Clinical School (Austin Health) - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 52
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Relationship between urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio and ambulatory blood pressure in patients with diabetes mellitus
    Libianto, R ; Moran, J ; O'Callaghan, C ; Baqar, S ; Chen, AX ; Baker, ST ; Clarke, M ; MacIsaac, RJ ; Jerums, G ; Ekinci, EI (WILEY, 2018-01-01)
    Previous studies investigating the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure have mostly relied on dietary recall and clinic blood pressure measurement. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion, and their ratio, with 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure parameters including nocturnal blood pressure dipping in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes. We report that in 116 patients with diabetes, systolic blood pressure was significantly predicted by the time of day, age, the interaction between dipping status with time, and 24 hour urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio (R2  = 0.83) with a relative contribution of 53%, 21%, 20% and 6%, respectively. However, there was no interaction between urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio and dipping status.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a mini review for surgeons
    Goh, SK ; Gold, G ; Christophi, C ; Muralidharan, V (WILEY, 2017-12-01)
    The optimal management of oncological conditions is reflected by the careful interpretation of investigations for screening, diagnosis, staging, prognostication and surveillance. Serum tumour markers are examples of commonly requested tests in conjunction with other imaging and endoscopic tests that are used to help clinicians to stratify therapeutic decisions. Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) is a key biomarker for pancreatic cancers. Although this biomarker is considered clinically useful and informative, clinicians are often challenged by the accurate interpretation of elevated serum CA19-9 levels. Recognizing the pitfalls of normal and abnormal serum CA19-9 concentrations will facilitate its appropriate use. In this review, we appraised the biomarker, serum CA19-9, and highlighted the clinical utility and limitations of serum CA19-9 in the investigation and management of pancreatic cancers.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Analysis of tenodesis techniques for treatment of scapholunate instability using the finite element method.
    Alonso Rasgado, T ; Zhang, Q ; Jimenez Cruz, D ; Bailey, C ; Pinder, E ; Mandaleson, A ; Talwalkar, S (Wiley, 2017-12)
    Chronic scapholunate ligament (SL) injury is a common disorder affecting the wrist. Despite advances in surgical techniques used to treat this injury, SL gap re-emergence may occur postoperatively. This paper presents an investigation into the performance of the Corella, schapolunate axis (SLAM), and modified Brunelli tenodesis (MBT) surgical reconstruction techniques used to treat scapholunate instability. Finite element (FE) models were used to undertake virtual surgery, and the resulting scapholunate (SL) gap and angle obtained using the 3 techniques were compared. The Corella technique was found to achieve the SL gap and angle closest to the intact (ligament) wrist, restoring SL gap and angle to within 5.6% and 0.6%, respectively. The MBT method resulted in an SL gap least close to the intact. The results of our study indicate that the contribution of volar scapholunate interosseous ligament to scapholunate stability could be important.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Temporal lobe epilepsy following maintenance electroconvulsive therapyElectrical kindling in the human brain?
    Bryson, A ; Gardner, H ; Wilson, I ; Rolfe, T ; Archer, J (WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2016-11-01)
    Maintenance electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is sometimes prescribed for refractory psychiatric conditions. We describe five patients who received maintenance ECT and developed florid temporal epileptiform abnormalities on electroencephalography (EEG) despite no history of epilepsy and normal neuroimaging. All patients had received regular ECT for at least 8 months. Three patients had clinical events consistent with epileptic seizures, and video-EEG monitoring captured electrographic seizures in two patients. After cessation of ECT the EEGs normalized in all patients, and no further clinical seizures occurred. Maintenance ECT may predispose to epilepsy with a seizure focus in the temporal lobe.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Management of gallstone pancreatitis in the vagrant liver
    Lau, LF ; Knowles, B ; Fox, A ; Banting, S (WILEY, 2018-10-01)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Sodium bicarbonate infusion in patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation: a single center randomized controlled pilot trial
    Weinberg, L ; Broad, J ; Pillai, P ; Chen, G ; Nguyen, M ; Eastwood, GM ; Scurrah, N ; Nikfarjam, M ; Story, D ; McNicol, L ; Bellomo, R (WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2016-05-01)
    BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) carries significant morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that sodium bicarbonate would reduce the incidence and/or severity of liver transplantation-associated AKI. METHODS: In this double-blinded pilot RCT, adult patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation were randomized to an infusion of either 8.4% sodium bicarbonate (0.5 mEq/kg/h for the first hour; 0.15 mEq/kg/h until completion of surgery); (n = 30) or 0.9% sodium chloride (n = 30). PRIMARY OUTCOME: AKI within the first 48 h post-operatively. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups with regard to baseline characteristics, model for end-stage liver disease and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scores, and pre-transplantation renal function. Intra-operative factors were similar for duration of surgery, blood product requirements, crystalloid and colloid volumes infused and requirements for vasoactive therapy. Eleven patients (37%) in the bicarbonate group and 10 patients (33%) in the sodium chloride group developed a post-operative AKI (p = 0.79). Bicarbonate infusion attenuated the degree of immediate post-operative metabolic acidosis; however, this effect dissipated by 48 h. There were no significant differences in ventilation hours, ICU or hospital length of stay, or mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The intra-operative infusion of sodium bicarbonate did not decrease the incidence of AKI in patients following orthotopic liver transplantation.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    The haemodynamic effects of intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen) in healthy volunteers: a double-blind, randomized, triple crossover trial
