Doherty Institute - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 136
TM4SF20 Ancestral Deletion and Susceptibility to a Pediatric Disorder of Early Language Delay and Cerebral White Matter Hyperintensities
(CELL PRESS, 2013-08-08)
White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) of the brain are important markers of aging and small-vessel disease. WMHs are rare in healthy children and, when observed, often occur with comorbid neuroinflammatory or vasculitic processes. Here, we describe a complex 4 kb deletion in 2q36.3 that segregates with early childhood communication disorders and WMH in 15 unrelated families predominantly from Southeast Asia. The premature brain aging phenotype with punctate and multifocal WMHs was observed in ~70% of young carrier parents who underwent brain MRI. The complex deletion removes the penultimate exon 3 of TM4SF20, a gene encoding a transmembrane protein of unknown function. Minigene analysis showed that the resultant net loss of an exon introduces a premature stop codon, which, in turn, leads to the generation of a stable protein that fails to target to the plasma membrane and accumulates in the cytoplasm. Finally, we report this deletion to be enriched in individuals of Vietnamese Kinh descent, with an allele frequency of about 1%, embedded in an ancestral haplotype. Our data point to a constellation of early language delay and WMH phenotypes, driven by a likely toxic mechanism of TM4SF20 truncation, and highlight the importance of understanding and managing population-specific low-frequency pathogenic alleles.
A polymorphism in Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein is associated with susceptibility to meningeal tuberculosis
(OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2006-10-15)
BACKGROUND: Although meningitis is the most severe form of infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the immunopathogenesis of this disease is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that polymorphisms in Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein (TIRAP), an adaptor protein that mediates signals from Toll-like receptors activated by mycobacteria, are associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: We used a case-population study design in Vietnam with cord-blood control samples (n = 392) and case patients (n = 358) who had either pulmonary (n = 183) or meningeal (n = 175) TB. RESULTS: The TIRAP single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) C558T was associated with increased susceptibility to TB, with a 558T allele frequency of 0.035 in control samples versus 0.074 in case patients (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; P < .001). Subgroup analysis revealed that SNP 558T was more strongly associated with susceptibility to meningeal TB (OR, 3.02; P < .001) than to pulmonary TB (OR, 1.55; P = .22). In comparison to the 558CC genotype, the 558TT genotype was associated with decreased whole-blood interleukin-6 production, which suggests that TIRAP influences disease susceptibility by modulating the inflammatory response. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide the first evidence of an association of a TIRAP SNP with the risk of any disease and also suggest that the Toll-like receptor pathway influences susceptibility to meningeal and pulmonary TB by different immune mechanisms.
TNF-alpha blockade suppresses pericystic inflammation following anthelmintic treatment in porcine neurocysticercosis
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2017-11-01)
BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an infection of the brain with the larval cyst of the tapeworm, Taenia solium. Cysticidal treatment induces parasite killing resulting in a post inflammatory response and seizures, which generally requires corticosteroid treatment to control inflammation. The nature of this response and how to best control it is unclear. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of pretreatment with etanercept (ETN), an anti-tumor necrosis factor agent, or dexamethasone (DEX), a high potency corticosteroid, on the post treatment inflammatory response in naturally infected pigs with neurocysticercosis after a single dose of the cysticidal drug praziquantel (PZQ). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We followed the methods from a previously developed treatment model of NCC in naturally infected swine. The four study groups of infected pigs included 3 groups treated with PZQ on day 0: PZQ-treated alone (100 mg/kg PO; n = 9), pretreated with dexamethasone (DEX, 0.2 mg/kg IM administered on days -1, +1 and +3; n = 6), and pretreated with etanercept (ETN, 25 mg IM per animal on days -7 and 0; n = 6). The fourth group remained untreated (n = 3). As measured by quantitative RT-PCR, ETN pretreatment depressed transcription of a wide range of proinflammatory, regulatory and matrix protease encoding genes at 120 hr post PZQ treatment in capsules of cysts that demonstrated extravasated Evans Blue (EB) (a measure of blood brain barrier dysfunction) compared to animals not receiving ETN. Transcription was significantly depressed for the proinflammatory genes tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ; the inflammation regulating genes cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)4, interleukin (IL)-13 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β; the tissue remodeling genes matrix metalloprotease (MMP)1 and 9, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMP)1 and 2, and the genes regulating endothelial function vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)1, angiopoietin (Ang)1, Ang 2, and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1. In contrast, transcription was only modestly decreased in the DEX pretreated pigs compared to PZQ alone, and only for TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, TGF-β and Ang1. IL-10 was not affected by either ETN or DEX pretreatments. The degree of inflammation, assessed by semi-quantitative inflammatory scores, was modestly decreased in both ETN and DEX pretreated animals compared to PZQ treated pigs whereas cyst damage scores were moderately decreased only in cysts from DEX pretreated pigs. However, the proportion of cysts with EB extravasation was not significantly changed in ETN and DEX pretreated groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, TNF-α blockade using ETN treatment modulated expression of a large variety of genes that play a role in induction and control of inflammation and structural changes. In contrast the number of inflammatory cells was only moderately decreased suggesting weaker effects on cell migration into the inflammatory capsules surrounding cysts than on release of modulatory molecules. Taken together, these data suggest that TNF-α blockade may provide a viable strategy to manage post-treatment pericystic inflammation that follows antiparasitic therapy for neurocysticercosis.
