Melbourne Graduate School of Education - Research Publications

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    From apology to truth? Settler colonial injustice and curricular reform in Australia since 2008
    Keynes, M (Taylor and Francis Group, 2024)
    This article explores how recent curricular reform in Australia has been responsive to a culture of redress. It argues that taken together, the 2008 National Apology to the Stolen Generations and the 2010 national curriculum reform marked a turning point, whereby settler colonial injustices have since been systematically included in the curriculum. This is explored through a case study analysis of the two iterations of the Victorian Curriculum: History post-Apology— 2012 and 2016—the latter of which remains in current use. Using discourse analysis methods, this article argues that the inclusion of colonial injustice in the post-Apology era signals a consensus that has emerged around the significance of representing injustice in history curriculum, and by extension, for shaping future citizens. Through close textual analysis of the curriculum documents, this article finds that representations of historical injustice have been organized by four frames: memorialization, equivalence, personalization, and human rights. It argues that these frames curtail opportunities for the development of an understanding of the structural character and effects of settler colonialism, and limit consideration of the longer history of Indigenous sovereignty and self-determination. These failures raise questions about how impending reforms might respond to the contemporary political context where treaty negotiations and formal truth-telling with First Nations’ polities are unfolding.
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    Pencil or Keyboard? Boys’ Preferences in Writing
    Sze, J ; Southcott, J (Nova Southeastern University, 2020)
    Handwriting is an important subject in primary schools, especially in the Early Years. The importance of writing skill is now seen as a debate with the increasing demand on children to learn technology skills to help them with 21st Century learning—how to write on the keyboard effectively. The topic is important because handwriting is an essential life skill to have with or without technology. In this study, I looked at the importance of both in the context of the qualitative case studies in three schools in Melbourne, Australia. The aim of the research is to explore how do students understand the learning of handwriting and keyboarding in schools? This qualitative case study employed a Thematic Analysis approach in which the central intention was to understand the lived experience of six Year 6 boys across three schools and their attitudes to writing and technology. In this article, I addressed the importance of teaching handwriting to primary school students, especially in the first four years of their school life from Foundation to Year 3. The findings suggest that teachers should continue explicitly teaching handwriting to their students despite the heavy reliance on technology in today’s lifestyle.
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    Effects of a positive education programme on secondary school students' mental health and wellbeing; challenges of the school context
    Rickard, NS ; Chin, T-C ; Cross, D ; Hattie, J ; Vella-Brodrick, DA (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2023-01-01)
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    In Jen’s Shoes – Looking Back to Look Forward: An Autoethnographic Account
    Sze, J ; Southcott, J (Nova Southeastern University, 2019)
    This paper discusses the monumental events in my life that have shaped my two professional identities, teacher and researcher. I used autoethnography as a research methodology to traverse my personal life narratives across two different countries: Vietnam and Australia to seek and to examine my dual cultural identities, and how they shaped me. I am a passionate teacher who believes that teaching can change the world through the causes that I care about such as anti-racism and equity in education for students from all backgrounds. In this case study, data were collected by semi-structured interview and reflection on journals. Data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The findings are reported under four themes that reflected the stages of my life: designed in Vietnam, made in Australia was the first phase, growing up in Australia, my schooling years and professional years. By making sense of the narratives and involved, it helped me to understand myself better, who I am as a teacher and the causes that I believe in. As an Australian with hybrid cultural identities, I am the norm in contemporary culture.
