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ItemZinc ion dyshomeostasis increases resistance of prostate cancer cells to oxidative stress via upregulation of HIF1α.Wetherell, D ; Baldwin, GS ; Shulkes, A ; Bolton, D ; Ischia, J ; Patel, O (Impact Journals, 2018-02-02)Zinc ions (Zn2+) are known to influence cell survival and proliferation. However the homeostatic regulation of Zn2+ and their role in prostate cancer (PC) progression is poorly understood. Therefore the subcellular distribution and uptake of Zn2+ in PC cells were investigated. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy and fluorescent microscopy with the Zn2+-specific fluorescent probe FluoZin-3 were used to quantify total and free Zn2+, respectively, in the normal prostate epithelial cell line (PNT1A) and three human PC cell lines (PC3, DU145 and LNCaP). The effects of Zn2+ treatment on proliferation and survival were measured in vitro using MTT assays and in vivo using mouse xenografts. The ability of Zn2+ to protect against oxidative stress via a HIF1α-dependent mechanism was investigated using a HIF1α knock-down PC3 model. Our results demonstrate that the total Zn2+ concentration in normal PNT1A and PC cells is similar, but PC3 cells contain significantly higher free Zn2+ than PNT1A cells (p < 0.01). PNT1A cells can survive better in the presence of high concentrations of Zn2+ than PC3 cells. Exposure to 10 µM Zn2+ over 72 hours significantly reduces PC3 cell proliferation in vitro but not in vivo. Zn2+ increases PC3 cell survival up to 2.3-fold under oxidative stress, and this protective effect is not seen in PNT1A cells or in a HIF1α-KD PC3 cell model. A state of Zn2+ dyshomeostasis exists in PC. HIF1α is an integral component of a Zn2+-dependent protective mechanism present in PC3 cells. This pathway may be clinically significant through its contribution to castrate-resistant PC survival.
ItemCurrent role of salvage robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomyWetherell, D ; Bolton, D ; Kavanagh, L ; Perera, M (SPRINGER, 2013-06-01)OBJECTIVES: Salvage Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy (sRALP) is a treatment option for biochemical recurrence (BCR) in prostate cancer. It is a new and presently uncommonly performed procedure, which may be technically challenging. We aim to summarise the current literature regarding sRALP with specific reference to patient selection, complications and peri-operative functional and oncological outcomes. METHODS: A comprehensive and critical review of all peer-reviewed publications regarding sRALP. RESULTS: Within the body of literature, we identified six low-volume case-series studies analysing outcomes of sRALP. Overall, peri-operative outcomes were encouraging with low complication rates and estimated blood loss (EBL) equivocal to open and laparoscopic salvage radical prostatectomy (sRP). Long-term follow-up for functional and oncological outcomes was limited. From the limited follow-up data, the current sRALP studies show similar BCR compared to large-volume open sRP series. Potency outcomes were poor post-sRALP. CONCLUSIONS: Salvage Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy is a technically feasible operation with a low risk of significant associated complications. Robotic technology can aid the surgeon in salvage prostatectomy. Data on functional and oncological outcomes lack long-term information but initial results are encouraging. Larger series with longer follow-up periods are necessary to draw significant conclusions about the efficacy of sRALP.