Faculty of Education - Research Publications

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    Leader autonomy support in the workplace: A meta-analytic review
    Slemp, GR ; Kern, ML ; Patrick, KJ ; Ryan, RM (SPRINGER/PLENUM PUBLISHERS, 2018-10)
    Leader autonomy support (LAS) refers to a cluster of supervisory behaviors that are theorized to facilitate self-determined motivation in employees, potentially enabling well-being and performance. We report the results of a meta-analysis of perceived LAS in work settings, drawing from a database of 754 correlations across 72 studies (83 unique samples, N = 32,870). Results showed LAS correlated strongly and positively with autonomous work motivation, and was unrelated to controlled work motivation. Correlations became increasingly positive with the more internalized forms of work motivation described by self-determination theory. LAS was positively associated with basic needs, well-being, and positive work behaviors, and was negatively associated with distress. Correlations were not moderated by the source of LAS, country of the sample, publication status, or the operationalization of autonomy support. In addition, a meta-analytic path analysis supported motivational processes that underlie LAS and its consequences in workplaces. Overall, our findings lend support for autonomy support as a leadership approach that is consistent with self-determination and optimal functioning in work settings.
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    Measuring Job Crafting Across Cultures: Lessons Learned From Comparing a German and an Australian Sample
    Schachler, V ; Epple, SD ; Clauss, E ; Hoppe, A ; Slemp, GR ; Ziegler, M (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2019-05-07)
    Job crafting refers to the act of employees actively altering work aspects to better suit their values and interests. Slemp and Vella-Brodrick (2013) proposed a Job Crafting Questionnaire (JCQ) in English consisting of three facets: task crafting, cognitive crafting, and relational crafting. This is in line with the original conceptualization of job crafting by Wrzesniewski and Dutton (2001). However, there has not yet been an evaluated German translation of this measure. Therefore, this paper aims at evaluating the psychometric properties of scores from a German translation of the JCQ, using the original Australian dataset and a German sample of 482 employees. Our findings showed first evidence for the reliability and validity of the scores. We also extend prior research and include creative self-efficacy in the nomological network of job crafting. Importantly, strong factorial measurement invariance was demonstrated, allowing for comparisons between the job crafting scores of German- and English-speaking samples. Based on this example, we highlight the importance of enriching measurement invariance tests by including other key constructs. Our results suggest that the German JCQ is an acceptable tool for measuring job crafting, as originally conceptualized by Wrzesniewski and Dutton (2001).
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    Positive Psychologists on Positive Psychology (Vol. 3)
    Jarden, A ; Slemp, G ; Chia, A ; Lahti, E ; Hwang, EB ; Jarden, A ; Slemp, G ; Chia, A ; Lahti, E ; Hwang, EB (No publisher, 2016)
    Interest in positive psychology is rapidly expanding as the field continues to make swift progress in terms of scientific advancement and understanding. There are more courses, more workshops, more conferences, more students, more associations, more journals and more textbooks than ever before. The news media and public are thirsty for information related to happiness, and, specifically, wellbeing, and for all facets of positive psychology generally. Psychology departments are increasingly looking to teach courses and offer qualifications that focus specifically on positive psychology, and various organisations are trying to understand how they can best capitalise on and harness the field’s initial scientific findings. What you don’t hear so much about is how positive psychology operates in the real world, how researchers and practitioners became interested in positive psychology, how they work with clients and the various models and theories they use. What do they find most useful? What happens to their thinking and practice as they become experienced and knowledgeable in the positive psychology arena? Why did they decide to move into positive psychology? What do they get out of being involved in the positive psychology community? What directions are they and the field heading towards? Is gender an issue for this developing field? This book discusses these kinds of questions and issues, and is a book for all those in the wellbeing, helping professional and psychological fields interested in knowing more about the development, theory, research and application of the new field of positive psychology. It is a book that spans an eclectic range of interests from psychology students to psychologists, to coaches, to media and beyond.
