Paediatrics (RCH) - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 2 of 2
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Prevention of otitis media by vaccination
    Russell, F ; Mulholland, K (ADIS INT LTD, 2002)
    Otitis media (OM) is one of the commonest infections in childhood and a frequent reason for prescribing antibacterials in infancy. However, the increase in prevalence of antibacterial-resistant respiratory bacterial pathogens has not been matched by the development of new antibacterial agents. Bacterial vaccine strategies aim to prevent OM directly and to reduce nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococci, thereby reducing the likelihood of developing acute OM. Complete protection against OM would require an approach targeting both bacterial and viral agents. Immunisation with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine provides protection against acute OM caused by pneumococcal serotypes included in the vaccine, reduces serotype-specific pneumococcal carriage, and reduces carriage of penicillin-resistant pneumococci. However, an increase in non-vaccine serotype OM has been observed in vaccinated children, which may limit the overall effectiveness of this vaccine. New vaccines targeting non-typable Haemophilus influenzae and Mycoplasma catarrhalis are in the early stages of development. Efficacy studies with influenza vaccine have shown the most promising results to date in terms of overall reduction in OM episodes. A more substantial reduction in the burden of OM in childhood would require a combination of vaccines that are effective against the bacterial and viral pathogens involved and that can be administered early in infancy.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    An epidemiological study of RSV infection in the Gambia
    Weber, MW ; Milligan, P ; Sanneh, M ; Awemoyi, A ; Dakour, ER ; Schneider, G ; Palmer, A ; Jallow, M ; Oparaogu, A ; Whittle, H ; Mulholland, EK ; Greenwood, BM (WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, 2002)
    OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in a developing country. METHODS: The work was carried out in three hospitals for primary cases and in the community for secondary cases in the western region of the Gambia, West Africa. RSV infection was diagnosed by immunofluorescence of nasopharyngeal aspirate samples in children younger than two years admitted to hospital with acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI). Routine records of all children with ALRI were analysed, and the incidence rates of ALRI, severe RSV-associated respiratory illness and hypoxaemic RSV infections were compared. A community-based study was undertaken to identify secondary cases and to obtain information about spread of the virus. FINDINGS: 4799 children with ALRI who were younger than two years and lived in the study area were admitted to the study hospitals: 421 had severe RSV-associated respiratory illness; 55 of these were hypoxaemic. Between 1994 and 1996, the observed incidence rate for ALRI in 100 children younger than one year living close to hospital was 9.6 cases per year; for severe RSV-associated respiratory illness 0.83; and for hypoxaemic RSV-associated respiratory illness 0.089. The proportion of all ALRI admissions due to RSV was 19%. Overall, 41% of children younger than five years in compounds in which cases lived and 42% in control compounds had evidence of RSV infection during the surveillance period. CONCLUSION: RSV is an important cause of ALRI leading to hospital admission in the Gambia. Morbidity is considerable and efforts at prevention are worthwhile.