Faculty of Education - Research Publications

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    Tetun akademiku: University lecturers' roles in the intellectualisation of Tetum
    Newman, T (Springer, 2021-02)
    In this article I examine lecturers’ beliefs about the use of Tetum for academic, scientific and vocational communication at university in Timor-Leste and discuss the discursive and performative language planning roles that they play in the intellectualisation of the language. Drawing on analysis of recorded discussions among university lecturers from different disciplinary areas and distinct institutional settings, I identify a range of discursive and ideological forces being brought to bear on the use of Tetum to communicate disciplinary and professional knowledge. I focus especially on lecturers’ value-laden explanations for how and why they ‘mix’ Tetum with Portuguese, English and Indonesian in particular contexts of classroom communication. Lecturers’ statements about the limitations of Tetum for academic and scientific communication, while grounded in the real need for coordinated intellectualisation of the language, also mask lecturers’ individual preferences for (and greater confidence in) the use of more established ‘academic languages’, stemming from their own past experiences of language socialisation. I argue that these negative beliefs about the potential reach of Tetum reinforce hegemonic discourses that work against its coordinated intellectualisation. Meanwhile, significant individual efforts towards the intellectualisation of Tetum endure in the form of innovative translation and translanguaging work; efforts that I argue require greater attention and support. I conclude with a discussion about the need to recognise and value the expertise and contributions of multiple stakeholders in the development and intellectualisation of the Tetum language, including those who are not traditionally understood as ‘language experts’.
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    Pencil or Keyboard? Boys’ Preferences in Writing
    Sze, J ; Southcott, J (Nova Southeastern University, 2020)
    Handwriting is an important subject in primary schools, especially in the Early Years. The importance of writing skill is now seen as a debate with the increasing demand on children to learn technology skills to help them with 21st Century learning—how to write on the keyboard effectively. The topic is important because handwriting is an essential life skill to have with or without technology. In this study, I looked at the importance of both in the context of the qualitative case studies in three schools in Melbourne, Australia. The aim of the research is to explore how do students understand the learning of handwriting and keyboarding in schools? This qualitative case study employed a Thematic Analysis approach in which the central intention was to understand the lived experience of six Year 6 boys across three schools and their attitudes to writing and technology. In this article, I addressed the importance of teaching handwriting to primary school students, especially in the first four years of their school life from Foundation to Year 3. The findings suggest that teachers should continue explicitly teaching handwriting to their students despite the heavy reliance on technology in today’s lifestyle.
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    Raising the bar: Using assessment to target teaching and support high expectations for students with additional learning needs.
    White, E ( 2021-01-21)
    An invited keynote presentation to discuss how to use empirical, developmental assessment, such as the SWANs and ABLES tools, to inform the targeted teaching of students with intellectual disability and/or autism.
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    Developing a framework for the application of self-regulated learning (SRL) to classroom instruction
    White, E ; Kang, S ; Scott, W ; Murdoch, C ; Graham, L ; Vosniadou, S ; Lawson, MJ ; Bodner, E ; Stephenson, H ( 2021-11-28)
    Australian Association for Research in Education Conference
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    Applying empirical learning progressions for a holistic approach to evidence-based education: SWANS/ABLES
    White, E (Australian Council for Educational Research, 2021-08)
    Learning progressions have become an increasing topic of interest for researchers, educational organisations and schools as they can describe the expected pathway of learning within a content area to allow for targeted teaching and learning at all levels of ability. However, there is substantial variation in how learning progressions are developed and to what extent teachers can use them to inform their practices. The ABLES/SWANS tools (Students with Additional Needs/Abilities Based Learning and Education Support) are an example of how an empirical learning progression can be applied to support teachers’ ability to not only target teaching to a student’s zone of proximal development (Vygotsky, 1978), but also to plan, assess, and report on learning. Across Australia, these tools are used to help of thousands of teachers of students with disability to make evidence-based teaching and learning decisions and demonstrate the impact of their work with students. This approach, which scaffolds student achievement towards goals informed by an empirical learning progression, combined with reflective teaching practices, can help teachers to develop their capacity as professionals and provide the most effective teaching and learning for every student, regardless of the presence of disability or additional learning need.
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    Teaching Music with ICT in Australia during COVID and beyond: A preliminary investigation
    Merrick, B ; Joseph, D (Australian Society for Music Education (ASME), 2021)
    While the pandemic COVID-19 has impacted our daily lives, it has also impacted education settings across the globe. Since March 2020, workplaces and classrooms in Australia have undergone significant changes due to ongoing lockdowns, and government restrictions regarding returning to sites of teaching and learning. In this paper we report on some initial findings from our ethically approved study Re-imagining the future: Music teaching and learning, and ICT in blended environments in Australia. The study investigates the move to remote (online) learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this research we explore the types of pedagogies music teachers used in blended teaching and learning environments, and the shift towards ICT during 2020 and in 2021. By employing a mixed method approach an anonymous Qualtrics online survey was employed in which teachers were asked to reflect on their experiences and indicate the various technologies, environments, and strategies for teaching and developing wellbeing that were used during this time. Purposive sampling was used to collect data from music educators in Australia. Key Australian professional music associations were approached to participate in the study who consented for their membership to participate. As part of an ongoing study, we only present preliminary data gathered between March–June 2021. Using thematic analysis, we discuss emerging trends and themes in relation to the many and varied ways that music teachers employed ICT through blended modes. We report on initial findings that unpack some of the music teaching described across learning environments and contexts. Teachers’ use of various software, tools, and innovative pedagogies necessitated by the pandemic add to the body of knowledge, highlighting how the pandemic impacted ‘music(k)ing and the need to use blended teaching. The study also revealed some of the experiences that have altered and reshaped approaches to music teaching. Implications for further research and considerations for teacher training will be discussed. As the pandemic continues, further research will play a significant role in influencing shifts in teaching practice across Australia during COVID-19 and beyond.
