Paediatrics (RCH) - Research Publications

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    Review article: Developing the Australian and New Zealand Guideline for Mild to Moderate Head Injuries in Children: An adoption/adaption approach
    Tavender, E ; Ballard, DW ; Wilson, A ; Borland, ML ; Oakley, E ; Cotterell, E ; Wilson, CL ; Ring, J ; Dalziel, SR ; Babl, FE (WILEY, 2021-02-02)
    The Paediatric Research in Emergency Departments International Collaborative (PREDICT) released the Australian and New Zealand Guideline for Mild to Moderate Head Injuries in Children in 2021. We describe innovative and practical methods used to develop this guideline. Informed by GRADE-ADOLOPMENT and ADAPTE frameworks, we adopted or adapted recommendations from multiple high-quality guidelines or developed de novo recommendations. A Guideline Steering Committee and a multidisciplinary Guideline Working Group of 25 key stakeholder representatives formulated the guideline scope and developed 33 clinical questions. We identified four relevant high-quality source guidelines; their recommendations were mapped to clinical questions. The choice of guideline recommendation, if more than one guideline addressed a question, was based on its appropriateness, currency of the literature, access to evidence, and relevance. Updated literature searches identified 440 new studies and key new evidence identified. The decision to develop adopted, adapted or de novo recommendations was based on the supporting evidence-base and its transferability to the local setting. The guideline underwent a 12-week consultation period. The final guideline consisted of 35 evidence-informed and 17 consensus-based recommendations and 19 practice points. An algorithm to inform imaging and observation decision-making was also developed. The resulting process was an efficient and rigorous way to develop a guideline based on existing high-quality guidelines from different settings.
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    Australian and New Zealand Guideline for Mild to Moderate Head Injuries in Children
    Babl, FE ; Tavender, E ; Ballard, DW ; Borland, ML ; Oakley, E ; Cotterell, E ; Halkidis, L ; Goergen, S ; Davis, GA ; Perry, D ; Anderson, V ; Barlow, KM ; Barnett, P ; Bennetts, S ; Bhamjee, R ; Cole, J ; Craven, J ; Haskell, L ; Lawton, B ; Lithgow, A ; Mullen, G ; O'Brien, S ; Paproth, M ; Wilson, CL ; Ring, J ; Wilson, A ; Leo, GSY ; Dalziel, SR (WILEY, 2021-02-02)
    OBJECTIVE: Children frequently present with head injuries to acute care settings. Although international paediatric clinical practice guidelines for head injuries exist, they do not address all considerations related to triage, imaging, observation versus admission, transfer, discharge and follow-up of mild to moderate head injuries relevant to the Australian and New Zealand context. The Paediatric Research in Emergency Departments International Collaborative (PREDICT) set out to develop an evidence-based, locally applicable, practical clinical guideline for the care of children with mild to moderate head injuries presenting to acute care settings. METHODS: A multidisciplinary Guideline Working Group (GWG) developed 33 questions in three key areas - triage, imaging and discharge of children with mild to moderate head injuries presenting to acute care settings. We identified existing high-quality guidelines and from these guidelines recommendations were mapped to clinical questions. Updated literature searches were undertaken, and key new evidence identified. Recommendations were created through either adoption, adaptation or development of de novo recommendations. The guideline was revised after a period of public consultation. RESULTS: The GWG developed 71 recommendations (evidence-informed = 35, consensus-based = 17, practice points = 19), relevant to the Australian and New Zealand setting. The guideline is presented as three documents: (i) a detailed Full Guideline summarising the evidence underlying each recommendation; (ii) a Guideline Summary; and (iii) a clinical Algorithm: Imaging and Observation Decision-making for Children with Head Injuries. CONCLUSIONS: The PREDICT Australian and New Zealand Guideline for Mild to Moderate Head Injuries in Children provides high-level evidence and practical guidance for front line clinicians.
