 Electrical and Electronic Engineering  Theses
Electrical and Electronic Engineering  Theses
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ItemResource allocation in energy harvesting relay networksPilanawithana, Bhathiya Maneendra ( 2019)As the demand for low power Internetofthings (IoT) devices rises, connectivity becomes a major challenge. Cooperative communication with radio frequency energy harvesting can improve connectivity. Sensor nodes which do not have a direct link to a computation node may form a communication link through other nodes that act as relays. In an energyscarce environment, low power devices tend to go into a sleep state whenever they do not generate information to transmit. This is counterproductive to cooperative communication which requires nodes to transmit information from other nodes. A promising alternative is to use radio frequency energy harvesting at the relay node. In this thesis we consider a threenode communication network in which a source node communicates with a destination node through a relay node. The direct link between source to destination does not exist, and the relay node relies on the energy harvested from the source transmitted information signal. Our goal is to determine the source transmit power, relay transmit power and relay energy harvesting parameters such that the performance of the system is optimized. Moreover, a longterm battery at the relay can reduce the randomness in relay transmit power. This can be exploited by an efficient resource allocation policy to improve the system performance. However, energy in the battery depends on the resource allocations decisions made earlier, which makes the analysis of the system more complicated than the situation where no longterm battery is available at the relay. We determine the optimal resource allocation for both situations, which can be used to compare the performance gain due to relay battery.

ItemWired and wireless services over next generation WDM/TDM PON systemsFeng, Hao ( 2016)Passive optical networks (PON) have been the most popular networking approach for fibretothehome network deployments. The incorporation of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) along with time division multiplexing (TDM), delivered over a PON with longer feeder network, has been studied as a promising solution. This is widely known as the Long Reach WDM/TDM PON and is considered as a suitable option for a cost effective access network offering higher bandwidth, potentially to a larger customer base compared to PON. Future access networks like this will be expected to support the increasing level of fixed mobile convergence in wireless communications by offering costeffective backhaul for such access networks. Future access networks will also need to offer better support for peertopeer (P2P) networking between customers. Increasingly, these network alternatives need to offer improved energy efficiency to help lower the carbon footprint of future access networks. As future networks will support the increasing mix of fixed and mobile wireless access, network needs to consider better mechanisms for the management of medium access control (MAC) layer functions to deal with the complexity of delivering wired and wireless services over a WDM/TDM PON architecture. This thesis explores longreach WDM/TDM PON networks with a view to answering the following key questions: (a) how to support wireless networks through MAC layer design, (b) how to provide P2P networking interfaces, (c) how to support energy efficient operation, and (d) how to offer low latency in such networks. To understand the performance of optically networked wireless base stations, the MAC layer performance of wireless networks was investigated using radiooverfibre (RoF) and picocell based architectures. Through mathematic analysis and simulations, it is shown that picocell solutions offer better performance compared to RoF solutions. The performance effect of contentionbased bandwidth request mechanisms in mobile networks (using WiMAX as an example) is studied. A rigorous analysis of MAC layer performance is formulated using an accurate Markov chain mode, including new parameters for maximum bandwidth request retries and three waiting states during this procedure. Traditional P2P overlay networks, which are built on top of the network hierarchy, lead to long transmission distance for P2P traffic, crossing core networks and several Internet Services Providers systems, even though the peer node is located very close or even in the same passive optical network. In this case, to improve the performance of P2P traffic, a new P2P network architecture employing channel combine/splitting module is proposed to implement a low latency, flexible and scalable P2P overlay network over longreach WDM/TDM PON systems. P2P traffic is localized at a remote node, to avoid long roundtrip delays due to longreach system. Through the experiment and simulation, it is shown the P2P overlay network has negligible physical performance degradation and P2P data transmission delay is reduced. Furthermore, the overlay network shows good flexibility in constructing optical virtual private networking. To enable energysaving design of the optical line terminal (OLT) by activating the ‘sleeping mode’, a tunable gratingbased monitoring technique in RSOAbased WDM PON systems is proposed to wake up the sleeping OLT when the subscriber is active and connected to the network. The experimental evaluation shows good feasibility, and the tunable gratingbased technique shows a 10dB distance gain compared to the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE)based technique. Moreover, to support costeffective and energy efficient network deployment and operation, a remote channel combine/split (CCS) module for longreach WDM/TDM PON systems was proposed to achieve a higher energy saving by adopting subscriber takeup rate and traffic adaptive power management. Through experimental evaluation and simulation, it is shown the proposed CCS module only causes 0.15dB negligible physical link performance degradation. Also, simulation shows up to 60% investment saving at the initial network deployment stage, and over 20% energy saving compared to traditional full operating systems. To achieve less registration latency during network transition, a contentionfree lowlatency handover scheme is proposed to implement the smooth transition of optical network units between different PON groups. Through the simulation, it is shown the proposed handover scheme produces only 3.2ms handover delay, which is far below the stringent delay requirement for voice services and shows a negligible degradation on QoS performance and ONU’s buffer size. Moreover, to support an energyefficient networks operation, a globalized OLT cluster structure with energyaware dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation (EADWBA) algorithm was proposed to save the power consumption of the OLT cluster itself and the edge router in the central office. The simulation shows up to 40% power consumption saving of the OLT at the lower traffic load, and up to 30% power consumption saving on the edge router based on realistic proportional edge router technology.

