Melbourne Graduate School of Education - Research Publications

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    The Language of Character Strengths in Early Childhood
    Baker, L (International Positive Psychology Association, 2019)
    Early Childhood is fertile ground for the implementation of positive education through character strength research. A major focus and positive outcome of early childhood education, globally, is the development of pre-school children’s wellbeing (OECD, 2017). Strong psychological wellbeing for children is emergent and enables capitalization on learning opportunities, positive engagement and relationships. (Marbina et al, 2015; Pollard & Lee, 2003; Ryan & Deci, 2000; Ryff, 1989). Positive psychology can be authentically applied in formative pre-school years, but there are few evidence-based interventions for educators. The language of VIA Character Strengths is a developmentally appropriate and effective method. This intersection of literature and action research offers practical, evidence informed strategies. Explicit, formalised and planned teaching of character strengths as a language enables teachers to directly engage with children, build wellbeing literacy and deeper knowledge (Hattie, 2008; Page & Tayler, 2016). Wellbeing literacy, as the vocabulary, knowledge and skills to maintain or improve wellbeing (Oades, Slade & Jarden, 2017), can be activated through character strengths language in early childhood. VIA has been used utilised with adults and adolescents however early childhood has received little attention (Niemic, 2013; Park & Peterson, 2004, 2006; Shoshani, 2018). Opportunities for discussion, innovation and research exist.
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    Wellbeing and the NQF - what do we convey and understand?
    Baker, L (Early Childhood Australia, 2022)
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    A model of student mathematical wellbeing: Australian Grade 8 students’ conceptions
    Hill, JL ; Kern, ML ; Seah, WT ; van Driel, J ; Inprasitha, M ; Changsri, N ; Boonsena, N (Psychology of Mathematics Education, 2020)
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    SMARTA—online-diagnostic to reveal students’ algebraic thinking and enhance teachers’ diagnostic competencies
    Klingbeil, K ; Rösken, F ; Thurm, D ; Barzel, B ; Schacht, F ; Kortenkamp, U ; Stacey, K ; Steinle, V ; Jankvist, UT ; Elicer, R ; Clark-Wilson, A ; Weigand, H-G ; Thomsen, M (Danish School of Education, Aarhus Unviersity, 2022)
    Individual, diagnosis-guided support for learners is one of the most important factors in understanding mathematics and learning efficiently. Especially in the field of algebra many students often still lack basic competencies to handle variables, algebraic expressions and equations in a proper way. Digitally supported diagnostic systems offer the possibility to perform a deep understanding-oriented diagnosis with little time. This is the aim of the Australian SMART-system (Specific Mathematics Assessments that Reveal Thinking (Stacey et al., 2018)), which is currently being adapted for use in German-speaking countries. SMARTA is a twofold project to investigate the effects on students’ understanding of algebra and on teachers’ insight into formative assessment in the field of algebra.
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    Student inclination to work with unfamiliar challenging problems: The role of resilience
    WILLIAMS, G (The Mathematical Association of Victoria, 2003)
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    Teacher Research can Enrich Teaching Practice: An Example
    WILLIAMS, G ; CAVALLIN, N (The Mathematical Association of Victoria, 2004)
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    Teaching and Learning in the Middle Years of Schooling: Having Faith in Students
    TADICH, B ; WILLIAMS, G (The Mathematical Association of Victoria, 2004)
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    The Nature of Spontaneity in High Quality Learning Situations
    WILLIAMS, G (Bergen University College, 2004)
    Spontaneity has been linked to high quality learning experiences in mathematics (Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1992; Williams, 2002).This paper shows how spontaneity can be identified by attending to the nature of social elements in the process of abstracting (Dreyfus, Hershkowitz, & Schwarz, 2001). This process is elaborated through an illustrative example—a Year 8 Australian male student who scaffolded his learning by attending to images in the classroom that were intended for other purposes. Leon’s cognitive processing was not ‘observable’ (Dreyfus et al., 2001) in classroom dialogue because Leon ‘thought alone’. Post-lesson videostimulated reconstructive interviews facilitated study of Leon’s thought processes and extended methodological techniques available to study thinking in classrooms..
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    Abstracting by Constructing and Revising a 'Partially Correct Construct': A Case Study
    Williams, GW (Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, 2010)
    This study draws on data from a broader video-stimulated interview study of the role of optimism in collaborative problem solving. It examines the activity of a Grade 5 student, Tom, whose initial constructing activity resulted in a ‘Partially Correct Construct’. Insistent questioning from another group member pressuring for clarification led to Tom developing a ‘more correct construct’ with further potential for revision. This paper raises questions about influences that can stimulate or inhibit construct refinement.
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    Symbiosis between creative mathematical thinking accompanied by high positive affect, and optimism
    Williams, G ; Pinto, MMF ; Kawasaki, TF (The International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME), 2010-01-01)
    Video-stimulated post-lesson interviews captured changes in a Grade 5 elementary school student, Tom's, orientation to problem solving. Whilst participating in small group problem solving including reports to the class ('Engaged to Learn' pedagogy), Tom changed from self-focused (Task 1), to group focused (Task 2), and taskfocused (Task 3). He experienced surprise as complexities became apparent in what had appeared to be simple (Task 2), and displayed positive affect during his creative thinking leading to insight (Task 3). Consistent with Seligman's (1995) findings, 'flow' (Csikszentmihalyi, 1992), a state of high positive affect accompanying creative activity was associated with optimism building. Instead of needing to be valued by others to feel successfol, Tom began to internalise his successes as attributes of self.