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    Process evaluation of a cluster randomised controlled trial to improve bronchiolitis management - a PREDICT mixed-methods study
    Haskell, L ; Tavender, EJ ; O'Brien, S ; Wilson, CL ; Babl, FE ; Borland, ML ; Schembri, R ; Orsini, F ; Cotterell, E ; Sheridan, N ; Oakley, E ; Dalziel, SR (BMC, 2021-11-29)
    BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is the most common reason for hospitalisation in infants. All international bronchiolitis guidelines recommend supportive care, yet considerable variation in practice continues with infants receiving non-evidence based therapies. We developed six targeted, theory-informed interventions; clinical leads, stakeholder meeting, train-the-trainer, education delivery, other educational materials, and audit and feedback. A cluster randomised controlled trial (cRCT) found the interventions to be effective in reducing use of five non-evidence based therapies in infants with bronchiolitis. This process evaluation paper aims to determine whether the interventions were implemented as planned (fidelity), explore end-users' perceptions of the interventions and evaluate cRCT outcome data with intervention fidelity data. METHODS: A pre-specified mixed-methods process evaluation was conducted alongside the cRCT, guided by frameworks for process evaluation of cRCTs and complex interventions. Quantitative data on the fidelity, dose and reach of interventions were collected from the 13 intervention hospitals during the study and analysed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data identifying perception and acceptability of interventions were collected from 42 intervention hospital clinical leads on study completion and analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: The cRCT found targeted, theory-informed interventions improved bronchiolitis management by 14.1%. The process evaluation data found variability in how the intervention was delivered at the cluster and individual level. Total fidelity scores ranged from 55 to 98% across intervention hospitals (mean = 78%; SD = 13%). Fidelity scores were highest for use of clinical leads (mean = 98%; SD = 7%), and lowest for use of other educational materials (mean = 65%; SD = 19%) and audit and feedback (mean = 65%; SD = 20%). Clinical leads reflected positively about the interventions, with time constraints being the greatest barrier to their use. CONCLUSION: Our targeted, theory-informed interventions were delivered with moderate fidelity, and were well received by clinical leads. Despite clinical leads experiencing challenges of time constraints, the level of fidelity had a positive effect on successfully de-implementing non-evidence-based care in infants with bronchiolitis. These findings will inform widespread rollout of our bronchiolitis interventions, and guide future practice change in acute care settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12616001567415 .
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    Development of targeted, theory-informed interventions to improve bronchiolitis management
    Haskell, L ; Tavender, EJ ; Wilson, CL ; O'Brien, S ; Babl, FE ; Borland, ML ; Cotterell, E ; Sheridan, N ; Oakley, E ; Dalziel, SR (BMC, 2021-08-03)
    BACKGROUND: Despite international guidelines providing evidence-based recommendations on appropriate management of infants with bronchiolitis, wide variation in practice occurs. This results in infants receiving care of no benefit, with associated cost and is potentially harmful. Theoretical frameworks are increasingly used to develop interventions, utilising behaviour change techniques specifically chosen to target factors contributing to practice variation, with de-implementation often viewed as harder than implementing. This paper describes the stepped process using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to develop targeted, theory-informed interventions which subsequently successfully improved management of infants with bronchiolitis by de-implementing ineffective therapies. Explicit description of the process and rationale used in developing de-implementation interventions is critical to dissemination of these practices into real world clinical practice. METHODS: A stepped approach was used: (1) Identify evidence-based recommendations and practice variation as targets for change, (2) Identify factors influencing practice change (barriers and enablers) to be addressed, and (3) Identification and development of interventions (behaviour change techniques and methods of delivery) addressing influencing factors, considering evidence of effectiveness, feasibility, local relevance and acceptability. The mode of delivery for the intervention components was informed by evidence from implementation science systematic reviews, and setting specific feasibility and practicality. RESULTS: Five robust evidence-based management recommendations, targeting the main variation in bronchiolitis management were identified: namely, no use of chest x-ray, salbutamol, glucocorticoids, antibiotics, and adrenaline. Interventions developed to target recommendations addressed seven TDF domains (identified following qualitative clinician interviews (n = 20)) with 23 behaviour change techniques chosen to address these domains. Final interventions included: (1) Local stakeholder meetings, (2) Identification of medical and nursing clinical leads, (3) Train-the-trainer workshop for all clinical leads, (4) Local educational materials for delivery by clinical leads, (5) Provision of tools and materials targeting influencing factors, and prompting recommended behaviours, and (6) Audit and feedback. CONCLUSION: A stepped approach based on theory, evidence and issues of feasibility, local relevance and acceptability, was successfully used to develop interventions to improve management of infants with bronchiolitis. The rationale and content of interventions has been explicitly described allowing others to de-implement unnecessary bronchiolitis management, thereby improving care.
