General Practice and Primary Care - Theses

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    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) management pathways for Indonesian primary care
    Ekawati, Fitriana Murriya ( 2021)
    Background: Indonesia has a high maternal mortality rate due to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), but limited guidelines for HDP management are available in primary care settings. Recommendations for improving HDP management in Indonesian primary care have been identified from a review of HDP international guidelines. Adopting the recommendations into practice in the form of management pathways can potentially change the providers’ practice and subsequently improve care for HDP women. Aim: To improve HDP management in Indonesia by developing a set of HDP management pathways for primary care and determining the acceptability and feasibility of the pathways in practice. Methods: This study applied a mixed-methods design guided by the Medical Research Council (MRC), the Practical Robust Implementation and Sustainability Model (PRISM), and symbolic interactionism approach. It consisted of three consecutive phases: Phase 1 (exploratory interviews); Phase 2 (pathway development); and Phase 3 (acceptability and feasibility study). Phase 1 involved key stakeholders in Indonesia and asked their views and experiences of HDP management in primary care. Phase 2 applied three-round Delphi survey to achieve experts’ consensus on HDP recommendations and develop HDP pathways in primary care, and in Phase 3, the pathways were implemented in three public primary care clinics (Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat (Puskesmas)) in Yogyakarta to determine their acceptability and feasibility in practice. The pathway implementation was evaluated using clinical audit data and triangulation of observation, interviews and focus groups (FGs) with primary care providers, patients, obstetricians and a health officer. Results: Twenty-four stakeholders participated in Phase 1. The primary care providers mainly referred HDP women to hospitals with limited performed managements before and after the referrals. The HDP management was also challenged by providers’ limited confidence, fragmented continuity of care, and certain beliefs in the community. The participants also raised the possibility of developing surveillance procedures for HDP women, particularly to improve coordination between Puskesmas and private primary care clinics. In Phase 2, 52 experts were recruited to participate in a three-round Delphi survey, and 48, 45, and 37 of them completed the first, second, and third-round survey respectively. Of the 125 tested statements, 115 achieved consensus and were used to develop the HDP pathways, consisting of (i) an HDP diagnosis flowchart, (ii) an HDP management pathway and (iii) an HDP surveillance pathway in primary care. In Phase 3, 55 providers and 61 patients participated in the study, and 48 of them participated in evaluation interviews/FGs. Primary care provider participants attempted to apply recommendations in the pathways and said that the pathways were able to improve their practice. Implementation barriers were also identified, which were mainly related to hierarchical relationships, professional boundaries, and limited clinical resources in primary care. Conclusion: A set of HDP management pathways for Indonesian primary care have been developed and shown to be acceptable and feasible in practice. The pathways can be used for improving the quality of HDP management and have the potentials for more extensive implementation in primary care. Further research is needed to minimise the identified implementation barriers of the pathways before their scale-up study in primary care settings.
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    Patients' experience of using primary care in the context of Indonesian universal health coverage implementation: an interpretative phenomenological analysis
    Ekawati, Fitriana Murriya ( 2015)
    Background: Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional (JKN) as Indonesian universal health coverage was designed to provide people with easy access to equitable and high-quality health care through introducing primary care as the first contact medical care and as the gatekeeper to secondary care. However, during its first year of implementation, the new member recruitment was slow, less than 50% of Indonesians joined the insurance scheme and referral rates from primary to secondary care remained high. The Indonesian Ministry of Health reported that more than 10% referrals from primary care were unnecessary. There has been little research undertaken on the patient experience of accessing health care in Indonesia, nor their views of the implementation of JKN which may influence them to opt in or out from the JKN insurance. Aims: This research aimed to explore the patients’ views and experience of using primary care service in the context of JKN implementation Methods: This study used in-depth interviews with a topic guide. Patients were selected from Yogyakarta’s primary care with a maximum variation sampling approach. The data collection was conducted from October – December 2014. The data were transcribed, translated and analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Result: Twenty-three patients were interviewed from eight primary care clinics in Yogyakarta. Three superordinate themes were identified as access, trust, and separation anxiety. Patients described primary care as a convenient way to access medical services, but they reported that the facilities were varied, and unequal access to services existed. Many patients regarded the primary care doctors as second class doctors who were poorly equipped to manage a serious illness. Many participants also thought the primary care doctor’s primary task as providing them with a referral to secondary care. Participants expressed considerable anxiety about the possibility that the JKN scheme would prevent them from receiving specialist care, which they viewed as more desirable than primary care. Discussion: The uptake of JKN has been limited. This study identified a mixed response to the early implementation of a gatekeeper role for primary care. Whilst participants valued the easy access to medical care in a nearby location they expressed a lack of trust in the primary care medical practitioners and a sense of anxiety about what they perceived as ‘giving up’ easy access to specialist care. If these public views are not modified it is unlikely that the full potential of the JKN scheme in primary care will be realized.