Paediatrics (RCH) - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 7 of 7
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Clinical standards for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of TB infection.
    Migliori, GB ; Wu, SJ ; Matteelli, A ; Zenner, D ; Goletti, D ; Ahmedov, S ; Al-Abri, S ; Allen, DM ; Balcells, ME ; Garcia-Basteiro, AL ; Cambau, E ; Chaisson, RE ; Chee, CBE ; Dalcolmo, MP ; Denholm, JT ; Erkens, C ; Esposito, S ; Farnia, P ; Friedland, JS ; Graham, S ; Hamada, Y ; Harries, AD ; Kay, AW ; Kritski, A ; Manga, S ; Marais, BJ ; Menzies, D ; Ng, D ; Petrone, L ; Rendon, A ; Silva, DR ; Schaaf, HS ; Skrahina, A ; Sotgiu, G ; Thwaites, G ; Tiberi, S ; Tukvadze, N ; Zellweger, J-P ; D Ambrosio, L ; Centis, R ; Ong, CWM (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2022-03-01)
    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) preventive therapy (TPT) decreases the risk of developing TB disease and its associated morbidity and mortality. The aim of these clinical standards is to guide the assessment, management of TB infection (TBI) and implementation of TPT.METHODS: A panel of global experts in the field of TB care was identified; 41 participated in a Delphi process. A 5-point Likert scale was used to score the initial standards. After rounds of revision, the document was approved with 100% agreement.RESULTS: Eight clinical standards were defined: Standard 1, all individuals belonging to at-risk groups for TB should undergo testing for TBI; Standard 2, all individual candidates for TPT (including caregivers of children) should undergo a counselling/health education session; Standard 3, testing for TBI: timing and test of choice should be optimised; Standard 4, TB disease should be excluded prior to initiation of TPT; Standard 5, all candidates for TPT should undergo a set of baseline examinations; Standard 6, all individuals initiating TPT should receive one of the recommended regimens; Standard 7, all individuals who have started TPT should be monitored; Standard 8, a TBI screening and testing register should be kept to inform the cascade of care.CONCLUSION: This is the first consensus-based set of Clinical Standards for TBI. This document guides clinicians, programme managers and public health officers in planning and implementing adequate measures to assess and manage TBI.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Tuberculosis in adolescents and young adults: epidemiology and treatment outcomes in the Western Cape
    Snow, K ; Hesseling, AC ; Naidoo, P ; Graham, SM ; Denholm, J ; du Preez, K (INT UNION AGAINST TUBERCULOSIS LUNG DISEASE (I U A T L D), 2017-06-01)
    SETTING: Western Cape Province, South Africa. OBJECTIVES: To characterise tuberculosis (TB) epidemiology, disease presentation and treatment outcomes among adolescents (age 10-19 years) and young adults (age 20-24 years) in the Western Cape. DESIGN: A retrospective, cross-sectional review of routine patient-level data from the Electronic TB Register (ETR.Net) for 2013. Site of TB disease, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status and TB treatment outcomes were analysed by 5-year age groups (<5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-24 and 25 years of age). TB notification rates were calculated using census data. RESULTS: Adolescents and young adults comprised 18.0% of all new TB notifications in 2013. The notification rate was 141 TB cases/100 000 person-years (py) among 10-14 year olds, 418/100 000 py among 15-19 year olds and 627/100 000 py among 20-24 year olds. HIV prevalence among TB patients was 10.9% in 10-14 year olds, 8.8% in 15-19 year olds and 27.2% in 20-24 year olds. Older adolescents (age 15-19 years) and young adults (age 20-24 years) with HIV co-infection had poor treatment outcomes: 15.6% discontinued treatment prematurely and 4.0% died. CONCLUSIONS: Young people in the Western Cape suffer a substantial burden of TB, and those with TB-HIV co-infection are at high risk of treatment discontinuation.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    The risk of tuberculosis in children after close exposure: a systematic review and individual-participant meta-analysis
