Paediatrics (RCH) - Research Publications

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    Simulation translation differences between craft groups.
    Gard, J ; Duong, C ; Murtagh, K ; Gill, J ; Lambe, K ; Summers, I (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-07-27)
    BACKGROUND: Many simulation-based clinical education events (SBCEE) aim to prepare healthcare professionals with the knowledge, skills, and features of professionalism needed to deliver quality patient care. However, how these SBCEE learnings are translated into broader workplace practices by learners from different craft groups has not been described. OBJECTIVES: To understand how learners from different craft groups (doctors and nurses) anticipate simulation-based learnings will translate to their workplaces and the process by which translation occurs. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive study design using pre- and post-SBCEE questionnaires. SETTINGS: A large tertiary Australian hospital-based simulation centre that facilitates SBCEE for multi-professional graduate and undergraduate clinicians from 16 hospitals. METHODS: Participants who attended SBCEEs between May and October 2021 completed questionnaires at two touchpoints, on the day of attending a SBCEE and 6 weeks after. Based on a phenomenological approach, the study examined clinicians' experiences in relation to simulation education, intended simulation learning use in the workplace, and perceived success in subsequently using these learnings to improve clinical outcomes. Qualitative inductive thematic data analysis was used to develop narratives for different learner cohorts. RESULTS: Three overarching themes were identified regarding simulation participants' perceptions of the success of translating simulation learnings into the workplace. These were: scenario-workplace mirroring, self-assessment, and successful confidence. Doctor participants found it difficult to map SBCEE learnings to their workplace environments if they did not mirror those used in simulation. Nurses sought peer evaluation to analyse the effectiveness of their workplace translations, whereas doctors relied on self-assessment. Learners from both craft groups highly prized 'confidence-building' as a key indicator of improved workplace performance achieved through SBCEE learning. CONCLUSION: A diverse range of factors influences healthcare workers' experiences in translating simulation learnings to their workplace. To equip simulation learners to translate learnings from a SBCEE into their clinical practices, we suggest the following areas of focus: co-development of translation plans with learners during the delivery of an SBCEE including the indicators of success, above table discussions on the generalisability of learnings to different environments and contexts, smart investment in simulation outputs, and cautious championing of confidence-building.
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    Effectiveness of universal school-based mindfulness training compared with normal school provision on teacher mental health and school climate: results of the MYRIAD cluster randomised controlled trial.
    Kuyken, W ; Ball, S ; Crane, C ; Ganguli, P ; Jones, B ; Montero-Marin, J ; Nuthall, E ; Raja, A ; Taylor, L ; Tudor, K ; Viner, RM ; Allwood, M ; Aukland, L ; Dunning, D ; Casey, T ; Dalrymple, N ; De Wilde, K ; Farley, E-R ; Harper, J ; Hinze, V ; Kappelmann, N ; Kempnich, M ; Lord, L ; Medlicott, E ; Palmer, L ; Petit, A ; Philips, A ; Pryor-Nitsch, I ; Radley, L ; Sonley, A ; Shackleford, J ; Tickell, A ; Team, M ; Blakemore, S-J ; Ukoumunne, OC ; Greenberg, MT ; Ford, T ; Dalgleish, T ; Byford, S ; Williams, JMG (BMJ, 2022-07-12)
    BACKGROUND: Education is broader than academic teaching. It includes teaching students social-emotional skills both directly and indirectly through a positive school climate. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if a universal school-based mindfulness training (SBMT) enhances teacher mental health and school climate. METHODS: The My Resilience in Adolescence parallel group, cluster randomised controlled trial (registration: ISRCTN86619085; funding: Wellcome Trust (WT104908/Z/14/Z, WT107496/Z/15/Z)) recruited 85 schools (679 teachers) delivering social and emotional teaching across the UK. Schools (clusters) were randomised 1:1 to either continue this provision (teaching as usual (TAU)) or include universal SBMT. Data on teacher mental health and school climate were collected at prerandomisation, postpersonal mindfulness and SBMT teacher training, after delivering SBMT to students, and at 1-year follow-up. FINDING: Schools were recruited in academic years 2016/2017 and 2017/2018. Primary analysis (SBMT: 43 schools/362 teachers; TAU: 41 schools/310 teachers) showed that after delivering SBMT to students, SBMT versus TAU enhanced teachers' mental health (burnout) and school climate. Adjusted standardised mean differences (SBMT minus TAU) were: exhaustion (-0.22; 95% CI -0.38 to -0.05); personal accomplishment (-0.21; -0.41, -0.02); school leadership (0.24; 0.04, 0.44); and respectful climate (0.26; 0.06, 0.47). Effects on burnout were not significant at 1-year follow-up. Effects on school climate were maintained only for respectful climate. No SBMT-related serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: SBMT supports short-term changes in teacher burnout and school climate. Further work is required to explore how best to sustain improvements. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: SBMT has limited effects on teachers' mental and school climate. Innovative approaches to support and preserve teachers' mental health and school climate are needed.
