Melbourne Graduate School of Education - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Adolescents' longitudinal trajectories of mental health and loneliness: The impact of COVID-19 school closures
    Houghton, S ; Kyron, M ; Hunter, SC ; Lawrence, D ; Hattie, J ; Carroll, A ; Zadow, C (WILEY, 2022-02-14)
    INTRODUCTION: Longitudinal research examining the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) school closures on the mental health of adolescents is scarce. Prolonged periods of physical and social isolation because of such restrictions may have impacted heavily on adolescents' mental health and loneliness. METHODS: The current study addresses a major gap by examining the impact of school closures on the mental health and loneliness of 785, 10- to 17-year-old Western Australian adolescents (mean age = 14.1, SD = 1.31), who were surveyed across four time points: twice before COVID-19, once as schools closed, and once post reopening of schools. Pre- and post-COVID-19 changes in mental health and loneliness were compared using linear mixed models. Random intercept cross-lagged panel models (RI-CLPMs) assessed temporal associations between loneliness, depression symptoms, and positive mental wellbeing. RESULTS: Compared with pre-COVID-19 symptom levels, there were significant increases in depression symptoms, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and a significant decrease in positive mental wellbeing at different points over time. Symptom change over time differed according to gender and pre-COVID-19 symptom severity. Significant increases in positive attitudes towards being alone and feelings of isolation occurred at different points over time. Gender differences were evident. RI-CLPMs highlighted the predictive significance of friendship quality and having a negative attitude towards being alone over time in relation to depression symptoms. A positive or negative attitude towards being alone was predictive of positive mental wellbeing over time. CONCLUSION: Findings provide evidence that COVID-19-related school closures adversely affected adolescents' mental health and feelings of loneliness.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Longitudinal trajectories of mental health and loneliness for Australian adolescents with-or-without neurodevelopmental disorders: the impact of COVID-19 school lockdowns
    Houghton, S ; Kyron, M ; Lawrence, D ; Hunter, SC ; Hattie, J ; Carroll, A ; Zadow, C ; Chen, W (WILEY, 2022-02-22)
    BACKGROUND: The impact of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic school lockdowns on the mental health problems and feelings of loneliness of adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) is hypothesized to be greater than that of their non-NDD peers. This two and a half year longitudinal study compared changes in the mental health and loneliness of Western Australian adolescents pre-COVID-19 (November 2018 and April 2019), immediately prior to COVID-19 school lockdowns (March 2020), and post schools reopening (July/August 2020). METHODS: An age-and-gender matched sample of 476 adolescents with-or-without NDDs completed online assessments for mental health and loneliness. RESULTS: Adolescents with NDDs reported elevated levels of adverse mental health across all four waves of data collection. These young people experienced little change in mental health problems and feelings of loneliness over time, and any increase during school lockdowns returned to, or fell below pre-COVID-19 levels once schools reopened. In comparison, adolescents without NDDs experienced significant increases from a low baseline in depression symptoms, externalizing symptoms, feelings of isolation, and having a positive attitude to being alone, and evidenced a significant decline in positive mental wellbeing. Quality of friendships were unaffected by COVID-19 school lockdowns for all adolescents regardless of NDD status. Of the adolescents with NDDs, those with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder reported a significant increase in positive mental wellbeing following school lockdowns. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with NDDs emerged relatively unscathed from COVID-19 school lockdowns and the short term impacts associated with these were not maintained over time. These findings should be considered in the context of this study's geographical location and the unpredictability of school lockdowns. Learning to live with school lockdowns into the future may be a critical element for further investigation in the context of interventions.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    The importance of passionate individuals for navigating school arts provision in 19 Australian schools
    McFerran, KS ; Crooke, AHD ; Steele, M ; Hattie, J ; McPherson, GE (SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2021-10-31)
    Arts programs are increasingly recognized for their role in promoting student development and cohesive school communities. Yet, most Australian schools are left to navigate a landscape characterized by shifting policy goals and external providers of diverse quality and intent. Drawing on interviews with 27 stakeholders from 19 Catholic primary schools in Melbourne, Australia, we explored key approaches to arts provision in this context, and conditions that hinder and support it. Approaches varied markedly, from school-wide programs embedded across the curriculum, to one-off incursions. Conditions consistently affecting provision ranged from leadership support to a community’s view of the arts. Programs regularly relied on individuals passionate about arts to go beyond their paid roles, yet this frequently jeopardized sustainability. Overall, the approaches identified, and conditions affecting their sustainability, reveal a lack of value for school arts at policy and administration levels. This lack of value is not demonstrated in the provision of other traditional school activities like math or literacy, which begs consideration by policymakers and school administrators.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Feedback That Leads to Improvement in Student Essays: Testing the Hypothesis that "Where to Next" Feedback is Most Powerful
    Hattie, J ; Crivelli, J ; Van Gompel, K ; West-Smith, P ; Wike, K (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2021-05-28)
