Melbourne Graduate School of Education - Research Publications

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    Design-based Research: An ethical framework to address pedagogical problems and innovation
    Galvin, K ; Cochrane, T (AARE, 2023-11-27)
    The need for education research to explore ‘real world’ learning impact for stakeholders is now more pressing than ever as we navigate perpetual shifting educational experience in situational contexts driven by rapid technology changes and environmental change. Design-based research (DBR) is a pragmatic methodology that promotes a proactive educational enquiry to implement theories of learning and teaching. To address a pedagogical problem or innovation, the DBR methodological framework incorporates four research phases including 1) analysis of a practical problem, 2) development of an innovative solution, 3) implementation of iterative research action cycles, and 4) final analysis and reflection. These phases enable the possibility of growth and evolution of both education theory and knowledge contribution using a practical approach. The ultimate aim of DBR is to generate useful knowledge by applying cycles of both action and inquiry in a situated context. Outputs of DBR commonly fall into two categories including a) tangible practical outcomes such as a design artefact to improve learning, and b) non-tangible outputs in the form of final design principles and progressive societal contributions. In this sense, local knowledge can still contribute to social learning practices more broadly. The flexible ethos of DBR extends to the generation of outputs, as there is potential to use quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods when using DBR. The DBR framework allows a malleable way to problem solve changing educational issues. While progressively drawing upon current literature to improve iterative learning outputs, the process of DBR integrates ‘design thinking’ to understand what stakeholders need in specific contexts by fostering empathy and cultural awareness. DBR invites the ‘messiness and complexity’ of educational settings by not shying away from giving attention to the uncontrollable variables that stakeholders may bring to research action cycles. Thus DBR has been described as an ‘ethical’ educational research approach as it addresses real world problems without being limited by quasi-experimental control groups that lead to ‘no significant difference’ in pedagogical outcomes. By inviting stakeholder voice and truth into this research process, there is potential for DBR to generate ‘inspired’ and ‘visionary’ interventions not yet seen in educational settings, and equally to ensure past knowledge and educational impact is acknowledged and maintains relevance. The Poster graphically illustrates the DBR methodology framework as described above, and provides QR code links to example case studies using DBR to solve pedagogical problems and innovative practice in various education contexts.
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    Exploring the intersection of digital pedagogies, reflexivity, and culture in religious education
    Kvia, A-S ; Cochrane, T ; Cochrane, T ; Narayan, V ; Bone, E ; Deneen, C ; Vanderburg, R ; Kathryn, M ; Brown, C (ASCILITE, 2023-12-01)
    This concise paper reports on the development of a Design-Based Research PhD project that explores the potential of virtual reality and digital pedagogies to enhance reflexivity in the context of religious education and cultural diversity awareness. The research is based in a Norwegian context and aims to develop transferable design principles for enhancing reflexivity in religious education for student teachers. The paper outlines the context, design framework, initial prototype intervention, initial participant feedback, as well as next steps in the research.
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    Exploring Social Media Use for Healthcare Professionals
    Yu, X ; Cochrane, T ; Cochrane, T ; Vickel, N ; Bone, E ; Deneen, C ; Vanderburg, R ; Kathryn, M ; Brown, C (ASCILITE, 2023-12-01)
    This concise paper introduces the importance of Healthcare Professionals (HCP) voice on Social Media Platforms (SMP) to combat widespread mis/disinformation around health issues that is now prevalent on these platforms. While HCPs actions have been acknowledged as effective in dispelling myths surrounding health topics, the specific strategies employed by HCPs on different SMPs to address these issues remain largely unexplored. Employing a technology affordance perspective, this paper outlines a proposed research methodology aimed at investigating the strategies employed by HCPs for correcting misinformation across various SMPs and offers guidance in this area.
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    Changes in Year 11 Students’ Self-Reported Experiences of Emotions Related to CAS and Pen-and-paper
    Cameron, S ; Ball, L ; Steinle, V ; Reid-O'Connor, B ; Prieto-Rodriguez, E ; Holmes, K ; Hughes, A (MERGA, 2023)
    This paper reports three emotions (i.e., anxiety, confidence, & enjoyment) related to pen-and-paper (P&P) and a Computer Algebra System (CAS), that were experienced (or not) by twelve Year 11 Mathematical Methods students in a classroom where CAS was allowed. Some students had experienced the same emotions at the start and end of the study, hence experience with CAS did not always appear to impact students’ emotions. Comparison of emotions related to CAS and P&P show students more frequently experienced anxiety related to CAS than P&P, and more frequently experienced confidence and enjoyment with P&P than CAS.
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    Teaching Music with ICT in Australia during COVID and beyond: A preliminary investigation
    Merrick, B ; Joseph, D (Australian Society for Music Education (ASME), 2021)
    While the pandemic COVID-19 has impacted our daily lives, it has also impacted education settings across the globe. Since March 2020, workplaces and classrooms in Australia have undergone significant changes due to ongoing lockdowns, and government restrictions regarding returning to sites of teaching and learning. In this paper we report on some initial findings from our ethically approved study Re-imagining the future: Music teaching and learning, and ICT in blended environments in Australia. The study investigates the move to remote (online) learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this research we explore the types of pedagogies music teachers used in blended teaching and learning environments, and the shift towards ICT during 2020 and in 2021. By employing a mixed method approach an anonymous Qualtrics online survey was employed in which teachers were asked to reflect on their experiences and indicate the various technologies, environments, and strategies for teaching and developing wellbeing that were used during this time. Purposive sampling was used to collect data from music educators in Australia. Key Australian professional music associations were approached to participate in the study who consented for their membership to participate. As part of an ongoing study, we only present preliminary data gathered between March–June 2021. Using thematic analysis, we discuss emerging trends and themes in relation to the many and varied ways that music teachers employed ICT through blended modes. We report on initial findings that unpack some of the music teaching described across learning environments and contexts. Teachers’ use of various software, tools, and innovative pedagogies necessitated by the pandemic add to the body of knowledge, highlighting how the pandemic impacted ‘music(k)ing and the need to use blended teaching. The study also revealed some of the experiences that have altered and reshaped approaches to music teaching. Implications for further research and considerations for teacher training will be discussed. As the pandemic continues, further research will play a significant role in influencing shifts in teaching practice across Australia during COVID-19 and beyond.