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    Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of universal school-based mindfulness training compared with normal school provision in reducing risk of mental health problems and promoting well-being in adolescence: the MYRIAD cluster randomised controlled trial.
    Kuyken, W ; Ball, S ; Crane, C ; Ganguli, P ; Jones, B ; Montero-Marin, J ; Nuthall, E ; Raja, A ; Taylor, L ; Tudor, K ; Viner, RM ; Allwood, M ; Aukland, L ; Dunning, D ; Casey, T ; Dalrymple, N ; De Wilde, K ; Farley, E-R ; Harper, J ; Kappelmann, N ; Kempnich, M ; Lord, L ; Medlicott, E ; Palmer, L ; Petit, A ; Philips, A ; Pryor-Nitsch, I ; Radley, L ; Sonley, A ; Shackleford, J ; Tickell, A ; Blakemore, S-J ; Team, TM ; Ukoumunne, OC ; Greenberg, MT ; Ford, T ; Dalgleish, T ; Byford, S ; Williams, JMG (BMJ, 2022-07-12)
    BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews suggest school-based mindfulness training (SBMT) shows promise in promoting student mental health. OBJECTIVE: The My Resilience in Adolescence (MYRIAD) Trial evaluated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of SBMT compared with teaching-as-usual (TAU). METHODS: MYRIAD was a parallel group, cluster-randomised controlled trial. Eighty-five eligible schools consented and were randomised 1:1 to TAU (43 schools, 4232 students) or SBMT (42 schools, 4144 students), stratified by school size, quality, type, deprivation and region. Schools and students (mean (SD); age range=12.2 (0.6); 11-14 years) were broadly UK population-representative. Forty-three schools (n=3678 pupils; 86.9%) delivering SBMT, and 41 schools (n=3572; 86.2%) delivering TAU, provided primary end-point data. SBMT comprised 10 lessons of psychoeducation and mindfulness practices. TAU comprised standard social-emotional teaching. Participant-level risk for depression, social-emotional-behavioural functioning and well-being at 1 year follow-up were the co-primary outcomes. Secondary and economic outcomes were included. FINDINGS: Analysis of 84 schools (n=8376 participants) found no evidence that SBMT was superior to TAU at 1 year. Standardised mean differences (intervention minus control) were: 0.005 (95% CI -0.05 to 0.06) for risk for depression; 0.02 (-0.02 to 0.07) for social-emotional-behavioural functioning; and 0.02 (-0.03 to 0.07) for well-being. SBMT had a high probability of cost-effectiveness (83%) at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20 000 per quality-adjusted life year. No intervention-related adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Findings do not support the superiority of SBMT over TAU in promoting mental health in adolescence. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: There is need to ask what works, for whom and how, as well as considering key contextual and implementation factors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current controlled trials ISRCTN86619085. This research was funded by the Wellcome Trust (WT104908/Z/14/Z and WT107496/Z/15/Z).