    Martinez, L ; Cords, O ; Horsburgh, CR ; Andrews, JR ; Acuna-Villaorduna, C ; Desai Ahuja, S ; Altet, N ; Augusto, O ; Baliashvili, D ; Basu, S ; Becerra, M ; Bonnet, M ; Henry Boom, W ; Borgdorff, M ; Boulahbal, F ; Carvalho, ACC ; Cayla, JA ; Chakhaia, T ; Chan, P-C ; Cohen, T ; Croda, J ; Datta, S ; del Corral, H ; Denholm, JT ; Dietze, R ; Dobler, CC ; Donkor, S ; Egere, U ; Ellner, JJ ; Espinal, M ; Evans, CA ; Fang, C-T ; Fielding, K ; Fox, GJ ; García, LF ; García-Basteiro, AL ; Geis, S ; Graham, SM ; Grandjean, L ; Hannoun, D ; Hatherill, M ; Hauri, AM ; Hesseling, AC ; Hill, PC ; Huang, L-M ; Huerga, H ; Hussain, R ; Jarlsberg, L ; Jones-López, EC ; Kato, S ; Kato-Maeda, M ; Kampmann, B ; Kirchner, HL ; Kritski, A ; Lange, C ; Lee, C-H ; Lee, L-N ; Lee, M-R ; Lemos, AC ; Lienhardt, C ; Ling, D-L ; Liu, Q ; Lo, NC ; Long, R ; Lopez-Varela, E ; Lu, P ; Magee, M ; Malone, LL ; Mandalakas, AM ; Martinson, NA ; Mazahir, R ; Murray, MB ; Netto, EM ; Otero, L ; Parsonnet, J ; Reingold, A ; Schaaf, HS ; Seddon, JA ; Sharma, S ; Singh, J ; Singh, S ; Sloot, R ; Sotgiu, G ; Stein, CM ; Iqbal, NT ; Triasih, R ; Trieu, L ; van der Loeff, MFS ; Van der Stuyft, P ; van Schalkwyk, C ; Vashishtha, R ; Verhagen, LM ; Villalba, JA ; Wang, J-Y ; Whalen, CC ; Yoshiyama, T ; Zar, HJ ; Zellweger, J-P ; Zhu, L (Elsevier BV, 2020-03)
    Background Tens of millions of children are exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis globally every year; however, there are no contemporary estimates of the risk of developing tuberculosis in exposed children. The effectiveness of contact investigations and preventive therapy remains poorly understood. Methods In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we investigated the development of tuberculosis in children closely exposed to a tuberculosis case and followed for incident disease. We restricted our search to cohort studies published between Jan 1, 1998, and April 6, 2018, in MEDLINE, Web of Science, BIOSIS, and Embase electronic databases. Individual-participant data and a pre-specified list of variables were requested from authors of all eligible studies. These included characteristics of the exposed child, the index case, and environmental characteristics. To be eligible for inclusion in the final analysis, a dataset needed to include: (1) individuals below 19 years of age; (2) follow-up for tuberculosis for a minimum of 6 months; (3) individuals with household or close exposure to an individual with tuberculosis; (4) information on the age and sex of the child; and (5) start and end follow-up dates. Studies assessing incident tuberculosis but without dates or time of follow-up were excluded. Our analysis had two primary aims: (1) estimating the risk of developing tuberculosis by time-period of follow-up, demographics (age, region), and clinical attributes (HIV, tuberculosis infection status, previous tuberculosis); and (2) estimating the effectiveness of preventive therapy and BCG vaccination on the risk of developing tuberculosis. We estimated the odds of prevalent tuberculosis with mixed-effects logistic models and estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for incident tuberculosis with mixed-effects Poisson regression models. The effectiveness of preventive therapy against incident tuberculosis was estimated through propensity score matching. The study protocol is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018087022). Findings In total, study groups from 46 cohort studies in 34 countries—29 (63%) prospective studies and 17 (37%) retrospective—agreed to share their data and were included in the final analysis. 137 647 tuberculosis-exposed children were evaluated at baseline and 130 512 children were followed for 429 538 person-years, during which 1299 prevalent and 999 incident tuberculosis cases were diagnosed. Children not receiving preventive therapy with a positive result for tuberculosis infection had significantly higher 2-year cumulative tuberculosis incidence than children with a negative result for tuberculosis infection, and this incidence was greatest among children below 5 years of age (19·0% [95% CI 8·4–37·4]). The effectiveness of preventive therapy was 63% (adjusted HR 0·37 [95% CI 0·30–0·47]) among all exposed children, and 91% (adjusted HR 0·09 [0·05–0·15]) among those with a positive result for tuberculosis infection. Among all children <5 years of age who developed tuberculosis, 83% were diagnosed within 90 days of the baseline visit. Interpretation The risk of developing tuberculosis among exposed infants and young children is very high. Most cases occurred within weeks of contact investigation initiation and might not be preventable through prophylaxis. This suggests that alternative strategies for prevention are needed, such as earlier initiation of preventive therapy through rapid diagnosis of adult cases or community-wide screening approaches.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Adolescent tuberculosis
    Snow, KJ ; Cruz, AT ; Seddon, JA ; Ferrand, RA ; Chiang, SS ; Hughes, JA ; Kampmann, B ; Graham, SM ; Dodd, PJ ; Houben, RM ; Denholm, JT ; Sawyer, SM ; Kranzer, K (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2020-01-01)