ItemEnergy efficient wireless system designKudavithana, Dinuka ( 2015)The demand for telecommunication networks is increasing rapidly. Wireless access is a major contributor to this trend. On the other hand, wireless is considered as a least energy efficient transmission medium mainly due to its unguided nature. The general focus of increasing wireless system energy efficiency is on reduction of the transmit power. However, this strategy may not save energy in short distance communication systems as the processing energy in hardware becomes more significant compared to the transmit radio energy. This thesis focuses on looking at the energy consumption of wireless systems by modeling the energy consumption as a function of several parameters such as receiver SNR, RF bandwidth, information rate, modulation scheme and code rate. We propose energy models for synchronization systems and other digital signal processing modules by considering the computational complexity of the algorithm and the required circuitry. Initially we focus on the synchronization aspects of wireless receivers. We study various algorithms on symbol timing recovery, carrier frequency recovery and carrier phase recovery and compare the performance in order to identify the suitable algorithms to operate at different SNR regions. We then develop energy models for those synchronization subsystems by analyzing the computational complexity of circuitries based on a number of arithmetic, logic and memory operations. We define a new metric  energy consumption to achieve a given performance as a function of SNR  in order to compare the energy efficiency of different estimation algorithms. Next, we investigate the energyefficiency tradeoffs of a pointtopoint wireless system by developing energy models of both the transmitter and receiver that include practical aspects such as error control coding, synchronization and channel equalization. In our system, a multipath Rayleighfading channel model and a lowdensity parity check (LDPC) coding scheme are chosen. We then develop a closedform approximation for the total energy consumption as a function of receiver SNR and use it to find a minimumenergy transmission configuration. The results reveal that low SNR operation (i.e. low transmit power) is not always the most energy efficient strategy, especially in short distance communication. We present an optimalSNR concept which can save a significant amount of energy mainly in shortrange transmission systems. We then focus on cooperative relay systems. We investigate the energy efficiency tradeoffs of singlerelay networks by developing energy models for two relay strategies: amplifyandforward (AF) and detectandforward (DF). We then optimize the location and power allocation of the relay to minimize the total energy consumption. The optimum location is found in twodimensional space for constrained and unconstrained scenarios. We then optimize the total energy consumption over the spectral efficiency and derive expressions for the optimal spectral efficiency values. We use numerical simulations to verify our results. Finally, we focus on energy efficiency of multirelay systems by considering a dualrelay cooperative system using DF protocol with full diversity. We propose a locationandpoweroptimization approach for the relays to minimize the transmit radio energy. We then minimize the total system energy from spectral efficiency perspective for two scenarios: throughputconstrained and bandwidthconstrained configurations. Our proposed approach reduces the transmit energy consumption compared to an equalpower allocated and equidistantlocated relay system. Finally, we present an optimal transmission scheme as a function of distance by considering singlehop and multihop schemes. The overall results imply that more relays are required as the transmission distance increases in order to maintain a higher energy efficiency.