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    School-based mindfulness training in early adolescence: what works, for whom and how in the MYRIAD trial?
    Montero-Marin, J ; Allwood, M ; Ball, S ; Crane, C ; De Wilde, K ; Hinze, V ; Jones, B ; Lord, L ; Nuthall, E ; Raja, A ; Taylor, L ; Tudor, K ; MYRIAD Team, ; Blakemore, S-J ; Byford, S ; Dalgleish, T ; Ford, T ; Greenberg, MT ; Ukoumunne, OC ; Williams, JMG ; Kuyken, W (BMJ, 2022-07-12)
    BACKGROUND: Preventing mental health problems in early adolescence is a priority. School-based mindfulness training (SBMT) is an approach with mixed evidence. OBJECTIVES: To explore for whom SBMT does/does not work and what influences outcomes. METHODS: The My Resilience in Adolescence was a parallel-group, cluster randomised controlled trial (K=84 secondary schools; n=8376 students, age: 11-13) recruiting schools that provided standard social-emotional learning. Schools were randomised 1:1 to continue this provision (control/teaching as usual (TAU)), and/or to offer SBMT ('.b' (intervention)). Risk of depression, social-emotional-behavioural functioning and well-being were measured at baseline, preintervention, post intervention and 1 year follow-up. Hypothesised moderators, implementation factors and mediators were analysed using mixed effects linear regressions, instrumental variable methods and path analysis. FINDINGS: SBMT versus TAU resulted in worse scores on risk of depression and well-being in students at risk of mental health problems both at post intervention and 1-year follow-up, but differences were small and not clinically relevant. Higher dose and reach were associated with worse social-emotional-behavioural functioning at postintervention. No implementation factors were associated with outcomes at 1-year follow-up. Pregains-postgains in mindfulness skills and executive function predicted better outcomes at 1-year follow-up, but the SBMT was unsuccessful to teach these skills with clinical relevance.SBMT as delivered in this trial is not indicated as a universal intervention. Moreover, it may be contraindicated for students with existing/emerging mental health symptoms. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Universal SBMT is not recommended in this format in early adolescence. Future research should explore social-emotional learning programmes adapted to the unique needs of young people.
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    The impact of mindfulness training in early adolescence on affective executive control, and on later mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic: a randomised controlled trial.
    Dunning, D ; Ahmed, S ; Foulkes, L ; Griffin, C ; Griffiths, K ; Leung, JT ; Parker, J ; Piera Pi-Sunyer, B ; Sakhardande, A ; Bennett, M ; Haag, C ; Montero-Marin, J ; Packman, D ; Vainre, M ; Watson, P ; MYRIAD Team, ; Kuyken, W ; Williams, JMG ; Ukoumunne, OC ; Blakemore, S-J ; Dalgleish, T ; MYRIAD Team Group, (BMJ, 2022-07-12)
    BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that mindfulness training (MT) appears effective at improving mental health in young people. MT is proposed to work through improving executive control in affectively laden contexts. However, it is unclear whether MT improves such control in young people. MT appears to mitigate mental health difficulties during periods of stress, but any mitigating effects against COVID-related difficulties remain unexamined. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether MT (intervention) versus psychoeducation (Psy-Ed; control), implemented in after-school classes: (1) Improves affective executive control; and/or (2) Mitigates negative mental health impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A parallel randomised controlled trial (RCT) was conducted (Registration: https://osf.io/d6y9q/; Funding: Wellcome (WT104908/Z/14/Z, WT107496/Z/15/Z)). 460 students aged 11-16 years were recruited and randomised 1:1 to either MT (N=235) or Psy-Ed (N=225) and assessed preintervention and postintervention on experimental tasks and self-report inventories of affective executive control. The RCT was then extended to evaluate protective functions of MT on mental health assessed after the first UK COVID-19 lockdown. FINDINGS: Results provided no evidence that the version of MT used here improved affective executive control after training or mitigated negative consequences on mental health of the COVID-19 pandemic relative to Psy-Ed. No adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence that MT improves affective control or downstream mental health of young people during stressful periods. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: We need to identify interventions that can enhance affective control and thereby young people's mental health.
