Paediatrics (RCH) - Research Publications

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    Tobacco product use and smoking frequency among US adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities
    Eisenbaum, E (WILEY, 2018-08-01)
    BACKGROUND: People with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have been overlooked in tobacco use research although they are likely to experience tobacco-related health disparities. This study examined tobacco product use and smoking frequency and amount among a sample of US Special Olympics athletes with IDD. METHODS: Multiple regression analysis was used to test whether age, gender, body mass index, blood pressure, bone density, eating fruits and vegetables and family member tobacco use were correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. RESULTS: The sample of people with IDD who used tobacco (n = 501) were aged 18-75 (M = 33.37) and 76.4% were male. About 73.6% reported cigarette use only, 10.6% reported dual or poly use of cigarettes and other tobacco products (cigars, pipe, and chewing tobacco) and 15.8% reported using only tobacco products other than cigarettes. Men were more likely than women to use tobacco products other than cigarettes. Of the cigarette smokers, 79.6% were daily smokers, and their mean cigarettes per day was 10.08 (SD = 9.50). Special Olympics athletes who did not have low bone density and those who consumed fruits and vegetables less than daily reported higher numbers of cigarettes per day. CONCLUSIONS: Although people with IDD are less likely to use tobacco than the general population, study results suggest that people with IDD who smoke cigarettes are just as likely as smokers in the general US population to smoke daily. Improving overall health behaviours may be important in helping smokers with IDD to reduce their tobacco use. Research is needed to understand longitudinal patterns of tobacco use and how to prevent tobacco use among people with IDD.
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    Stability of retrospective self-reports of childhood trauma in first-episode psychosis
    Simpson, S ; Phillips, L ; Baksheev, G ; Garner, B ; Markulev, C ; Phassouliotis, C ; Alvarez-Jimenez, M ; McGorry, P ; Bendall, S (WILEY, 2019-08-01)
    AIM: Childhood trauma (CT), abuse and neglect are commonly reported by individuals experiencing psychosis. However, there are concerns that acute psychotic symptoms, in particular delusions, may contribute to inaccurate reporting of CT. As a result, individuals experiencing psychosis may not be asked about their experiences of abuse when they are being seen in psychiatric settings. This lack of attention can directly impact on the tailoring of their clinical care. This study aimed to investigate the stability of reports of CT by young people experiencing a first psychotic episode (FEP) compared to healthy comparison subjects. METHODS: Responses of 24 young people during the acute FEP and 3 months later to items on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) were compared to 30 non-psychiatric controls. All participants were aged 15 to 25 years. RESULTS: FEP participants reported higher CT than controls at both time points. Reliability analyses (interclass correlation coefficients [ICCs]) suggested strong agreement between CT reports at baseline and follow-up for FEP participants (.81) and controls (.91). Positive psychotic symptoms were unrelated to CT reports. Although the severity of CT reports fluctuated between assessments, complete retractions of severe abuse claims occurred rarely. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that retrospective self-report can be used to reliably assess CT in young people experiencing acute psychosis.
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    BIOACTIVITY IN AN AGGRECAN 32MER FRAGMENT IS MEDIATED VIA TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS
    Fosang, AJ ; Golub, SB ; Last, K ; Lees, S ; Wilson, R ; Aspberg, A ; Little, CB ; Sutton, P (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2014-04-01)
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    Amfetamine and methylphenidate medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: complementary treatment options
    Hodgkins, P ; Shaw, M ; Coghill, D ; Hechtman, L (SPRINGER, 2012-09-01)
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders among school-aged children. It is highly symptomatic and associated with significant impairment. This review examines the role of stimulant medications in the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD. Published clinical studies that compared methylphenidate- and amfetamine-based stimulants in children and adolescents with ADHD support the therapeutic utility of stimulant treatments, and suggest robust efficacy and acceptable safety outcomes in groups treated with either stimulant. Evidence-based guidelines agree that each patient with ADHD is unique and individual treatment strategies that incorporate both drug and non-drug treatment options should be sought. In seeking to optimize individual response and outcomes to stimulant therapy, important considerations include the selection of stimulant class, the choice of long- or short-acting stimulant formulations, addressing effectively any emergent adverse effects and strategies aimed at enhancing adherence to dosing regimen and persistence on therapy.