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    Clinically important sport-related traumatic brain injuries in children
    Eapen, N ; Davis, GA ; Borland, ML ; Phillips, N ; Oakley, E ; Hearps, S ; Kochar, A ; Dalton, S ; Cheek, J ; Furyk, J ; Lyttle, MD ; Bressan, S ; Crowe, L ; Dalziel, S ; Tavender, E ; Babl, FE (WILEY, 2019-10-01)
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    Review article: A primer for clinical researchers in the emergency department: Part VIII. Implementation science: An introduction
    Tavender, E ; Babl, FE ; Middleton, S (WILEY, 2019-06-01)
    New research findings may not lead to change in practice, or a change at the front line may be delayed by years. A number of terms have been used to describe efforts and strategies to speed a change in evidence-based practice, such as: implementation science, knowledge translation, research translation and others. In contrast to traditional clinical research, implementation science generally aims to understand and change health professional behaviour to promote evidence uptake as opposed to attempting to change patient behaviour. There are now theoretical frameworks and evolving evidence providing guidance how to change clinician behaviour and, specifically, emerging evidence on how to achieve this in the emergency setting. This review will provide an introduction to implementation science and illustrate how to target evidence practice gaps using ED examples.
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    Review article: A primer for clinical researchers in the emergency department: Part IX. How to conduct a systematic review in the field of emergency medicine
    Long, E ; Craig, S ; Babl, FE ; Tavender, E ; Lunny, C (WILEY, 2019-08-01)
    In this series we address important topics for emergency clinicians who either participate in research as part of their work, or use the knowledge generated by research studies. Emergency clinicians are routinely in the position of applying new evidence in clinical practice. With an ever-increasing volume of evidence generated, this can be problematic when studies are conducted in different settings, and include different patient groups, different interventions and different outcomes. This is made even more difficult when the results of primary research studies do not agree. Systematic reviews are becoming increasingly valuable as they appraise and synthesise research findings using a clear methodology, and summarise the results of primary studies. As such, systematic reviews help translate research findings into clinical practice. This paper provides a practical starting point for understanding the steps involved in conducting a systematic review in emergency medicine and will help readers appraise the findings of systematic reviews.
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    Effectiveness of Targeted Interventions on Treatment of Infants With Bronchiolitis A Randomized Clinical Trial
    Haskell, L ; Tavender, EJ ; Wilson, CL ; O'Brien, S ; Babl, FE ; Borland, ML ; Cotterell, E ; Schembri, R ; Orsini, F ; Sheridan, N ; Johnson, DW ; Oakley, E ; Dalziel, SR (AMER MEDICAL ASSOC, 2021-04-12)
    Importance: In developed countries, bronchiolitis is the most common reason for infants to be admitted to the hospital, and all international bronchiolitis guidelines recommend supportive care; however, significant variation in practice continues with infants receiving non-evidence-based therapies. Deimplementation research aims to reduce the use of low-value care, and advancing science in this area is critical to delivering evidence-based care. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of targeted interventions vs passive dissemination of an evidence-based bronchiolitis guideline in improving treatment of infants with bronchiolitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This international, multicenter cluster randomized clinical trial included 26 hospitals (clusters) in Australia and New Zealand providing tertiary or secondary pediatric care (13 randomized to intervention, 13 to control) during the 2017 bronchiolitis season. Data were collected on 8003 infants for the 3 bronchiolitis seasons (2014-2016) before the implementation period and 3727 infants for the implementation period (2017 bronchiolitis season, May 1-November 30). Data were analyzed from November 16, 2018, to December 9, 2020. Interventions: Interventions were developed using theories of behavior change to target key factors that influence bronchiolitis management. These interventions included site-based clinical leads, stakeholder meetings, a train-the-trainer workshop, targeted educational delivery, other educational and promotional materials, and audit and feedback. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was compliance during the first 24 hours of care with no use of chest radiography, albuterol, glucocorticoids, antibiotics, and epinephrine, measured retrospectively from medical records of randomly selected infants with bronchiolitis who presented to the hospital. There were no patient-level exclusions. Results: A total of 26 hospitals were randomized without dropouts. Analysis was by intention to treat. Baseline data collected on 8003 infants for 3 bronchiolitis seasons (2014-2016) before the implementation period were similar between intervention and control hospitals. Implementation period data were collected on 3727 infants, including 2328 boys (62%) and 1399 girls (38%), with a mean (SD) age of 6.0 (3.2) months. A total of 459 (12%) were Māori (New Zealand), and 295 (8%) were Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander (Australia). Compliance with recommendations was 85.1% (95% CI, 82.6%-89.7%) in intervention hospitals vs 73.0% (95% CI, 65.3%-78.8%) in control hospitals (adjusted risk difference, 14.1%; 95% CI, 6.5%-21.7%; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Targeted interventions led to improved treatment of infants with bronchiolitis. This study has important implications for bronchiolitis management and the development of effective interventions to deimplement low-value care. Trial Registration: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12616001567415.