    Adolescence is characterised by a substantial increase in the incidence of tuberculosis, a known fact since the early 20th century. Most of the world's adolescents live in low-income and middle-income countries where tuberculosis remains common, and where they comprise a quarter of the population. Despite this, adolescents have not yet been addressed as a distinct population in tuberculosis policy or within tuberculosis treatment services, and emerging evidence suggests that current models of care do not meet their needs. This Review discusses up-to-date information about tuberculosis in adolescence, with a focus on the management of infection and disease, including HIV co-infection and rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis. We outline the progress in vaccine development and highlight important directions for future research.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Explaining variation in the burden of child and adolescent tuberculosis
    Snow, KJ ; Sawyer, SM ; Denholm, JT ; Graham, SM (European Respiratory Society, 2019-06)
    We read with interest the recent publication by Chen et al regarding the burden of notified tuberculosis (TB) among adolescents and young adults in Taiwan[1]. The authors report that 10-24 year olds constituted only 5.2% of all newly diagnosed TB patients in Taiwan from 2005 to 2016, and that this percentage declined from around 6% in 2005 to around 4% in 2016. They contrast these figures with our estimate that young people constitute 17% of all people developing incident TB globally in 2012[2]. There are several factors that explain this apparently large discrepancy.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Tuberculosis among children, adolescents and young adults in the Philippines: a surveillance report
    Snow, K ; Yadav, R ; Denholm, J ; Sawyer, S ; Graham, S (WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, REGIONAL OFFICE WESTERN PACIFIC, 2018-10-01)
    The Philippines, a country with a young population, is currently experiencing an intense and persistent tuberculosis epidemic. We analysed patient-based national surveillance data to investigate the epidemiology of reported tuberculosis among children (aged 0-9 years), adolescents (aged 10-19 years) and young adults (aged 20-24 years) to better understand the burden of disease and treatment outcomes in these age groups. Descriptive analyses were performed to assess age-related patterns in notifications and treatment outcomes. Data quality was assessed against international benchmarks at the national and regional levels. Overall, 27.3% of tuberculosis notifications for the Philippines in 2015 pertained to children, adolescents and young adults aged 0-24 years. Treatment outcomes were generally favourable, with 81% of patients being cured or completing treatment. The data quality assessment revealed substantial regional variation in some indicators and suggested potential underdetection of tuberculosis in children aged 0-4 years. Children, adolescents and young adults in the Philippines constitute a substantial proportion of patients in the national tuberculosis surveillance data set. Long-term progress against tuberculosis in the Philippines relies on improving the control of tuberculosis in these key age groups.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    The incidence of tuberculosis among adolescents and young adults: a global estimate
    Snow, KJ ; Sismanidis, C ; Denholm, J ; Sawyer, SM ; Graham, SM (EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD, 2018-02-01)
    Historical data show that the risk of tuberculosis increases dramatically during adolescence, and young people face unique challenges in terms of case detection and effective treatment. However, little is known about the burden of tuberculosis among young people in the modern era. This study aimed to provide the first estimates of the global and regional incidence of tuberculosis among young people aged 10-24 years.Using the World Health Organization (WHO) database of tuberculosis notifications for 2012, we estimated the burden of tuberculosis among young people by WHO region. Adjustments were made for incomplete age disaggregation and underreporting, using supplementary data from several countries representing diverse tuberculosis epidemics.We estimate that 1.78 million (uncertainty interval (UI) 1.23-3.00 million) young people developed tuberculosis in 2012, accounting for 17% of all new tuberculosis cases globally. Young people in the WHO South East Asian Region (721 000, UI 473 000-1.35 million) and the WHO African Region (534 000, UI 359 000-912 000) experienced the greatest number of tuberculosis episodes.Young people suffer a considerable burden of tuberculosis. Age-specific burden of disease estimation for this age group is complicated by incomplete age disaggregation of tuberculosis data, highlighting the importance of continued surveillance system strengthening.