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    Objectively Assessed Weight Change and All-Cause Mortality among Community-Dwelling Older People
    Alharbi, T ; Ryan, J ; Freak-Poli, R ; Gasevic, D ; Scali, J ; Ritchie, K ; Ancelin, M-L ; Owen, AJ (MDPI, 2022-07-01)
    Later life changes in body weight may be associated with an increased risk of mortality in older adults. The objective of this study was to examine whether weight change over four years was associated with a 17-year mortality risk in older adults. Participants were 1664 community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years in the longitudinal Enquete de Sante' Psychologique-Risques, Incidence et Traitement (ESPRIT) study. Outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality. Weight change was defined as difference between weight at baseline and 4 years, categorised into: weight stable (±<5% weight change), weight loss (≥5%) and weight gain (≥5%). Association between weight change and mortality risk was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. Over 17 years of follow-up (median 15 years), 565 participants died. Compared to stable weight participants, those with ≥ 5% weight loss had an increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.00-1.56, p = 0.05) and CVD mortality (HR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.10-2.14, p = 0.01), but not cancer mortality (HR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.50-1.39, p = 0.49). Weight gain of ≥5% was not associated with increased mortality (HR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.76-1.45, p = 0.74). Weight monitoring in older adults could help identify weight loss at its early stages to better target interventions to maintain nutritional reserve and prevent premature mortality.
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    Potential Determinants of Cardio-Metabolic Risk among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review
    McKay, CD ; O'Bryan, E ; Gubhaju, L ; McNamara, B ; Gibberd, AJ ; Azzopardi, P ; Eades, S (MDPI, 2022-08-01)
    Prevention initiatives during childhood and adolescence have great potential to address the health inequities experienced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) populations in Australia by targeting modifiable risk factors for cardio-metabolic diseases. We aimed to synthesize existing evidence about potential determinants of cardio-metabolic risk markers-obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, abnormal lipids, or a clustering of these factors known as the metabolic syndrome (MetS)-for Indigenous children and adolescents. We systematically searched six databases for journal articles and three websites for relevant grey literature. Included articles (n = 47) reported associations between exposures (or interventions) and one or more of the risk markers among Indigenous participants aged 0-24 years. Data from 18 distinct studies about 41 exposure-outcome associations were synthesized (by outcome: obesity [n = 18]; blood pressure [n = 9]; glucose, insulin or diabetes [n = 4]; lipids [n = 5]; and MetS [n = 5]). Obesity was associated with each of the other cardio-metabolic risk markers. Larger birth size and higher area-level socioeconomic status were associated with obesity; the latter is opposite to what is observed in the non-Indigenous population. There were major gaps in the evidence for other risk markers, as well as by age group, geography, and exposure type. Screening for risk markers among those with obesity and culturally appropriate obesity prevention initiatives could reduce the burden of cardio-metabolic disease.