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    An investigation of creative music pedagogies used in a Graduate Music Teaching program during COVID-19.
    Merrick, B ; de Bruin, L ; Morijiri, Y ; Imada, T ; Ogawa, Y (APSMER, 2021-09-18)
    This presentation is based on a research project that employed a qualitative methodology to examine students’ responses via an online survey. It looks to consider the benefits and challenges of enacting creative pedagogical approaches in the tertiary context and examine emerging educational practices with regard to twenty-first century learning and technology. Underpinning this research was the intention of exploring how creativity practices were employed to realise twenty-first century capacities, incorporating technology that looked to provide deeper and more profound learning experiences, while developing self-reflection reflection, growth and sustainability. The project will examine which type of teaching methods, content delivery, and online learning found addressed their needs in a creative (unique) way as they used Canvas and Zoom for their lessons across many subjects. This report explores the delivery of a tertiary degree in Music Teaching, specifically addressing the following areas: • Curriculum design, delivery and assessment, • Entrepreneurial approaches to learning through student centred activity, • Online learning, student access, self-regulation and self-assessment, • Learning environments (including online and technology-based practice) that mirror global change, capacities and expectations. Using a qualitative methodology, students were invited to complete a series of items that consisted of open-ended questions. These asked participants to indicate the teaching and learning activities and delivery modes they had found to be the most suitable for them as part of their study in Music Teaching degree program. Data were analysed thematically to derive an understanding of the learning experiences that they found most useful. This presentation will provide an overview of the emerging findings related to the key areas of the study, along with small examples of activities that were used in classes and were found to be valuable for the students during this time. It will highlight the need to be both responsive and adaptive with the use of technologies when teaching in an online environment, considering the ongoing needs students, organisation of resources, as well as purposeful teaching and learning experiences. Although much of the data is specific to the COVID-19 scenario, the recommendations provided are applicable more broadly to teaching in various contexts and will assist all teachers. Importantly, these can be considered more broadly for application in music education across the different learning experiences, i.e., performance, composition, musicology and aural.
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    Tracking creativity in Arts and Music: A document analysis of national educational goals and curriculum in Victoria
    King, F ; Aguilar, CE ; Poblete Lagos, C ; Prest, A ; Richerme, LK (International Society of Music Education (ISME), 2020)
    An analysis of national educational goals and curriculum documents played an important role in my doctoral study in Victoria, Australia. The study was a mixed methods investigation into teaching for creativity and creative processes for music educators in primary schools. The analysis aimed to explore the place of creativity from an educational goal and curriculum perspective. Documents from a forty-year period were investigated qualitatively to seek the portrayal and contextual meanings of the word “creativity”. The paper is presented in two parts: the influence of three national declarations of educational goals on the changing place of creativity in contemporaneous curriculum, and creativity as communicated to teachers in curriculum documents in Arts and Music. The purpose of the document analysis was to gain a detailed view of creativity within the two specifically selected document types. In doing so, it informed the development of the survey instrument of the study and was distilled to form an adjunct to the literature review. The document analysis showed variation and similarity between historic and recent contexts of creativity in Arts and Music curriculum. The place of creativity in the Music curriculum in Victoria shows a sense of continuity through different iterations of curriculum. Yet, despite this, there are clear shifts in the language that describes or implies creativity in Arts and Music curriculum. Ultimately, the document analysis presented a glocalised and historic perspective of educational goals and curriculum in Victoria and has the capacity to inform future research and teacher practice in creativity and education.
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    Using interviews with non-examples to assess reasoning in F-2 classrooms
    Copping, K ; Leong, YH ; Kaur, B ; Choy, BH ; Yeo, JBW ; Chin, SL (Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (MERGA), 2021)
    The development of mathematical reasoning is a key proficiency for mathematics within the Australian Curriculum. However, reasoning can be difficult for teachers to assess, particularly with pen and paper tests. In this study, interview tasks were designed across three curriculum areas at three different levels to assess student reasoning through the use of examples and non-examples. Non-examples can be used to assist in building boundaries and deepening conceptual understanding. Through the interview, teacher and student dialogue can help students to demonstrate reasoning and clarify concepts through explanation and justification.
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    Online Citizenship Learning of Chinese Young People
    Fu, J ; Peterson, A ; Stahl, G ; Soong, H (Springer, 2020-01-01)
    This chapter examines Chinese young people’s citizenship learning through their participatory activities on the Internet. The discussions presented in this chapter are informed by recent developments in citizenship studies which maintain that citizenship learning is a lifelong process of participation in different formal and informal communities and practices (Biesta et al. 2009) and in the meaning-making activities reflected in various forms of social participation (Hoskins et al. 2012). Two intertwined forms of citizenship learning were identified from Chinese young people’s online activities. The first is young people’s learning about online citizenships through engaging with different virtual communities. Their learning of online citizenships is illustrated by their understanding of the norms and communal practices shaped by the shared language, values, attitudes, and joint enterprises for mutual engagement in these virtual communities. The second is their internet-mediated learning about Chinese society. The Chinese internet, in this case, offers a new way of engaging with and learning about Chinese society. The outcome of these two forms of learning constitutes the landscape of practice upon which their notion of Chinese citizenship is drawn. This chapter draws attention to the digital and constitutive nature of young people’s social engagement in defining new forms of citizenship which are meaningful and relevant to their everyday lives (Lister, 2007; Wood, 2014).