School of Historical and Philosophical Studies - Research Publications

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    Say her name: Madge Donohoe and the promise and problems of using Trove to write Australian suffrage histories
    Keating, J (Informa UK Limited, 2021-01-01)
    Like most middle-ranking suffragists, the Sydney schoolteacher Madge Donohoe is largely invisible in Australian historiography. Until widespread newspaper digitisation, the task of uncovering her name, let alone tracing her rise from Kogarah Girls’ School to the British National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies’ executive committee, would have been unimaginable. In this paper, I outline how Trove has enriched Australian feminist histories from the suffrage era (1890–1910). Yet, as indispensable as it has become, new histories relying on newspapers to vividly retell the suffragists’ stories also reveal the database’s distorting effects, not least the absence of the vibrant women’s advocacy press from its collections. Trove, I argue, affords vital new points of entry into lives like Donohoe’s but, without careful interrogation, risks privileging the pressman’s gaze above understanding the quotidian realities of feminist activism.
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    "Woman as Wife, Mother, and Home-Maker": Equal Rights International and Australian Feminists' Interwar Advocacy for Mothers' Economic Rights
    Keating, J (The University of Chicago Press, 2022)
    The reconsideration of wages for housework, among the most maligned strands of women’s liberation in the 1970s, has provoked vital debates about gender, care work, and the problem of accounting for reproductive labor. Yet such discussions typically ignore the campaign’s roots in first-wave feminism. In examining Australian journalist Linda Littlejohn’s tenure as chair of Equal Rights International (ERI; 1934–41), a lobby group often cast as the vanguard of legal equality feminism in interwar Geneva, this article explores its surprising role in spreading Antipodean ideas about the “money value” of “home work” through the League of Nations. In doing so, it first historicizes the contentious forty-year struggle to recognize women’s domestic labor in Australasia. Shifting from Sydney to Switzerland, it traces the international circulations that allowed Littlejohn and her allies in the United Associations of Women to redirect ERI away from its founders’ concern with an equal rights treaty and toward a brand of feminism constructed around the recognition of difference in the home and equality in economic and political life. Reading ERI through the lens of Littlejohn’s years as chair, I contend, not only complicates binaries between equality and difference within international interwar feminism, revealing a messier and less centralized history of feminist ideology, it also enriches our understanding of ongoing struggles to illuminate and compensate reproductive labor.
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    Computationally reproducing results from meta-analyses in ecology and evolutionary biology using shared code and data
    Kambouris, S ; Wilkinson, DP ; Smith, ET ; Fidler, F ; Kaiser, E (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2024-03-13)
    Many journals in ecology and evolutionary biology encourage or require authors to make their data and code available alongside articles. In this study we investigated how often this data and code could be used together, when both were available, to computationally reproduce results published in articles. We surveyed the data and code sharing practices of 177 meta-analyses published in ecology and evolutionary biology journals published between 2015-17: 60% of articles shared data only, 1% shared code only, and 15% shared both data and code. In each of the articles which had shared both (n = 26), we selected a target result and attempted to reproduce it. Using the shared data and code files, we successfully reproduced the targeted results in 27-73% of the 26 articles, depending on the stringency of the criteria applied for a successful reproduction. The results from this sample of meta-analyses in the 2015-17 literature can provide a benchmark for future meta-research studies gauging the computational reproducibility of published research in ecology and evolutionary biology.
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    ‘The poor man’s overdraft’: a longer history of Australian retail credit
    Dickenson, J (Taylor and Francis Group, 2024)
    Most histories of Australian cultural life pin the start of consumer credit’s popularity to the 1950s and the heady days of the early long boom. This article reveals the longer history of consumer credit in Australia. Middle-class Australians have long made use of forms of credit provided by retailers such as monthly accounts to supplement their incomes, take advantage of special offers, deal with unexpected expenses, or indulge impulsive desires. Those with more limited and less regular incomes, working-class families unable to secure credit from banks or department stores, also became enmeshed in credit culture, but through a different route. An early form of retail credit – the cash-order system – played a crucial role in preparing working-class consumers for the postwar boom in credit culture. Emerging at the beginning of the twentieth century, the cash-order system provided a bridge between older forms of working-class retail credit such as the tick and the slate, and modern forms such as the department store budget accounts that would become widely available after the Second World War.
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    Degradation profiles of silk textiles in diverse environments: Synchrotron based infrared micro-spectroscopy analysis
    Zhu, Z ; Tse, N ; Nel, P ; Tobin, M (Springer, 2017)
    In this paper, synchrotron based infrared micro-spectroscopy was utilized to describe the degradation profile of fibroin contained in silk textiles (Bombyx mori). The spatial distributions of deterioration effects in silk samples artificially aged at an assortment of conditions (thermal, hydrolytic and ultraviolet) were distinctly visualised and in accordance with the findings from conventional infrared spectroscopy in references. Further this method was applied on a historic sample from a private collection in Melbourne, and presented consistent results. This established synchrotron IR chemical mapping method could enable museum professionals to better understand the preservation state of historic silk and make informed decisions for conservation.
