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ItemStability of retrospective self-reports of childhood trauma in first-episode psychosisSimpson, S ; Phillips, L ; Baksheev, G ; Garner, B ; Markulev, C ; Phassouliotis, C ; Alvarez-Jimenez, M ; McGorry, P ; Bendall, S (WILEY, 2019-08-01)AIM: Childhood trauma (CT), abuse and neglect are commonly reported by individuals experiencing psychosis. However, there are concerns that acute psychotic symptoms, in particular delusions, may contribute to inaccurate reporting of CT. As a result, individuals experiencing psychosis may not be asked about their experiences of abuse when they are being seen in psychiatric settings. This lack of attention can directly impact on the tailoring of their clinical care. This study aimed to investigate the stability of reports of CT by young people experiencing a first psychotic episode (FEP) compared to healthy comparison subjects. METHODS: Responses of 24 young people during the acute FEP and 3 months later to items on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) were compared to 30 non-psychiatric controls. All participants were aged 15 to 25 years. RESULTS: FEP participants reported higher CT than controls at both time points. Reliability analyses (interclass correlation coefficients [ICCs]) suggested strong agreement between CT reports at baseline and follow-up for FEP participants (.81) and controls (.91). Positive psychotic symptoms were unrelated to CT reports. Although the severity of CT reports fluctuated between assessments, complete retractions of severe abuse claims occurred rarely. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that retrospective self-report can be used to reliably assess CT in young people experiencing acute psychosis.
ItemNo Preview AvailableThe burden of pneumonia in children: an Australian perspective.Burgner, D ; Richmond, P (Elsevier BV, 2005-06)The burden of pneumonia in Australian children is significant with an incidence of 5-8 per 1000 person-years. Pneumonia is a major cause of hospital admission in children less than 5 years of age. Indigenous children are at particular risk with a 10-20-fold higher risk of hospitalisation compared to non-Indigenous children. They also have longer admissions and are more likely to have multiple admissions with pneumonia. There are limited data on pathogen-specific causes of pneumonia, however Streptococcus pneumonia is the most common bacterial cause in children under 5 years of age and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza are the predominant viral causes in young children. Pneumonia due to Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) has been virtually eliminated by the introduction of universal Hib immunisation. Further studies are needed to accurately define the epidemiology of pneumonia due to specific pathogens to help target treatment and immunisation strategies.
ItemAmfetamine and methylphenidate medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: complementary treatment optionsHodgkins, P ; Shaw, M ; Coghill, D ; Hechtman, L (SPRINGER, 2012-09-01)Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders among school-aged children. It is highly symptomatic and associated with significant impairment. This review examines the role of stimulant medications in the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD. Published clinical studies that compared methylphenidate- and amfetamine-based stimulants in children and adolescents with ADHD support the therapeutic utility of stimulant treatments, and suggest robust efficacy and acceptable safety outcomes in groups treated with either stimulant. Evidence-based guidelines agree that each patient with ADHD is unique and individual treatment strategies that incorporate both drug and non-drug treatment options should be sought. In seeking to optimize individual response and outcomes to stimulant therapy, important considerations include the selection of stimulant class, the choice of long- or short-acting stimulant formulations, addressing effectively any emergent adverse effects and strategies aimed at enhancing adherence to dosing regimen and persistence on therapy.