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    Mapping the parent experience of echolalia in autism spectrum disorder onto a conceptual taxonomy
    Cohn, EG ; McVilly, KR ; Harrison, MJ (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2023-09-20)
    PURPOSE: Echolalia, the repetition of previously heard speech, is prevalent in a variety of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Within the context of echolalia in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research and intervention historically assume a clinical standpoint with two opposing paradigms: behaviourism and developmentalism. The literature is largely silent on how those other than researchers and clinicians understand echolalia. This study examined how parents experience echolalia through their children with ASD. The aim of the study was to ascertain if the parental perception of echolalia in ASD aligns with, or offers alternative perspectives to, current clinically-orientated views. METHOD: We employed online semi-structured interviews to document the experiences of 126 parents, reflecting on their children with ASD aged 3 to 34 years of age, to determine if the parent experience could be mapped onto existing clinical frameworks, or if they might offer new perspectives. We used hermeneutic phenomenological data analysis in an abductive framework. RESULT: Echolalia has predominantly been represented in literature through the perspectives of behaviourism or developmentalism. We found however, that echolalia is a phenomenon that is experienced by parents in a variety of different ways to that of the current clinically-orientated understandings. Such new ways of understanding echolalia that emerged from our analysis include one understanding which is dependent upon how echolalia is heard, and one in which parents are "waiting for echolalia to evolve." CONCLUSION: The traditional dichotomous clinical positions do not resonate with all parents, and reliance on these traditional perspectives alone may impact effective engagement with parents and the success of interventions and support strategies. Our findings have implications for future research, the education of clinicians and educators, and the design of support and intervention for those who have echolalia.
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    Echolalia as defined by parent communication partners
    Cohn, EG ; McVilly, KR ; Harrison, MJ (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2023)
    BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: Echolalia, the repetition of previous speech, is highly prevalent in Autism. Research into echolalia has historically assumed a clinical standpoint, with two opposing paradigms, behaviourism and developmentalism, offering differing support and intervention programs. These paradigms offer a multitude of clinical operationalised definitions; despite attempts, there continue to be challenges regarding how echolalia is to be defined. Stepping out of the dichotomous clinically orientated literature, we examined how parents summarise and formalise their understanding of echolalia as a communication partner. The objectives of this study were three-fold: (1) to investigate how echolalia is described and defined by parents; (2) to examine if existing clinical definitions align with those of parents; and (3) to begin to consider the implications of such findings for a collaborative approach between clinical perspectives and the parent experience. We bring to the fore the voices of parents, who have historically remained absent from echolalia literature. That is to say, we step outside of the clinical realm and listen to parents: something which has been previously unconsidered but represents a new vital addition to the echolalia literature. METHODS: We employed a Grounded Theory approach to document the definitions of 133 parents. RESULTS: We found that parents reported a multiplicity of important elements that are key to their understanding of echolalia. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Additionally, we found that clinical definitions do not resonate within the parent experience; parents experience echolalia in a different way to that of clinicians and parents can offer insight into our understanding of the phenomena. Our findings show that while some parents might align themselves with either a behavioural or developmental positionality, sometimes there is an overlap depending upon the context in which their child repeats and some parents advance interpretations that are not readily aligned with either of the traditional clinical schools of thought. We present implications for both clinicians and parents in ways that point towards a collaborative approach to support the person with echolalia.
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    Revisiting tools in numeracy learning: the role of authentic digital tools
    Sakurai, J ; Goos, M (Frontiers Media S.A., 2023-12-04)
    This conceptual analysis paper argues for an expansion to the definition of tools in Goos et al. model of numeracy. As the digitalization of society progresses at an ever-quickening pace, mathematical processes that were once considered only necessary for higher level occupations and tasks are now everyday requirements for successful participation in modern life and workplaces. Mathematical acts are routinely undertaken on a normal day because of the technology we use in daily life. For example, the act of driving a car has a mathematical basis; the driver has awareness of the location of the destination, reads multiple instruments and indicators including speed and fuel consumption, and interprets digital maps or navigation aids. Authentic digital tools and devices that are used in the real world that undertake mathematical processes can change the mathematics that is to be done. Rapid developments in mathematical technology, alongside the ubiquity of digital devices, the broad scope of functions and ease of use, has advanced the mathematical processes that digital tools can perform. The specificity and functionality of current digital tools can influence both the approach to and the application of the mathematics. To keep pace with society trends and demands, the tools used in the teaching and learning of numeracy should reflect the level of mathematical knowledge and skills required for successful participation in 21st Century life. Given that the digitalization of tools means they are no longer bound by time and space, they can be shared instantaneously. This agile ease of use suggests these tools may be suitable for use in the classroom. It is important therefore that educators find pedagogical ways to use real-world digital tools in authentic ways. This paper explores the current definition of numeracy tools found in literature and curricula and considers an expansion to the definition to fit with current technological directions. A model for implementation will be considered, and a suggested evaluation of the expanded model as a vehicle for learning numeracy is proposed.