ItemResource allocation in cognitive radio networksLIMMANEE, ATHIPAT ( 2012)This thesis focuses on optimal power allocation problems for various types of spectrumsharing based cognitive radio networks in the presence of delaysensitive primary links. To guarantee the quality of service in the delaysensitive primary network, primary user’s outage probability constraint (POC) is imposed such that the transmission outage probability of each primary user is confined under the predefined threshold. We first consider a cognitive radio network consisting of a secondary user (SU) equipped with orthogonal frequencydivision multiplexing (OFDM) technology able to access N randomly fading frequency bands for transmitting delayinsensitive as well as delaysensitive traffic. Each band is licensed to an individual singleantenna and delaysensitive primary user (PU) whose quality of service is assured by a POC. Assuming full channel state information (CSI) is available at the secondary network, we solve the SU’s ergodic capacity maximization problem subject to SU’s average transmit power, SU’s outage probability constraints (SOC) and all POCs by using a rigorous probabilistic power allocation technique. A suboptimal power control policy is also proposed to reduce the high computational complexity when N is large. Next, we study cognitive broadcast channels with a singleantenna secondary base station (SBS) and M singleantenna secondary receivers (SRs) sharing the same spectrum band with one singleantenna and delaysensitive PU. The SBS aims to maximize the ergodic sum downlink throughput to all M SRs subject to a POC and a transmit power constraint at the SBS. With full CSI available at the secondary network, the optimal solution reveals that at each timeslot SBS will choose the SR with the highest direct channel power gain and allocate the timeslot to that user. The opportunistic scheduling aspect from the optimality condition allows us to further analyze the downlink throughput scaling behavior in Rayleigh fading channel as M grows large. We then examine a cognitive multipleaccess channels with a singleantenna SBS and M singleantenna secondary transmitters sharing the same spectrum band with a singleantenna and delaysensitive PU. Under an average transmit power constraint in each secondary transmitters and a POC at the primary link, we characterize the ergodic capacity region and two outage capacity regions, i.e. common outage capacity region and individual outage capacity region, in the secondary uplink network by exploiting the polymatroid structure of the problems. Also, the derivation of the associated optimal power allocation schemes are provided. The optimal solutions for the problems demonstrate that successive decoding is optimal and the decoding order can be solved explicitly as a function of joint channel state. Finally, we investigate a transmit power allocation problem for minimizing outage probability of a singleantenna SU subject to a POC at a delaysensitive and singleantenna PU and an average transmit power constraint at the SU, providing that the SU has quantized channel side information via Bbit feedback from the band manager. By using nearest neighbourhood condition, we can derive the optimal channel partition structure for the vector channel space, making KarushKuhnTucker condition applicable as a necessary condition for finding a locally optimal solution. We also propose another lowcomplexity suboptimal algorithm. Numerical results show that the SU’s outage probability performance from the suboptimal algorithm approaches the SU’s outage probability performance in the locallyoptimal algorithm as the number of feedback bits, B, increases. Besides, we include the asymptotic analysis on the SU’s outage probability when B is large.

ItemTopics in resource optimization in wireless networks with limited feedbackHe, Yuan Yuan ( 2011)This thesis focuses on the design of various optimal resource allocation algorithms for wireless communication networks with imperfect channel state information (CSI) available at the transmitter obtained via a finiterate feedback channel from the receiver (the socalled limited feedback technique). We first look at an M parallel blockNakagamifading channels where we seek to design an optimal power allocation scheme that minimize the outage probability under a long term average transmit power (ATP) constraint with quantized CSI. A simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation algorithm (SPSA) based simulationoptimization method is applied to obtain a locally optimal power codebook. As this method is computationally intensive and timeconsuming, we then derive a number of reducedcomplexitysuboptimal finiterate power codebook design algorithms. For the large number of parallel channels case, a Gaussian approximation based lowcomplexity power allocation strategy is provided. We then consider a secondary user (SU) transmit power control problem in a spectrum sharing cognitive radio networks scenario with quantized channel feedback for optimizing relevant performance measures such as secondary ergodic capacity or outage probability under interference power constraints (which can be restricted either by an average (AIP) or a peak (PIP) constraint) at primary user (PU) receivers to protect the PU, and an average transmit power (ATP) constraint on SU. Firstly, we study the problem of ergodic capacity maximization over M parallel channels (each of which is licensed to a distinct PU) of SU subject to an ATP constraint at SU and M individual AIP constraints on each PU with quantized feedback of the joint channel space of SU transmitter to SU receiver and SU transmitter to PU receivers. We develop a “modified generalized Lloydstype algorithm (GLA)” for finding a locally optimal quantized power codebook. An approximate but computationally efficient quantized power allocation algorithm is then derived for the case of large number of feedback bits. It is seen that only 34 bits of feedback per channel band achieves SU ergodic capacity close to the full CSI based performance. We also extend these results to the noisy limited feedback case. We then consider the problem of throughput maximization of SU with a finite rate power codebook under an ATP constraint at SU and N individual PIP constraints on each PU receiver. With quantized channel (from the SUTX to each PURX) knowledge, three different quantized power allocation schemes are proposed corresponding to three distinct forms of CSI obtained regarding the channel from SUTX to SURX link at SUTX : full CSI, noisy estimated CSI and quantized CSI. Finally, we consider the joint optimization of the quantization regions and the transmission power codebook such that the outage probability of the SU is minimized while an ATP constraint at the SU and an AIP constraint on the PU are met. Explicit expressions for asymptotic behavior of the SU outage probability at high rate quantization are also developed.