Electrical and Electronic Engineering - Theses

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    Energy efficient wireless system design
    Kudavithana, Dinuka ( 2015)
    The demand for telecommunication networks is increasing rapidly. Wireless access is a major contributor to this trend. On the other hand, wireless is considered as a least energy efficient transmission medium mainly due to its unguided nature. The general focus of increasing wireless system energy efficiency is on reduction of the transmit power. However, this strategy may not save energy in short distance communication systems as the processing energy in hardware becomes more significant compared to the transmit radio energy. This thesis focuses on looking at the energy consumption of wireless systems by modeling the energy consumption as a function of several parameters such as receiver SNR, RF bandwidth, information rate, modulation scheme and code rate. We propose energy models for synchronization systems and other digital signal processing modules by considering the computational complexity of the algorithm and the required circuitry. Initially we focus on the synchronization aspects of wireless receivers. We study various algorithms on symbol timing recovery, carrier frequency recovery and carrier phase recovery and compare the performance in order to identify the suitable algorithms to operate at different SNR regions. We then develop energy models for those synchronization sub-systems by analyzing the computational complexity of circuitries based on a number of arithmetic, logic and memory operations. We define a new metric - energy consumption to achieve a given performance as a function of SNR - in order to compare the energy efficiency of different estimation algorithms. Next, we investigate the energy-efficiency trade-offs of a point-to-point wireless system by developing energy models of both the transmitter and receiver that include practical aspects such as error control coding, synchronization and channel equalization. In our system, a multipath Rayleigh-fading channel model and a low-density parity check (LDPC) coding scheme are chosen. We then develop a closed-form approximation for the total energy consumption as a function of receiver SNR and use it to find a minimum-energy transmission configuration. The results reveal that low SNR operation (i.e. low transmit power) is not always the most energy efficient strategy, especially in short distance communication. We present an optimal-SNR concept which can save a significant amount of energy mainly in short-range transmission systems. We then focus on cooperative relay systems. We investigate the energy efficiency trade-offs of single--relay networks by developing energy models for two relay strategies: amplify-and-forward (AF) and detect-and-forward (DF). We then optimize the location and power allocation of the relay to minimize the total energy consumption. The optimum location is found in two-dimensional space for constrained and unconstrained scenarios. We then optimize the total energy consumption over the spectral efficiency and derive expressions for the optimal spectral efficiency values. We use numerical simulations to verify our results. Finally, we focus on energy efficiency of multi-relay systems by considering a dual-relay cooperative system using DF protocol with full diversity. We propose a location-and-power-optimization approach for the relays to minimize the transmit radio energy. We then minimize the total system energy from spectral efficiency perspective for two scenarios: throughput-constrained and bandwidth-constrained configurations. Our proposed approach reduces the transmit energy consumption compared to an equal-power allocated and equidistant-located relay system. Finally, we present an optimal transmission scheme as a function of distance by considering single-hop and multi-hop schemes. The overall results imply that more relays are required as the transmission distance increases in order to maintain a higher energy efficiency.