School of Historical and Philosophical Studies - Research Publications

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    Aeschylus' Prometheus Bound and Plato's Apology: Greek Pairs for VCE Classical Studies
    Chong-Gossard, J (Classical Association of Victoria, 2024)
    Students need to be more aware of text genres and the techniques used with each: for example, an epic versus a tragedy, or how speeches in drama are different to those in historiography. Students who scored highly were able to explore how the techniques of each genre added to the impact of the extract/item.
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    Redefining a discovery: Charles Bell, the respiratory nervous system and the birth of the emotions
    Bradley, J (Elsevier, 2024-08)
    Charles Bell was famous for the discovery of the separate motor and sensory roots of the spinal and facial nerves, although in recent years his right to priority has been challenged by historians and scientists. But Charles Bell did discover something even if has not been accorded the status of a scientific fact. Between 1821 and 1823 he unveiled the 'respiratory nervous system', a distinct system of nerves that acted as the 'organ of the passions', which he then elaborated upon in his 1824 Essays on the Anatomy and Philosophy of Expression. As Bell and his allies attempted to claim priority in the spinal and facial nerves, the respiratory nerves were pushed to the background, subordinated to the motor and sensory nerves. This essay, therefore, redefines Charles Bell's major discovery as the 'respiratory nerves', providing a detailed description of their anatomy and physiology and the way in which they underwrote Bell's theory of the emotions. It also demonstrates how his aesthetics were intertwined with his research programme. It then connects the respiratory nerves to Thomas Dixon's assertion that Bell was one of the founders of the modern psychological category of the emotions, providing a deeper and more nuanced genealogy of the emotions, including the impact that Bell had upon William James's seminal article 'What is an Emotion?'
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    Say her name: Madge Donohoe and the promise and problems of using Trove to write Australian suffrage histories
    Keating, J (Informa UK Limited, 2021-01-01)
    Like most middle-ranking suffragists, the Sydney schoolteacher Madge Donohoe is largely invisible in Australian historiography. Until widespread newspaper digitisation, the task of uncovering her name, let alone tracing her rise from Kogarah Girls’ School to the British National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies’ executive committee, would have been unimaginable. In this paper, I outline how Trove has enriched Australian feminist histories from the suffrage era (1890–1910). Yet, as indispensable as it has become, new histories relying on newspapers to vividly retell the suffragists’ stories also reveal the database’s distorting effects, not least the absence of the vibrant women’s advocacy press from its collections. Trove, I argue, affords vital new points of entry into lives like Donohoe’s but, without careful interrogation, risks privileging the pressman’s gaze above understanding the quotidian realities of feminist activism.
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    "Woman as Wife, Mother, and Home-Maker": Equal Rights International and Australian Feminists' Interwar Advocacy for Mothers' Economic Rights
    Keating, J (The University of Chicago Press, 2022)
    The reconsideration of wages for housework, among the most maligned strands of women’s liberation in the 1970s, has provoked vital debates about gender, care work, and the problem of accounting for reproductive labor. Yet such discussions typically ignore the campaign’s roots in first-wave feminism. In examining Australian journalist Linda Littlejohn’s tenure as chair of Equal Rights International (ERI; 1934–41), a lobby group often cast as the vanguard of legal equality feminism in interwar Geneva, this article explores its surprising role in spreading Antipodean ideas about the “money value” of “home work” through the League of Nations. In doing so, it first historicizes the contentious forty-year struggle to recognize women’s domestic labor in Australasia. Shifting from Sydney to Switzerland, it traces the international circulations that allowed Littlejohn and her allies in the United Associations of Women to redirect ERI away from its founders’ concern with an equal rights treaty and toward a brand of feminism constructed around the recognition of difference in the home and equality in economic and political life. Reading ERI through the lens of Littlejohn’s years as chair, I contend, not only complicates binaries between equality and difference within international interwar feminism, revealing a messier and less centralized history of feminist ideology, it also enriches our understanding of ongoing struggles to illuminate and compensate reproductive labor.
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    Computationally reproducing results from meta-analyses in ecology and evolutionary biology using shared code and data
    Kambouris, S ; Wilkinson, DP ; Smith, ET ; Fidler, F ; Kaiser, E (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2024-03-13)
    Many journals in ecology and evolutionary biology encourage or require authors to make their data and code available alongside articles. In this study we investigated how often this data and code could be used together, when both were available, to computationally reproduce results published in articles. We surveyed the data and code sharing practices of 177 meta-analyses published in ecology and evolutionary biology journals published between 2015-17: 60% of articles shared data only, 1% shared code only, and 15% shared both data and code. In each of the articles which had shared both (n = 26), we selected a target result and attempted to reproduce it. Using the shared data and code files, we successfully reproduced the targeted results in 27-73% of the 26 articles, depending on the stringency of the criteria applied for a successful reproduction. The results from this sample of meta-analyses in the 2015-17 literature can provide a benchmark for future meta-research studies gauging the computational reproducibility of published research in ecology and evolutionary biology.