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    Population-based plasma lipidomics reveals developmental changes in metabolism and signatures of obesity risk: a mother-offspring cohort study
    Mir, SA ; Chen, L ; Burugupalli, S ; Burla, B ; Ji, S ; Smith, AAT ; Narasimhan, K ; Ramasamy, A ; Tan, KM-L ; Huynh, K ; Giles, C ; Mei, D ; Wong, G ; Yap, F ; Tan, KH ; Collier, F ; Saffery, R ; Vuillermin, P ; Bendt, AK ; Burgner, D ; Ponsonby, A-L ; Lee, YS ; Chong, YS ; Gluckman, PD ; Eriksson, JG ; Meikle, PJ ; Wenk, MR ; Karnani, N (BMC, 2022-07-25)
    BACKGROUND: Lipids play a vital role in health and disease, but changes to their circulating levels and the link with obesity remain poorly characterized in expecting mothers and their offspring in early childhood. METHODS: LC-MS/MS-based quantitation of 480 lipid species was performed on 2491 plasma samples collected at 4 time points in the mother-offspring Asian cohort GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes). These 4 time points constituted samples collected from mothers at 26-28 weeks of gestation (n=752) and 4-5 years postpartum (n=650), and their offspring at birth (n=751) and 6 years of age (n=338). Linear regression models were used to identify the pregnancy and developmental age-specific variations in the plasma lipidomic profiles, and their association with obesity risk. An independent birth cohort (n=1935), the Barwon Infant Study (BIS), comprising mother-offspring dyads of Caucasian origin was used for validation. RESULTS: Levels of 36% of the profiled lipids were significantly higher (absolute fold change > 1.5 and Padj < 0.05) in antenatal maternal circulation as compared to the postnatal phase, with phosphatidylethanolamine levels changing the most. Compared to antenatal maternal lipids, cord blood showed lower concentrations of most lipid species (79%) except lysophospholipids and acylcarnitines. Changes in lipid concentrations from birth to 6 years of age were much higher in magnitude (log2FC=-2.10 to 6.25) than the changes observed between a 6-year-old child and an adult (postnatal mother) (log2FC=-0.68 to 1.18). Associations of cord blood lipidomic profiles with birth weight displayed distinct trends compared to the lipidomic profiles associated with child BMI at 6 years. Comparison of the results between the child and adult BMI identified similarities in association with consistent trends (R2=0.75). However, large number of lipids were associated with BMI in adults (67%) compared to the children (29%). Pre-pregnancy BMI was specifically associated with decrease in the levels of phospholipids, sphingomyelin, and several triacylglycerol species in pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our study provides a detailed landscape of the in utero lipid environment provided by the gestating mother to the growing fetus, and the magnitude of changes in plasma lipidomic profiles from birth to early childhood. We identified the effects of adiposity on the circulating lipid levels in pregnant and non-pregnant women as well as offspring at birth and at 6 years of age. Additionally, the pediatric vs maternal overlap of the circulating lipid phenotype of obesity risk provides intergenerational insights and early opportunities to track and intervene the onset of metabolic adversities. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This birth cohort is a prospective observational study, which was registered on 1 July 2010 under the identifier NCT01174875 .
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    Variants of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 14 from Papua New Guinea with the Potential to Be Mistyped and Escape Vaccine-Induced Protection.
    Manna, S ; Spry, L ; Wee-Hee, A ; Ortika, BD ; Boelsen, LK ; Batinovic, S ; Mazarakis, N ; Ford, RL ; Lo, SW ; Bentley, SD ; Russell, FM ; Blyth, CC ; Pomat, WS ; Petrovski, S ; Hinds, J ; Licciardi, PV ; Satzke, C ; LaRock, CN (American Society for Microbiology, 2022-08-31)
    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a human pathogen of global importance, classified into serotypes based on the type of capsular polysaccharide produced. Serotyping of pneumococci is essential for disease surveillance and vaccine impact measurement. However, the accuracy of serotyping methods can be affected by previously undiscovered variants. Previous studies have identified variants of serotype 14, a highly invasive serotype included in all licensed vaccine formulations. However, the potential of these variants to influence serotyping accuracy and evade vaccine-induced protection has not been investigated. In this study, we screened 1,386 nasopharyngeal swabs from children hospitalized with acute respiratory infection in Papua New Guinea for pneumococci. Swabs containing pneumococci (n = 1,226) were serotyped by microarray to identify pneumococci with a divergent serotype 14 capsule locus. Three