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    Toward Building Sustainable Wellbeing Literacy in Higher Education: Strategies and Indicators of Success
    Johnston, A ; Oades, L ; Slemp, G ; Marcionetti, J ; Castelli, L ; Crescentini, A (Hogrefe Publishing, 2017-11-30)
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    Contemplative Interventions and Employee Distress: A Meta‐Analysis
    Slemp, G ; Jach, H ; Chia, A ; Loton, D ; Kern, M (Wiley, 2019)
    Mindfulness, meditation, and other practices that form contemplative interventions are increasingly offered in workplaces to support employee mental health. Studies have reported benefits across various populations, yet researchers have expressed concerns that adoption of such interventions has outpaced scientific evidence. We reappraise the extant literature by meta‐analytically testing the efficacy of contemplative interventions in reducing psychological distress in employees (meta‐analyzed set: k = 119; N = 6,044). Complementing other reviews, we also examine a range of moderators and the impact of biases that could artificially inflate effect sizes. Results suggested interventions were generally effective in reducing employee distress, yielding small to moderate effects that were sustained at last follow‐up. Effects were moderated by the type of contemplative intervention offered and the type of control group utilized. We also found evidence of publication bias, which is likely inflating estimated effects. Uncontrolled single sample studies were more affected by bias than large or randomized controlled trial studies. Adjustments for publication bias lowered overall effects. Overall, our review supports the effectiveness of contemplative interventions in reducing employee distress, but there is a need for proactive strategies to mitigate artificially inflated effect sizes and thus avoid the misapplication of contemplative interventions in work settings.
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    Part III Policy - Overview
    White, M ; Slemp, G ; Murray, S ; White, M ; Slemp, G ; Murray, S (Springer, 2017)
    Over the last two decades, well-being has become increasingly central to public consciousness and the policy agenda (Diener et al. 2009). At a national level, we are increasingly seeing strategies designed to increase the well-being of citizens and well-being is now measured in a similar way to gross domestic product in many countries, providing information about progress beyond what is possible with traditional economic indicators alone. Such subjective indicators of well-being are now widely used by policy makers in community planning, resourcing, and policy reform – all with the aim to enhance the quality of life of ordinary citizens (Adler and Seligman 2016; Seligman 2013).
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    Part II Organizations - Overview
    White, M ; Slemp, G ; Murray, S ; White, M ; Slemp, G ; Murray, S (Springer, 2017)
    Positive psychology is a field that is heavily embedded in models of individual behavior change (Kristjánsson 2012; Slemp et al. 2017). Accordingly, we now have a solid research foundation on the impact of behavioral interventions on individual students, workers, and community members, as well as the individual correlates and outcomes of positive psychological phenomena. Yet, it was Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi (2000), in their foundational article who identified collective wellbeing as one of the fundamental challenges for the field.
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    Part I: Education - Overview
    White, M ; Loton, D ; Slemp, G ; Murray, S ; White, M ; Slemp, G ; Murray, S (Springer, 2017)
    Over the past decade, there has been a rapid rise of interest in the application of positive psychology within education settings. Seligman et al. (2009) defined positive education as “education for both traditional skills and happiness”, however, in line with the more nuanced and comprehensive models of well-being in the field, positive education targets more than just happiness. More recently it has become an umbrella term to describe empirically validated interventions and programs from positive psychology that have an impact on student well-being. Positive education also aligns with educational agendas or initiatives that sit outside of the traditional academic skills of literacy and numeracy, and aim to foster adaptive dispositions and social emotional learning for continued growth across the lifespan. While terminologies differ, these agendas are sometimes referred to as character education, lifelong learning, twenty-first century skills, and social and emotional learning. The positive education movement has now encroached into kindergarten, early years, junior, middle and senior schooling. We have even seen the application of positive psychology within tertiary educational colleges across the world.