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    ‘The poor man’s overdraft’: a longer history of Australian retail credit
    Dickenson, J (Taylor and Francis Group, 2024)
    Most histories of Australian cultural life pin the start of consumer credit’s popularity to the 1950s and the heady days of the early long boom. This article reveals the longer history of consumer credit in Australia. Middle-class Australians have long made use of forms of credit provided by retailers such as monthly accounts to supplement their incomes, take advantage of special offers, deal with unexpected expenses, or indulge impulsive desires. Those with more limited and less regular incomes, working-class families unable to secure credit from banks or department stores, also became enmeshed in credit culture, but through a different route. An early form of retail credit – the cash-order system – played a crucial role in preparing working-class consumers for the postwar boom in credit culture. Emerging at the beginning of the twentieth century, the cash-order system provided a bridge between older forms of working-class retail credit such as the tick and the slate, and modern forms such as the department store budget accounts that would become widely available after the Second World War.
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    Degradation profiles of silk textiles in diverse environments: Synchrotron based infrared micro-spectroscopy analysis
    Zhu, Z ; Tse, N ; Nel, P ; Tobin, M (Springer, 2017)
    In this paper, synchrotron based infrared micro-spectroscopy was utilized to describe the degradation profile of fibroin contained in silk textiles (Bombyx mori). The spatial distributions of deterioration effects in silk samples artificially aged at an assortment of conditions (thermal, hydrolytic and ultraviolet) were distinctly visualised and in accordance with the findings from conventional infrared spectroscopy in references. Further this method was applied on a historic sample from a private collection in Melbourne, and presented consistent results. This established synchrotron IR chemical mapping method could enable museum professionals to better understand the preservation state of historic silk and make informed decisions for conservation.
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    Retablos & Santos: ‘Altaring’ The Life Of Philippine Heritage Through Future Generations
    Harding, A ; Tse, N ; LABRADOR, A (Aula Barat and Faculty of Art and Design, Bandung Institute of Technology, 2018)
    This paper aims to examine the role of living cultural heritage to materials conservation and restoration of retablos and santos at the National Museum of Fine Arts in the Philippines (NMP) and the Parish Church of La Purísima Concepción in Guiuan. In researching the restoration practices of cultural communities that retablos and santos hold significance to, this paper is framed by textual analysis, and interviews with heritage, ecclesiastic and conservation professionals. With ever-increasing cultural homogenisation, the importance of conservators working towards preventing cultural identities from being absorbed by universal discourses and popular cultures are argued in this paper. In reflecting upon knowledge systems and communication platforms that support conservation, the exchange of knowledge, its usability and wide audience possibilities as necessary pathways to preserving memory for living and future generations will be focused upon.
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    Between Art and Heritage Conservation: An Examination of the Discipine, Profession and Professional Practice in Indonesia
    Tse, N ; Bakhri, S (Aula Barat and Faculty of Art and Design, Bandung Institute of Technology, 2018)
    Indonesia is witnessing a growth in the art market in addition to the increased protection of its national cultural heritage. This raises questions about the current position of art and heritage conservation as a profession, discipline, and professional practice in Indonesia to support the preservation of its ‘old culture (s)’. In addressing the themes of the conference, this paper examines the definition of conservation in Indonesia and explores the opportunities for the renewal of ‘old cultures’ for an Indonesian practice of conservation to emerge as distinct from other parts of the world. we argue that conservation should meet the ‘place-based’dimensions of tradition, living cultures, climate, materiality, and natural disasters. The approach used includes a literature review, archival research, policy analysis, and semi-structured interviews. The practices of neighbouring countries are also explored for comparative purposes. The results show that existing policies are in place to support the conservation of cultural materials in Indonesia; however, these do not address the development or sustainability of the profession and discipline for a shared thought style to emerge. The research also indicates that there is a distinct line of separation between the conservation of cultural heritage compared to the fine arts.
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    Exploring the Outlands: A Case-Study on the Conservation Installation and Artist Interview of David Haines’ and Joyce Hinterding’s Time-Based Art Installation
    Sherring, A ; Cruz, M ; Tse, N (Taylor and Francis Group, 2021)
    The artwork by David Haines and Joyce Hinterding, The outlands, 2011 is a time-based art installation composed of sculptural, software and gaming technology exhibited in a gallery space. The work was acquired by the Art Gallery of New South Wales after being awarded the 2011 Anne Landa Award Unguided Tours exhibition prize but has not been installed since. As such, any future iterations will be challenging due to its condition, functionality and machine dependency. This paper explores the value of installing Haines’ and Hinterding’s time-based art installation to chart the conservation assessment processes of documentation, functionality testing and the install itself. It discusses how in-situ artist interview affords artistic agency and contributes knowledge on the materials, conceptual and technical elements of the work, functional limitations and its future conservation management. The outcomes of the conservation interactions have allowed for a deeper understanding of conservation as a reiterative process as issues of software and hardware dependencies, and the situated and spatial relationships between various elements became more salient. This has assisted conservators in preparing for object obsolescence and aims to support future re-activations of The outlands, 2011.