serotype 14 variants ('14-like') were isolated and characterized further. The serotyping results of these isolates using molecular methods varied depending on the method, with 3/3 typing as nontypeable (PneumoCaT), 3/3 typing as serotype 14 (seroBA), and 2/3 typing as serotype 14 (SeroCall and quantitative PCR). All three isolates were nontypeable by phenotypic methods (Quellung and latex agglutination), indicating the absence of capsule. Illumina and nanopore sequencing were employed to examine their capsule loci and revealed unique mutations. Lastly, when incubated with sera from vaccinated individuals, the 14-like isolates evaded serotype-specific opsonophagocytic killing. Our study highlights the need for phenotypic testing to validate serotyping data derived from molecular methods. The convergent evolution of capsule loss underscores the importance of studying pneumococcal population biology to monitor the emergence of pneumococci capable of vaccine escape, globally. IMPORTANCE Pneumococcus is a pathogen of major public health importance. Current vaccines have limited valency, targeting a subset (up to 20) of the more than 100 capsule types (serotypes). Precise serotyping methods are therefore essential to avoid mistyping, which can reduce the accuracy of data used to inform decisions around vaccine introduction and/or maintenance of national vaccination programs. In this study, we examine a variant of serotype 14 (14-like), a virulent serotype present in all currently licensed vaccine formulations. Although these 14-like pneumococci no longer produce a serotype 14 capsule, widely used molecular methods can mistype them as serotype 14. Importantly, we show that 14-like pneumococci can evade opsonophagocytic killing mediated by vaccination. Despite the high accuracy of molecular methods for serotyping, our study reemphasizes their limitations. This is particularly relevant in situations where nonvaccine type pneumococci (e.g., the 14-likes in this study) could potentially be misidentified as a vaccine type (e.g., serotype 14).
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    COVID-19 in New South Wales children during 2021: severity and clinical spectrum.
    Williams, P ; Koirala, A ; Saravanos, GL ; Lopez, LK ; Glover, C ; Sharma, K ; Williams, T ; Carey, E ; Shaw, N ; Dickens, E ; Sitaram, N ; Ging, J ; Bray, P ; Crawford, NW ; McMullan, B ; Macartney, K ; Wood, N ; Fulton, EL ; Lau, C ; Britton, PN (Wiley, 2022-09-19)
    OBJECTIVES: To describe the severity and clinical spectrum of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children during the 2021 New South Wales outbreak of the Delta variant of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). DESIGN, SETTING: Prospective cohort study in three metropolitan Sydney local health districts, 1 June - 31 October 2021. PARTICIPANTS: Children under 16 years of age with positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test results admitted to hospital or managed by the Sydney Children's Hospital Network (SCHN) virtual care team. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age-specific SARS-CoV-2 infection frequency, overall and separately for SCHN virtual and hospital patients; rates of medical and social reason admissions, intensive care admissions, and paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 per 100 SARS-CoV-2 infections; demographic and clinical factors that influenced likelihood of hospital admission. RESULTS: A total of 17 474 SARS-CoV-2 infections in children under 16 were recorded in NSW, of whom 11 985 (68.6%) received SCHN-coordinated care, including 459 admitted to SCHN hospitals: 165 for medical reasons (1.38 [95% CI, 1.17-1.59] per 100 infections), including 15 admitted to intensive care, and 294 (under 18 years of age) for social reasons (2.45 [95% CI, 2.18-2.73] per 100 infections). In an analysis that included all children admitted to hospital and a random sample of those managed by the virtual team, having another medical condition (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 7.42; 95% CI, 3.08-19.3) was associated with increased likelihood of medical admission; in univariate analyses, non-asthmatic chronic respiratory disease was associated with greater (OR, 9.21; 95% CI, 1.61-174) and asthma/viral induced wheeze with lower likelihood of admission (OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.18-0.78). The likelihood of admission for medical reasons declined from infancy to 5-11 years, but rose again for those aged 12-15 years. Sex and Indigenous status did not influence the likelihood of admission. CONCLUSION: Most SARS-CoV-2 infections (Delta variant) in children were asymptomatic or associated with mild disease. Hospitalisation was relatively infrequent, and most common for infants, adolescents, and children with other medical conditions. More children were hospitalised for social than for medical reasons.