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ItemCurrent role of salvage robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomyWetherell, D ; Bolton, D ; Kavanagh, L ; Perera, M (SPRINGER, 2013-06-01)OBJECTIVES: Salvage Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy (sRALP) is a treatment option for biochemical recurrence (BCR) in prostate cancer. It is a new and presently uncommonly performed procedure, which may be technically challenging. We aim to summarise the current literature regarding sRALP with specific reference to patient selection, complications and peri-operative functional and oncological outcomes. METHODS: A comprehensive and critical review of all peer-reviewed publications regarding sRALP. RESULTS: Within the body of literature, we identified six low-volume case-series studies analysing outcomes of sRALP. Overall, peri-operative outcomes were encouraging with low complication rates and estimated blood loss (EBL) equivocal to open and laparoscopic salvage radical prostatectomy (sRP). Long-term follow-up for functional and oncological outcomes was limited. From the limited follow-up data, the current sRALP studies show similar BCR compared to large-volume open sRP series. Potency outcomes were poor post-sRALP. CONCLUSIONS: Salvage Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy is a technically feasible operation with a low risk of significant associated complications. Robotic technology can aid the surgeon in salvage prostatectomy. Data on functional and oncological outcomes lack long-term information but initial results are encouraging. Larger series with longer follow-up periods are necessary to draw significant conclusions about the efficacy of sRALP.
ItemThree dimensional models in uro-oncology: a future built with additive fabricationManning, TG ; O'Brien, JS ; Christidis, D ; Perera, M ; Coles-Black, J ; Chuen, J ; Bolton, DM ; Lawrentschuk, N (SPRINGER, 2018-04-01)PURPOSE: Three-dimensional (3D) printing was invented in 1983 but has only just begun to influence medicine and surgery. Conversion of digital images into physical models demonstrates promise to revolutionize multiple domains of surgery. In the field of uro-oncology, researchers and clinicians have recognized the potential of this technology and are working towards making it an integral part of urological practice. We review current literature regarding 3D printing and other 3D technology in the field of urology. METHOD: A comprehensive assessment of contemporary literature was performed according to a modified PRISMA analysis for the purposes of this narrative review article. Medical databases that were searched included: Web of Science, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. Articles assessed were limited only to English-language peer-reviewed articles published between 1980 and 2017. The search terms used were "3D", "3-dimensional", "printing", "printing technology", "urology", "surgery". Acceptable articles were reviewed and incorporated for their merit and relevance with preference given for articles with high impact, original research and recent advances. RESULTS: Thirty-five publications were included in final analysis and discussion. CONCLUSIONS: The area of 3D printing in Urology shows promising results, but further research is required and cost reduction must occur before clinicians fully embrace its use. As costs continue to decline and diversity of materials continues to expand, research and clinical utilization will increase. Recent advances have demonstrated the potential of this technology in the realms of education and surgical optimization. The generation of personalized organs using 3D printing scaffolding remains the 'holy grail' of this technology.