Melbourne Graduate School of Education - Research Publications

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    Actual Interpretations and Use of Scores as Aspects of Validity
    O'Leary, TM ; Hattie, JAC ; Griffin, P (WILEY, 2017-06-01)
    Validity is the most fundamental consideration in test development. Understandably, much time, effort, and money is spent in its pursuit. Central to the modern conception of validity are the interpretations made, and uses planned, on the basis of test scores. There is, unfortunately, however, evidence that test users have difficulty understanding scores as intended. That is, although the proposed interpretations and use of test scores might be theoretically valid they might never come to be because the meaning of the message is lost in translation. This necessitates pause. It is almost absurd to think that the intended interpretations and uses of test scores might fail because there is a lack of alignment with the actual interpretations made and uses enacted by the audience. Despite this, there has only recently been contributions to the literature regarding the interpretability of score reports, the mechanisms by which scores are communicated to their audience, and their relevance to validity. These contributions have focused upon linking, through evidence, the intended interpretation and use with the actual interpretations being made and actions being planned by score users. This article reviews the current conception of validity, validation, and validity evidence with the goal of positioning the emerging notion of validity of usage within the current paradigm.
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    Surface, Deep, and Transfer? Considering the Role of Content Literacy Instructional Strategies
    Frey, N ; Fisher, D ; Hattie, J (WILEY, 2017-03-01)
    This article provides an organizational review of content literacy instructional strategies to forward a claim that some strategies work better for surface learning, whereas others are more effective for deep learning and still others for transfer learning. The authors argue that the failure to adopt content literacy strategies by disciplinary teachers may be due, in part, to the mismatch between the approach and the level of learning expected.
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    An Analysis of an Assessment Tool for 5-year Old Students Entering Elementary School: The School Entry Assessment Kit
    Hattie, JAC ; Brown, GTL ; Irving, SE (SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, 2015-04-01)
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    Conceptualising Loneliness in Adolescents: Development and Validation of a Self-report Instrument
    Houghton, S ; Hattie, J ; Wood, L ; Carroll, A ; Martin, K ; Tan, C (SPRINGER, 2014-10-01)
    This paper reports the development and psychometric evaluations of a multidimensional model of loneliness in Australian adolescents. In the first study a new instrument was designed and administered to 1,074 adolescents (ages 10-18 years, M = 13.01). An exploratory factor analysis from data supplied by 694 of these participants yielded a 4-factor structure (friendship, isolation, negative attitude to solitude, and positive attitude to solitude). Competing measurement models were then evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis with data from the remaining 380 participants; strong support was demonstrated for the conceptual model. Significant main effects were evident for geographical location (rural remote/urban), age and sex. In a second study, involving 235 Australian adolescents (ages 10.0-16 years, M = 13.8) the superiority of the first-order model represented by four correlated factors was confirmed. The findings have clinical and practical implications for professional groups represented by child and adolescent psychiatry, pediatric and clinical psychology services, researchers, and educators. Specifically, the new self-report instrument identifies adolescents who are at risk of loneliness and its associated adverse outcomes and in doing has the potential to offer new insights into prevention and intervention.
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    Factors influencing early adolescents' mathematics achievement: High-quality teaching rather than relationships
    Winheller, S ; Hattie, JA ; Brown, GTL (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2013-04-01)
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    Effects of a free school breakfast programme on children's attendance, academic achievement and short-term hunger: results from a stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial
    Mhurchu, CN ; Gorton, D ; Turley, M ; Jiang, Y ; Michie, J ; Maddison, R ; Hattie, J (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2013-03-01)
    BACKGROUND: Free school breakfast programmes (SBPs) exist in a number of high-income countries, but their effects on educational outcomes have rarely been evaluated in randomised controlled trials. METHODS: A 1-year stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 14 New Zealand schools in low socioeconomic resource areas. Participants were 424 children, mean age 9±2 years, 53% female. The intervention was a free daily SBP. The primary outcome was children's school attendance. Secondary outcomes were academic achievement, self-reported grades, sense of belonging at school, behaviour, short-term hunger, breakfast habits and food security. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant effect of the breakfast programme on children's school attendance. The odds of children achieving an attendance rate <95% was 0.76 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.02) during the intervention phase and 0.93 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.31) during the control phase, giving an OR of 0.81 (95% CI 0.59 to 1.11), p=0.19. There was a significant decrease in children's self-reported short-term hunger during the intervention phase compared with the control phase, demonstrated by an increase of 8.6 units on the Freddy satiety scale (95% CI 3.4 to 13.7, p=0.001). There were no effects of the intervention on any other outcome. CONCLUSIONS: A free SBP did not have a significant effect on children's school attendance or academic achievement but had significant positive effects on children's short-term satiety ratings. More frequent programme attendance may be required to influence school attendance and academic achievement. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR)-ACTRN12609000854235.