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    Exploring the Outlands: A Case-Study on the Conservation Installation and Artist Interview of David Haines’ and Joyce Hinterding’s Time-Based Art Installation
    Sherring, A ; Cruz, M ; Tse, N (Taylor and Francis Group, 2021)
    The artwork by David Haines and Joyce Hinterding, The outlands, 2011 is a time-based art installation composed of sculptural, software and gaming technology exhibited in a gallery space. The work was acquired by the Art Gallery of New South Wales after being awarded the 2011 Anne Landa Award Unguided Tours exhibition prize but has not been installed since. As such, any future iterations will be challenging due to its condition, functionality and machine dependency. This paper explores the value of installing Haines’ and Hinterding’s time-based art installation to chart the conservation assessment processes of documentation, functionality testing and the install itself. It discusses how in-situ artist interview affords artistic agency and contributes knowledge on the materials, conceptual and technical elements of the work, functional limitations and its future conservation management. The outcomes of the conservation interactions have allowed for a deeper understanding of conservation as a reiterative process as issues of software and hardware dependencies, and the situated and spatial relationships between various elements became more salient. This has assisted conservators in preparing for object obsolescence and aims to support future re-activations of The outlands, 2011.
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    Population Aging and the Retirement Age
    Halliday, D (Wiley, 2024)
    Numerous jurisdictions have recently raised the age of retirement or plan to do so. Pressure to extend people's working lives is due to population aging, which makes it harder to fund retirement through existing methods. Raising the retirement age can improve the ‘dependency ratio’ by increasing the fraction of the population that works (and pays taxes) relative to the fraction retired. This article gives sustained attention to connecting the case for retirement with one view about wellbeing, according to which old age is subject to distinctive goods. The importance of being able to access these goods in old age favours an eventual exit from labour market participation that retirement provisions enable. This view is stronger than one that treats retirement as merely a safety net to enable people to stop work only when advanced aging makes it unreasonably burdensome. At the same time, the view likely does not justify status quo retirement ages, meaning that some increase to the retirement age might be defensible. The article also seeks to illuminate ways in which different aspects of population aging – in particular the distinction between dependency ratios and inequalities in longevity – bear differently on the wider debate about justice and retirement.
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    Bronzino's portrait of Cosimo I de'Medici in armour re-examined
    Dredge, P ; Gerard-Austin, A ; Howard, D ; Ives, S (Burlington Magazine Publications, 2023-01)
    Technical analysis by the Art Gallery of New South Wales of its portrait by Bronzino of Cosimo I de’ Medici in armour has revealed more details of the mysterious underlying portrait first observed in a X-radiograph in the 1980s. It has also established that Bronzino hesitated between making the portrait half-length or three-quarter-length, confirming that the painting is the prime autograph version of the three-quarter-length image.
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    'A New Prague Spring, but from Below?' Socialist Dissent in the Last Soviet Generation and the Emergence of Solidarność in Poland, 1980-1981
    Wilson, N (Cambridge University Press, 2024)
    This article examines the Young Socialists, a left-wing dissident circle of intellectuals from the last Soviet generation, and focuses on their contacts with Solidarność during 1980–81. These dissidents, located in Moscow and Minsk, interpreted the Polish strikes as the possible beginnings of a wider move to socialist reform in the Eastern Bloc. Using oral history and samizdat materials from the Russian and Polish archives and the former archives of Radio Free Europe, the article demonstrates how the Young Socialists’ interactions with Poland developed in the wider context of the transnational history of dissent in the Eastern Bloc at the turn of the 1980s. It argues that a combination of internationalist values and bloc-wide dissident solidarities caused socialist dissidents to view nationalist movements on the Soviet periphery and Eastern Europe as potential drivers of socialist reform on the eve of Perestroika.
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    A Re-Evaluation of the Iconography of the Etruscan Bronze Lamp of Cortona
    Alburz, R ; Tol, GW (De Gruyter, 2024)
    This paper addresses unresolved issues in the study of the enigmatic iconography of the Etruscan bronze lamp of Cortona. Drawing upon literary sources and additional iconographic evidence, issues with previous interpretations of the lamp will be discussed. Subsequently, new identities are proposed for the key figures on the lamp, concluding that its iconography is a manifestation of Dionysian thiasus and that the lamp was a cult object associated with the mystery cult of Dionysus. This paper will also contribute to the refutation of the concept of “Dionysism without Dionysus” in Archaic Etruria.