    Chiam, E ; Weinberg, L ; Bailey, M ; McNicol, L ; Bellomo, R (WILEY, 2016-04-01)
    AIM: The haemodynamic effects of intravenous paracetamol have not been systematically investigated. We compared the physiological effects of intravenous mannitol-containing paracetamol, and an equivalent dosage of mannitol, and normal saline 0.9% in healthy volunteers. METHODS: We performed a blinded, triple crossover, randomized trial of 24 adult healthy volunteers. Participants received i.v. paracetamol (1 g paracetamol +3.91 g mannitol 100 ml(-1) ), i.v. mannitol (3.91 g mannitol 100 ml(-1) ) and i.v. normal saline (100 ml). Composite primary end points were changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) measured pre-infusion, during a 15 min infusion period and over a 45 min observation period. Systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) and cardiac index were measured at the same time points. RESULTS: Infusion of paracetamol induced a transient yet significant decrease in blood pressures from pre-infusion values (MAP -1.85 mmHg, 95% CI -2.6, -1.1, SBP -0.54 mmHg, 95% CI -1.7, 0.6 and DBP -1.92 mmHg, 95% CI -2.6, -1.2, P < 0.0001), associated with a transient reduction in SVRI and an increase in cardiac index. Changes were observed, but to a lesser extent with normal saline (MAP -0.15 mmHg, SBP +1.44 mmHg, DBP --0.73 mmHg, P < 0.0001), but not with mannitol (MAP +1.47 mmHg, SBP +4.03 mmHg, DBP +0.48 mmHg, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: I.v. paracetamol caused a transient decrease in blood pressure immediately after infusion. These effects were not seen with mannitol or normal saline. The physiological mechanism was consistent with vasodilatation. This study provides plausible physiological data in a healthy volunteer setting, supporting transient changes in haemodynamic variables with i.v. paracetamol and justifies controlled studies in the peri-operative and critical care setting.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Radiotherapy-related complications presenting to a urology department: a more common problem than previously thought?
    Ma, JL ; Hennessey, DB ; Newell, BP ; Bolton, DM ; Lawrentschuk, N (WILEY, 2018-05-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the burden of the side effects of radiotherapy on a tertiary referral urology department. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study of all urology admissions to a public urology department at a tertiary hospital in a 6-month period was performed. Patients admitted with complications attributable to radiotherapy were included in the study. Data obtained included patient demographics, radiotherapy details, complication type and management required. RESULTS: A total of 1198 patients were admitted; 921 (77%) were elective and 277 (23%) were emergency admissions. Thirteen out of the 921 (1.4%) elective admissions and 20 out of the 277 (7.2%) emergency admissions were attributable to radiotherapy complications. Radiotherapy complications was the fourth most common reason for emergency admission, ahead of acute urinary retention. These 33 admissions were accounted for by 21 patients. A total of 39 separate complications attributable to radiotherapy were diagnosed, with some patients having multiple complications. The median (interquartile range) time to onset of complications was 4 (1-9) years. The surgical intervention rate was 67%. The commonest procedures were washout with/without clot evacuation or diathermy in theatre (15.8%) and urethral dilatation/bladder neck incision (15.8%). Two urinary diversions and two cystoprostatectomies plus urinary diversion were performed. CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy complications are consequential and account for a substantial proportion of a tertiary urology department's emergency workload. These complications generally occur years after radiotherapy and frequently require surgical intervention.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Design considerations for an eHealth decision support tool in inflammatory bowel disease self-management
    Jackson, BD ; Con, D ; De Cruz, P (WILEY, 2018-06-01)
    BACKGROUND: Electronic health (eHealth) decision support tools have the potential to: facilitate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) self-management, reduce health care utilisation and alleviate the pressure on overburdened outpatient clinics. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of key stakeholders on the potential use of a decision support tool for IBD patients. METHODS: A qualitative study using focus group methodology was conducted at a tertiary IBD centre in Melbourne, Australia in February 2015. Key stakeholders, including physicians, nurses and patients, were included in the study. Two independent reviewers undertook inductive coding and generated themes. RESULTS: In total, 31 participants were included in the study (including 16 males; 11 physicians; 6 nurses). An eHealth decision support tool was thought to be beneficial to facilitate IBD self-management. Four themes emerged: (i) Framework for the decision support tool - the tool should be an adjunct to current models of care and facilitate shared decision-making and patient engagement; (ii) Target population - stable patients with mild to moderate disease; (iii) Functionalities of the intervention - a web-based platform encompassing patient-reported outcomes, objective markers of disease and clinical algorithms based on international guidelines; and (iv) Design and Implementation - patients should be involved in the design. CONCLUSIONS: eHealth interventions are thought to be an important strategy to facilitate self-management for patients with IBD. A multi-stage iterative approach should be adopted in the design and implementation process of eHealth interventions. Patient perspectives need to be sought prior to and throughout the development of an eHealth decision support tools for IBD.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Advances in ureteroscopy
    Wetherell, DR ; Ling, D ; Ow, D ; Koonjbeharry, B ; Sliwinski, A ; Weerakoon, M ; Papa, N ; Lawrentschuk, N ; Bolton, DM (AME PUBL CO, 2014-09-01)
    Ureteroscopy (URS) is a procedure which has been constantly evolving since the development of first generation devices 40 years ago. Progress towards smaller and more sophisticated equipment has been particularly rapid in the last decade. We review the significant steps that have been made toward improving outcomes and limiting morbidity with this procedure which is central to the management of urolithiasis and other upper urinary tract pathology.