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    Factors predictive for computed tomography use and abnormality in paediatric head injuries in Australia and New Zealand
    Wilson, CL ; Hearps, SJC ; Tavender, EJ ; Phillips, NT ; Lawton, B ; Kinnear, F ; Beattie, A ; Mitenko, H ; Young, R ; Cole, J ; Kochar, A ; George, S ; Teo, SSS ; Georgeson, T ; Michael, A ; Mukherjee, A ; King, A ; Gamage, L ; Archer, P ; Cassidy, C ; Rao, A ; Thosar, D ; Borland, ML ; Babl, FE (WILEY, 2020-12-22)
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate patient-level factors predictive for computed tomography of the brain (CTB) use and abnormality in head injured children in Australia and New Zealand. METHODS: Retrospective data from tertiary, urban/suburban and regional/rural EDs including factors predictive for CTB use and abnormality. RESULTS: Of 3072 children at 31 EDs, 212 (6.9%) had a CTB scan, of which 66 (31%) were abnormal. Increasing age, serious mechanisms of injury and decreasing Glasgow Coma Score were predictive for ordering CTB. Decreasing age was predictive for CTB abnormalities. Other factors were not. CONCLUSION: Patient-level drivers of CTB use in children in Australia and New Zealand are consistent with international data.
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    Implementing evidence-based practices in the care of infants with bronchiolitis in Australasian acute care settings: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled study
    Haskell, L ; Tavender, EJ ; Wilson, C ; O'Brien, S ; Babl, FE ; Borland, ML ; Cotterell, L ; Schuster, T ; Orsini, F ; Sheridan, N ; Johnson, D ; Oakley, E ; Dalziel, SR (BMC, 2018-07-06)
    BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is the most common reason for admission to hospital for infants less than one year of age. Although management is well defined, there is substantial variation in practice, with infants receiving ineffective therapies or management. This study will test the effectiveness of tailored, theory informed knowledge translation (KT) interventions to decrease the use of five clinical therapies or management processes known to be of no benefit, compared to usual dissemination practices in infants with bronchiolitis. The primary objective is to establish whether the KT interventions are effective in increasing compliance to five evidence based recommendations in the first 24 h following presentation to hospital. The five recommendations are that infants do not receive; salbutamol, antibiotics, glucocorticoids, adrenaline, or a chest x-ray. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is designed as a cluster randomised controlled trial. We will recruit 24 hospitals in Australia and New Zealand, stratified by country and provision of tertiary or secondary paediatric care. Hospitals will be randomised to either control or intervention groups. Control hospitals will receive a copy of the recent Australasian Bronchiolitis Guideline. Intervention hospitals will receive KT interventions informed by a qualitative analysis of factors influencing clinician care of infants with bronchiolitis. Key interventions include, local stakeholder meetings, identifying medical and nursing clinical leads in both emergency departments and paediatric inpatient areas who will attend a single education train-the-trainer day to then deliver standardised staff education with the training materials provided and coordinate audit and feedback reports locally over the study period. Data will be extracted retrospectively for three years prior to the study intervention year, and for seven months of the study intervention year bronchiolitis season following intervention delivery to determine compliance with the five evidence-based recommendations. Data will be collected to assess fidelity to the implementation strategies and to facilitate an economic evaluation. DISCUSSION: This study will contribute to the body of knowledge to determine the effectiveness of tailored, theory informed interventions in acute care paediatric settings, with the aim of reducing the evidence to practice gaps in the care of infants with bronchiolitis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12616001567415 (retrospectively registered on 14 November 2016).