable algorithms to operate at different SNR regions. We then develop energy models for those synchronization sub-systems by analyzing the computational complexity of circuitries based on a number of arithmetic, logic and memory operations. We define a new metric - energy consumption to achieve a given performance as a function of SNR - in order to compare the energy efficiency of different estimation algorithms. Next, we investigate the energy-efficiency trade-offs of a point-to-point wireless system by developing energy models of both the transmitter and receiver that include practical aspects such as error control coding, synchronization and channel equalization. In our system, a multipath Rayleigh-fading channel model and a low-density parity check (LDPC) coding scheme are chosen. We then develop a closed-form approximation for the total energy consumption as a function of receiver SNR and use it to find a minimum-energy transmission configuration. The results reveal that low SNR operation (i.e. low transmit power) is not always the most energy efficient strategy, especially in short distance communication. We present an optimal-SNR concept which can save a significant amount of energy mainly in short-range transmission systems. We then focus on cooperative relay systems. We investigate the energy efficiency trade-offs of single--relay networks by developing energy models for two relay strategies: amplify-and-forward (AF) and detect-and-forward (DF). We then optimize the location and power allocation of the relay to minimize the total energy consumption. The optimum location is found in two-dimensional space for constrained and unconstrained scenarios. We then optimize the total energy consumption over the spectral efficiency and derive expressions for the optimal spectral efficiency values. We use numerical simulations to verify our results. Finally, we focus on energy efficiency of multi-relay systems by considering a dual-relay cooperative system using DF protocol with full diversity. We propose a location-and-power-optimization approach for the relays to minimize the transmit radio energy. We then minimize the total system energy from spectral efficiency perspective for two scenarios: throughput-constrained and bandwidth-constrained configurations. Our proposed approach reduces the transmit energy consumption compared to an equal-power allocated and equidistant-located relay system. Finally, we present an optimal transmission scheme as a function of distance by considering single-hop and multi-hop schemes. The overall results imply that more relays are required as the transmission distance increases in order to maintain a higher energy efficiency.