Melbourne Graduate School of Education - Research Publications

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    Development of the Flourishing Classroom System Observation Framework and Rubric: a Delphi Study
    Allison, L ; Kern, ML ; Jarden, A ; Waters, L (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, )
    Abstract This paper describes the development of the Flourishing Classroom System Observation Framework and Rubric, which provides a framework and practical approach to defining and describing multiple interconnected observable characteristics of a classroom system that individually and together can be targeted to cultivate collective flourishing within schools. Beginning with a working theoretical model based on existing literature, a three-round Delphi study was used to develop the framework and related rubric. In round 1, 35 experts answered open-ended questions regarding observable behaviours of collective wellbeing in the classroom. Analysis of responses resulted in a framework with five dimensions, each with three sub-dimensions. In round 2, 23 experts sorted and categorised statements that potentially described each of the 15 sub-dimensions. Analyses created definitions of each sub-dimension and statements describing how they manifest for teachers, students, and the class, along with a description of the learning environment for each dimension. In round 3, 18 experts reviewed the definitions and descriptions, resulting in a final 15-dimension framework with a related rubric of 45 descriptive statements. The resulting framework and rubric provide an organising structure to identify observable system elements that shape a flourishing classroom culture.
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    Flourishing Classrooms: Applying a Systems-Informed Approach to Positive Education
    Allison, L ; Waters, L ; Kern, ML (Springer, 2021-12)
    Although positive education has made significant progress towards fostering student wellbeing at the individual level through the application of positive psychology interventions, adopting a systems-informed perspective will support the field to also approach wellbeing at the classroom and collective levels. Arguably, this approach will promote a more widespread and sustained level of wellbeing in schools. The current conceptual paper focuses on how the classroom as a system can be used as a powerful context to create collective wellbeing. We define group-level flourishing, explain how a systems-informed perspective allows classrooms to create collective wellbeing, introduce the Flourishing Classroom Systems Model, and consider implications and applications of this model.
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    Corrigendum: Exploring Selective Exposure and Confirmation Bias as Processes Underlying Employee Work Happiness: An Intervention Study (vol 7, pg 878, 2016)
    Williams, P ; Kern, ML ; Waters, L (Frontiers Media, 2017-02-13)
    [This corrects the article on p. 878 in vol. 7, PMID: 27378978.]. There was a mistake in the Intervention group values at Times 1 and 2 in Table 1. The correct version of Table 1 appears below. The authors apologize for the mistake. This error does not change the scientific conclusions of the article in any way.
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    The Role and Reprocessing of Attitudes in Fostering Employee Work Happiness: An Intervention Study
    Williams, P ; Kern, ML ; Waters, L (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2017-01-19)
    This intervention study examines the iterative reprocessing of explicit and implicit attitudes as the process underlying associations between positive employee attitudes (PsyCap), perception of positive organization culture (organizational virtuousness, OV), and work happiness. Using a quasi-experimental design, a group of school staff (N = 69) completed surveys at three time points. After the first assessment, the treatment group (n = 51) completed a positive psychology training intervention. Results suggest that employee PsyCap, OV, and work happiness are associated with one another through both implicit and explicit attitudes. Further, the Iterative-Reprocessing Model of attitudes (IRM) provides some insights into the processes underlying these associations. By examining the role and processes through which explicit and implicit attitudes relate to wellbeing at work, the study integrates theories on attitudes, positive organizational scholarship, positive organizational behavior and positive education. It is one of the first studies to apply the theory of the IRM to explain associations amongst PsyCap, OV and work happiness, and to test the IRM theory in a field-based setting. In applying attitude theory to wellbeing research, this study provides insights to mechanisms underlying workplace wellbeing that have not been previously examined and in doing so responds to calls for researchers to learn more about the mechanisms underlying wellbeing interventions. Further, it highlights the need to understand subconscious processes in future wellbeing research and to include implicit measures in positive psychology interventions measurement programs. Practically, this research calls attention to the importance of developing both the positive attitudes of employees and the organizational culture in developing employee work happiness.
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    A multidimensional approach to measuring well-being in students: Application of the PERMA framework
    Kern, ML ; Waters, LE ; Adler, A ; White, MA (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2015-05-04)
    Seligman recently introduced the PERMA model with five core elements of psychological well-being: positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment. We empirically tested this multidimensional theory with 516 Australian male students (age 13-18). From an extensive well-being assessment, we selected a subset of items theoretically relevant to PERMA. Factor analyses recovered four of the five PERMA elements, and two ill-being factors (depression and anxiety). We then explored the nomological net surrounding each factor by examining cross-sectional associations with life satisfaction, hope, gratitude, school engagement, growth mindset, spirituality, physical vitality, physical activity, somatic symptoms, and stressful life events. Factors differentially related to these correlates, offering support for the multidimensional approach to measuring well-being. Directly assessing subjective well-being across multiple domains offers the potential for schools to more systematically understand and promote well-being.
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    Exploring Selective Exposure and Confirmation Bias as Processes Underlying Employee Work Happiness: An Intervention Study
    Williams, P ; Kern, ML ; Waters, L (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2016-06-15)
    Employee psychological capital (PsyCap), perceptions of organizational virtue (OV), and work happiness have been shown to be associated within and over time. This study examines selective exposure and confirmation bias as potential processes underlying PsyCap, OV, and work happiness associations. As part of a quasi-experimental study design, school staff (N = 69) completed surveys at three time points. After the first assessment, some staff (n = 51) completed a positive psychology training intervention. Results of descriptive statistics, correlation, and regression analyses on the intervention group provide some support for selective exposure and confirmation bias as explanatory mechanisms. In focusing on the processes through which employee attitudes may influence work happiness this study advances theoretical understanding, specifically of selective exposure and confirmation bias in a field study context.