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    Effects of a free school breakfast programme on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, and nutrition: a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial
    Ni Mhurchu, C ; Turley, M ; Gorton, D ; Jiang, Y ; Michie, J ; Maddison, R ; Hattie, J (BMC, 2010-11-29)
    BACKGROUND: Approximately 55,000 children in New Zealand do not eat breakfast on any given day. Regular breakfast skipping has been associated with poor diets, higher body mass index, and adverse effects on children's behaviour and academic performance. Research suggests that regular breakfast consumption can improve academic performance, nutrition and behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a free school breakfast programme. The aim of the trial is to determine the effects of the breakfast intervention on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, dietary habits and food security. METHODS/DESIGN: Sixteen primary schools in the North Island of New Zealand will be randomised in a sequential stepped wedge design to a free before-school breakfast programme consisting of non-sugar coated breakfast cereal, milk products, and/or toast and spreads. Four hundred children aged 5-13 years (approximately 25 per school) will be recruited. Data collection will be undertaken once each school term over the 2010 school year (February to December). The primary trial outcome is school attendance, defined as the proportion of students achieving an attendance rate of 95% or higher. Secondary outcomes are academic achievement (literacy, numeracy, self-reported grades), sense of belonging at school, psychosocial function, dietary habits, and food security. A concurrent process evaluation seeks information on parents', schools' and providers' perspectives of the breakfast programme. DISCUSSION: This randomised controlled trial will provide robust evidence of the effects of a school breakfast programme on students' attendance, achievement and nutrition. Furthermore the study provides an excellent example of the feasibility and value of the stepped wedge trial design in evaluating pragmatic public health intervention programmes. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) - ACTRN12609000854235.
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    Learning strategies: a synthesis and conceptual model.
    Hattie, JAC ; Donoghue, GM (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2016)
    The purpose of this article is to explore a model of learning that proposes that various learning strategies are powerful at certain stages in the learning cycle. The model describes three inputs and outcomes (skill, will and thrill), success criteria, three phases of learning (surface, deep and transfer) and an acquiring and consolidation phase within each of the surface and deep phases. A synthesis of 228 meta-analyses led to the identification of the most effective strategies. The results indicate that there is a subset of strategies that are effective, but this effectiveness depends on the phase of the model in which they are implemented. Further, it is best not to run separate sessions on learning strategies but to embed the various strategies within the content of the subject, to be clearer about developing both surface and deep learning, and promoting their associated optimal strategies and to teach the skills of transfer of learning. The article concludes with a discussion of questions raised by the model that need further research.
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    On the Irrelevance of Neuromyths to Teacher Effectiveness: Comparing Neuro-Literacy Levels Amongst Award-Winning and Non-award Winning Teachers
    Horvath, JC ; Donoghue, GM ; Horton, AJ ; Lodge, JM ; Hattie, JAC (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2018-09-11)
    A number of studies have recently demonstrated a high level of belief in 'neuromyths' (fallacious arguments about the brain) amongst trainee and non-award winning educators. The authors of these studies infer this to mean that acceptance of these neuromyths has a negative impact on teaching effectiveness. In this study, we explored this assumption by assessing the prevalence of neuromyth acceptance amongst a group of internationally recognized, award-winning teachers and comparing this to previously published data with trainee and non-award winning teacher populations. Results revealed the acceptance of neuromyths to be nearly identical between these two groups, with the only difference occurring on 2 (out of 15) items. These findings suggest that one cannot make simple, unqualified arguments concerning the relationship between belief in neuromyths and teacher effectiveness. In fact, the idea that neuromyths negatively impact upon teaching might, itself, be a neuromyth.