    Feedback is powerful but variable. This study investigates which forms of feedback are more predictive of improvement to students’ essays, using Turnitin Feedback Studio–a computer augmented system to capture teacher and computer-generated feedback comments. The study used a sample of 3,204 high school and university students who submitted their essays, received feedback comments, and then resubmitted for final grading. The major finding was the importance of “where to next” feedback which led to the greatest gains from the first to the final submission. There is support for the worthwhileness of computer moderated feedback systems that include both teacher- and computer-generated feedback.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    A Meta-Analysis of Ten Learning Techniques
    Donoghue, GM ; Hattie, JAC (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2021-03-31)
    This article outlines a meta-analysis of the 10 learning techniques identified in Dunlosky et al. (2013a), and is based on 242 studies, 1,619 effects, 169,179 unique participants, with an overall mean of 0.56. The most effective techniques are Distributed Practice and Practice Testing and the least effective (but still with relatively high effects) are Underlining and Summarization. A major limitation was that the majority of studies in the meta-analysis were based on surface or factual outcomes, and there is caution needed when applying these findings to deeper and more relational outcomes. Other important moderators included the presence of feedback or not, near or far transfer, and the effects were much greater for lower than higher ability students. It is recommended that more attention be paid to when, under what conditions, each technique can be used, and how they can best be taught.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    g versus c: comparing individual and collective intelligence across two meta-analyses
    Rowe, LI ; Hattie, J ; Hester, R (SPRINGER, 2021-04-03)
    Collective intelligence (CI) is said to manifest in a group's domain general mental ability. It can be measured across a battery of group IQ tests and statistically reduced to a latent factor called the "c-factor." Advocates have found the c-factor predicts group performance better than individual IQ. We test this claim by meta-analyzing correlations between the c-factor and nine group performance criterion tasks generated by eight independent samples (N = 857 groups). Results indicated a moderate correlation, r, of .26 (95% CI .10, .40). All but four studies comprising five independent samples (N = 366 groups) failed to control for the intelligence of individual members using individual IQ scores or their statistically reduced equivalent (i.e., the g-factor). A meta-analysis of this subset of studies found the average IQ of the groups' members had little to no correlation with group performance (r = .06, 95% CI -.08, .20). Around 80% of studies did not have enough statistical power to reliably detect correlations between the primary predictor variables and the criterion tasks. Though some of our findings are consistent with claims that a general factor of group performance may exist and relate positively to group performance, limitations suggest alternative explanations cannot be dismissed. We caution against prematurely embracing notions of the c-factor unless it can be independently and robustly replicated and demonstrated to be incrementally valid beyond the g-factor in group performance contexts.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Sports Coaches' Knowledge and Beliefs About the Provision, Reception, and Evaluation of Verbal Feedback
    Mason, RJ ; Farrow, D ; Hattie, JAC (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2020-09-15)
    Coach observation studies conducted since the 1970s have sought to determine the quantity and quality of verbal feedback provided by coaches to their athletes. Relatively few studies, however, have sought to determine the knowledge and beliefs of coaches that underpin this provision of feedback. The purpose of the current study was to identify the beliefs and knowledge that elite team sport coaches hold about providing, receiving and evaluating feedback in their training and competition environments. Semi-structured interviews conducted with 8 coaches were inductively analyzed, revealing three broad themes: thinking and learning about feedback, providing feedback, and evaluating feedback. Findings revealed a detailed array of knowledge about feedback across a wide range of sub-topics. Coaches saw feedback as a tool to improve performance, build athlete confidence, help athletes to monitor progress, and as a tool to improve their own performance. Novel insights about evaluating an athlete's reception of feedback, and tailoring feedback for individual athletes, were provided by coaches. The findings also highlight areas in which future coach education offerings can better support coaches to provide effective feedback.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    The Power of Feedback Revisited: A Meta-Analysis of Educational Feedback Research
    Wisniewski, B ; Zierer, K ; Hattie, J (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2020-01-22)
    A meta-analysis (435 studies, k = 994, N > 61,000) of empirical research on the effects of feedback on student learning was conducted with the purpose of replicating and expanding the Visible Learning research (Hattie and Timperley, 2007; Hattie, 2009; Hattie and Zierer, 2019) from meta-synthesis. Overall results based on a random-effects model indicate a medium effect (d = 0.48) of feedback on student learning, but the significant heterogeneity in the data shows that feedback cannot be understood as a single consistent form of treatment. A moderator analysis revealed that the impact is substantially influenced by the information content conveyed. Furthermore, feedback has higher impact on cognitive and motor skills outcomes than on motivational and behavioral outcomes. We discuss these findings in the light of the assumptions made in The power of feedback (Hattie and Timperley, 2007). In general, the results suggest that feedback has rightly become a focus of teaching research and practice. However, they also point toward the necessity of interpreting different forms of feedback as independent measures.