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    An investigation of creative music pedagogies used in a Graduate Music Teaching program during COVID-19.
    Merrick, B ; de Bruin, L ; Morijiri, Y ; Imada, T ; Ogawa, Y (APSMER, 2021-09-18)
    This presentation is based on a research project that employed a qualitative methodology to examine students’ responses via an online survey. It looks to consider the benefits and challenges of enacting creative pedagogical approaches in the tertiary context and examine emerging educational practices with regard to twenty-first century learning and technology. Underpinning this research was the intention of exploring how creativity practices were employed to realise twenty-first century capacities, incorporating technology that looked to provide deeper and more profound learning experiences, while developing self-reflection reflection, growth and sustainability. The project will examine which type of teaching methods, content delivery, and online learning found addressed their needs in a creative (unique) way as they used Canvas and Zoom for their lessons across many subjects. This report explores the delivery of a tertiary degree in Music Teaching, specifically addressing the following areas: • Curriculum design, delivery and assessment, • Entrepreneurial approaches to learning through student centred activity, • Online learning, student access, self-regulation and self-assessment, • Learning environments (including online and technology-based practice) that mirror global change, capacities and expectations. Using a qualitative methodology, students were invited to complete a series of items that consisted of open-ended questions. These asked participants to indicate the teaching and learning activities and delivery modes they had found to be the most suitable for them as part of their study in Music Teaching degree program. Data were analysed thematically to derive an understanding of the learning experiences that they found most useful. This presentation will provide an overview of the emerging findings related to the key areas of the study, along with small examples of activities that were used in classes and were found to be valuable for the students during this time. It will highlight the need to be both responsive and adaptive with the use of technologies when teaching in an online environment, considering the ongoing needs students, organisation of resources, as well as purposeful teaching and learning experiences. Although much of the data is specific to the COVID-19 scenario, the recommendations provided are applicable more broadly to teaching in various contexts and will assist all teachers. Importantly, these can be considered more broadly for application in music education across the different learning experiences, i.e., performance, composition, musicology and aural.
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    Tracking creativity in Arts and Music: A document analysis of national educational goals and curriculum in Victoria
    King, F ; Aguilar, CE ; Poblete Lagos, C ; Prest, A ; Richerme, LK (International Society of Music Education (ISME), 2020)
    An analysis of national educational goals and curriculum documents played an important role in my doctoral study in Victoria, Australia. The study was a mixed methods investigation into teaching for creativity and creative processes for music educators in primary schools. The analysis aimed to explore the place of creativity from an educational goal and curriculum perspective. Documents from a forty-year period were investigated qualitatively to seek the portrayal and contextual meanings of the word “creativity”. The paper is presented in two parts: the influence of three national declarations of educational goals on the changing place of creativity in contemporaneous curriculum, and creativity as communicated to teachers in curriculum documents in Arts and Music. The purpose of the document analysis was to gain a detailed view of creativity within the two specifically selected document types. In doing so, it informed the development of the survey instrument of the study and was distilled to form an adjunct to the literature review. The document analysis showed variation and similarity between historic and recent contexts of creativity in Arts and Music curriculum. The place of creativity in the Music curriculum in Victoria shows a sense of continuity through different iterations of curriculum. Yet, despite this, there are clear shifts in the language that describes or implies creativity in Arts and Music curriculum. Ultimately, the document analysis presented a glocalised and historic perspective of educational goals and curriculum in Victoria and has the capacity to inform future research and teacher practice in creativity and education.
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    Enhancing music integration through critical and creative thinking in Australian primary schools
    King, F ; Bowe, M-L ; Merrick, B (International Society of Music Education, 2018-07-12)
    Extended Poster presentation
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    A ukulele for every preservice teacher: Innovation in online music teaching during the pandemic
    King, F (Australian and New Zealand Association for Research in Music Education (ANZARME), 2022)
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    To B or B sharp: Introducing a new method for learning ukulele
    King, F ; Harvey, I ; Rees, K (International Society for Music Education (ISME), 2022-07-20)
    In this article I introduce an innovative method for learning the ukulele. The method, known as the C major system, is a constructivist approach to instrumental teaching focusing on a single tonality and improvisation. It was devised between 2019 and 2020 by a professional bass musician during the peak of a profoundly serious illness in which he was incapacitated with highly restricted movement. He turned to the ukulele as a light-weight instrument to focus his creative musicianship and the outcome was the development of the system. The system is specifically for ukulele and focuses on C major tonality, song writing and learning the note names across the fretboard. Inspired by the musician’s determination and creativity, and by the philosophy of the system, which raised questions about my own music improvisation and teaching practices, I began lessons in early 2021 and kept a detailed practise journal. I adopt the methodology of practitioner research and take an inquiry stance to interrogate my practice in improvisation and ukulele playing. The research occurs in the wake of my PhD completed in 2020 about creative processes for music educators. Through reflection I seek to construct an outline of the system and to connect with literature around creative process and pedagogy. The article introduces the system with respect to improvisation particularly. The system may have potential professional learning capacity for classroom music teachers working with the ukulele for personal or teaching-related ukulele practice. It also has relevance for music therapists for music in hospital settings and for other purposes of rehabilitation with practising or beginning musicians.