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    The Tension Between Allowing Student Struggle and Providing Support When Teaching Problem-Solving in Primary School Mathematics
    Stewart, E ; Ball, L (Springer, 2024)
    This article reports two primary school teachers’ perceptions of the effectiveness of lessons based on a problem-solving intervention. The intervention included enabling and extending prompts, independent student struggle time initially and time to share problem-solving strategies at the end. The intervention had two versions: one included whole class prompts and teachers anticipated students’ responses before teaching; the other without these features. Each teacher implemented two lessons in year 1/2 composite classes, with one lesson common. Teachers identified positive impacts of the intervention including providing support for students, extending students’ thinking and providing positive challenge during problem-solving. Struggle time was believed to negatively impact some students’ resilience and confidence; both teachers deviated from the intervention to reduce struggle time. Students used more problem-solving strategies when struggle time was included compared to when the teacher modelled an approach for solving. There was a tension for teachers between providing time for students to struggle and preserving some students’ confidence. One teacher facilitated student share time in the middle of one lesson, allowing students to experience both struggle and success; this compromise could address the tension. Overall, the intervention was perceived to positively impact teaching practice.
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    Restoration Playbooks and Receivers’ Stamps: James Magnes, Richard Bentley, and ‘the Post-Office in Russel-street in Covent-Garden’
    Koch, E ; McInnis, D (Taylor and Francis Group, 2024)
    This article examines the surprisingly prevalent incidence of contemporary handstamps impressed upon the final leaf of Restoration playbooks. These are all circular and contain either individual letters or are bisected and contain a combination of letters and numerals. As they are demonstrably not part of the printing process, they have not attracted the attention of textual editors; but as this article shows, neither are they markers of ownership that would interest scholars researching provenance. We identify the marks as being the stamps of letter receivers; in particular, receivers (James Magnes and Richard Bentley) who were also stationers involved in the publishing of the plays we examined. The presence of these stamps suggests that Magnes and Bentley served not only as publishers and booksellers, but as distributors of the playbooks they produced. The presence of these stamps thus has implications for the distribution of Restoration playbooks through the English postal system.
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    Adolescent School Belonging and Mental Health Outcomes in Young Adulthood: Findings from a Multi-wave Prospective Cohort Study
    Allen, K-A ; Greenwood, CJ ; Berger, E ; Patlamazoglou, L ; Reupert, A ; Wurf, G ; May, F ; O'Connor, M ; Sanson, A ; Olsson, CA ; Letcher, P (SPRINGER, 2024-03)
    Abstract School belonging, sometimes referred to as school belonging or school connectedness, involves dimensions like positive affect towards school, relationships with teachers, and feeling socially valued. Previous research points to immediate benefits for students’ mental health and wellbeing; however, evidence on the potential long-term benefits of school belonging for mental health—once young people leave the school setting—is limited. This study used data on 1568 adults from the Australian Temperament Project (ATP), a 16-wave longitudinal study which has tracked participants since infancy. The short form of the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) School Life Questionnaire was used to assess secondary school belonging at age 15–16 years whilst young adult mental health symptoms were evaluated using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21) at 19–20, 23–24, and 27–28 years. Generalised Estimating Equation models were used to examine the link between secondary school belonging and mental health symptoms in young adulthood. Results showed that higher levels of all aspects of school belonging were associated with lower mental health symptoms across young adulthood (β range − 0.05 to − 0.20). Associations were similar by gender. These findings underscore the importance of adolescent school belonging and in particular school status in reference to feeling socially valued, as a long-term protective factor that can mitigate against later depression, anxiety, and stress.