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ItemSodium bicarbonate infusion in patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation: a single center randomized controlled pilot trialWeinberg, L ; Broad, J ; Pillai, P ; Chen, G ; Nguyen, M ; Eastwood, GM ; Scurrah, N ; Nikfarjam, M ; Story, D ; McNicol, L ; Bellomo, R (WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2016-05-01)BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) carries significant morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that sodium bicarbonate would reduce the incidence and/or severity of liver transplantation-associated AKI. METHODS: In this double-blinded pilot RCT, adult patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation were randomized to an infusion of either 8.4% sodium bicarbonate (0.5 mEq/kg/h for the first hour; 0.15 mEq/kg/h until completion of surgery); (n = 30) or 0.9% sodium chloride (n = 30). PRIMARY OUTCOME: AKI within the first 48 h post-operatively. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups with regard to baseline characteristics, model for end-stage liver disease and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scores, and pre-transplantation renal function. Intra-operative factors were similar for duration of surgery, blood product requirements, crystalloid and colloid volumes infused and requirements for vasoactive therapy. Eleven patients (37%) in the bicarbonate group and 10 patients (33%) in the sodium chloride group developed a post-operative AKI (p = 0.79). Bicarbonate infusion attenuated the degree of immediate post-operative metabolic acidosis; however, this effect dissipated by 48 h. There were no significant differences in ventilation hours, ICU or hospital length of stay, or mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The intra-operative infusion of sodium bicarbonate did not decrease the incidence of AKI in patients following orthotopic liver transplantation.
ItemThe impact of fluid intervention on complications and length of hospital stay after pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple's procedure)Weinberg, L ; Wong, D ; Karalapillai, D ; Pearce, B ; Tan, CO ; Tay, S ; Christophi, C ; McNicol, L ; Nikfarjam, M (BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2014-05-14)BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the impact on perioperative fluid intervention on complications and length of hospital stay following pancreaticoduodenectomy. Therefore, we conducted a detailed analysis of fluid intervention in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy at a university teaching hospital to test the hypothesis that a restrictive intravenous fluid regime and/or a neutral or negative cumulative fluid balance, would impact on perioperative complications and length of hospital stay. METHODS: We retrospectively obtained demographic, operative details, detailed fluid prescription, complications and outcomes data for 150 consecutive patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy in a university teaching hospital. Prognostic predictors for length of hospital stay and complications were determined. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty consecutive patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy were evaluated between 2006 and 2012. The majority of patients were, middle-aged, overweight and ASA class III. Postoperative complications were frequent and occurred in 86 patients (57%). The majority of complications were graded as Clavien-Dindo Class 2 and 3. Postoperative pancreatic fistula occurred in 13 patients (9%), and delayed gastric emptying occurred in 25 patients (17%). Other postoperative surgical complications included sepsis (22%), bile leak (4%), and postoperative bleeding (2%). Serious medical complications included pulmonary edema (6%), myocardial infarction (8%), cardiac arrhythmias (13%), respiratory failure (8%), and renal failure (7%). Patients with complications received a higher median volume of intravenous therapy and had higher cumulative positive fluid balances. Postoperative length of stay was significantly longer in patients with complications (median 25 days vs. 10 days; p < 0.001). After adjustment for covariates, a fluid balance of less than 1 litre on postoperative day 1 and surgeon caseloads were associated with the development of complications. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of pancreaticoduodenectomy, restrictive perioperative fluid intervention and negative cumulative fluid balance were associated with fewer complications and shorter length of hospital stay. These findings provide good opportunities to evaluate strategies aimed at improving perioperative care.