A 2-Substituted 8-Hydroxyquinoline Stimulates Neural Stem Cell Proliferation by Modulating ROS Signalling
(HUMANA PRESS INC, 2016-09-01)
Eight-hydroxyquinolines (8HQs) are a class of compounds that have been identified as potential therapeutics for a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Understanding the influence of structural modifications to the 8HQ scaffold on cellular behaviour will aid the identification of compounds that might be effective in treating dementias. In this study, we describe the action of 2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-8-hydroxyquinoline (DMAMQ) on adult murine neural stem cells (NSCs) cultured in vitro. Treatment of NSCs with DMAMQ resulted in enhanced self-renewal and increased neurite outgrowth. Concurrent with the positive growth effects was an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species, with the growth being inhibited by inactivation of the NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzyme family. Our results indicate that DMAMQ can stimulate neurogenesis via the Nox signalling pathway, which may provide therapeutic benefit in treating dementias of various types by replenishing neurones using the brain's own reserves. The narrow concentration range over which these effects were observed, however, suggests that there may exist only a small therapeutic window for neuro-regenerative applications.
Differences in reported sepsis incidence according to study design: a literature review
BACKGROUND: Sepsis and severe sepsis are common conditions in hospital settings, and are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, but reported incidences vary considerably. In this literature review, we describe the variation in reported population-based incidences of sepsis and severe sepsis. We also examine methodological and demographic differences between studies that may explain this variation. METHODS: We carried out a literature review searching three major databases and reference lists of relevant articles, to identify all original studies reporting the incidence of sepsis or severe sepsis in the general population. Two authors independently assessed all articles, and the final decision to exclude an article was reached by consensus. We extracted data according to predetermined variables, including study country, sepsis definition, and data source. We then calculated descriptive statistics for the reported incidences of sepsis and severe sepsis. The studies were classified according to the method used to identify cases of sepsis or severe sepsis: chart-based (i.e. review of patient charts) or code-based (i.e. predetermined International Classification of Diseases [ICD] codes). RESULTS: Among 482 articles initially screened, we identified 23 primary publications reporting incidence of sepsis and/or severe sepsis in the general population. The reported incidences ranged from 74 to 1180 per 100,000 person-years and 3 to 1074 per 100,000 person-years for sepsis and severe sepsis, respectively. Most chart-based studies used the Bone criteria (or a modification hereof) and Protein C Worldwide Evaluation in Severe Sepsis (PROWESS) study criteria to identify cases of sepsis and severe sepsis. Most code-based studies used ICD-9 codes, but the number of codes used ranged from 1 to more than 1200. We found that the incidence varied according to how sepsis was identified (chart-based vs. code-based), calendar year, data source, and world region. CONCLUSION: The reported incidences of sepsis and severe sepsis in the general population varied greatly between studies. Such differences may be attributable to differences in the methods used to collect the data, the study period, or the world region where the study was undertaken. This finding highlights the importance of standardised definitions and acquisition of data regarding sepsis and severe sepsis.
Bacterial risk factors for treatment failure and relapse among patients with isoniazid resistant tuberculosis
(BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2018-03-06)
BACKGROUND: Drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) is increasing in prevalence worldwide. Treatment failure and relapse is known to be high for patients with isoniazid resistant TB treated with standard first line regimens. However, risk factors for unfavourable outcomes and the optimal treatment regimen for isoniazid resistant TB are unknown. This cohort study was conducted when Vietnam used the eight month first line treatment regimen and examined risk factors for failure/relapse among patients with isoniazid resistant TB. METHODS: Between December 2008 and June 2011 2090 consecutive HIV-negative adults (≥18 years of age) with new smear positive pulmonary TB presenting at participating district TB units in Ho Chi Minh City were recruited. Participants with isoniazid resistant TB identified by Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) had extended follow-up for 2 years with mycobacterial culture to test for relapse. MGIT drug susceptibility testing confirmed 239 participants with isoniazid resistant, rifampicin susceptible TB. Bacterial and demographic factors were analysed for association with treatment failure and relapse. RESULTS: Using only routine programmatic sputum smear microscopy for assessment, (months 2, 5 and 8) 30/239 (12.6%) had an unfavourable outcome by WHO criteria. Thirty-nine patients were additionally detected with unfavourable outcomes during 2 year follow up, giving a total of 69/239 (28.9%) of isoniazid (INH) resistant cases with unfavourable outcome by 2 years of follow-up. Beijing lineage was the only factor significantly associated with unfavourable outcome among INH-resistant TB cases during 2 years of follow-up. (adjusted OR = 3.16 [1.54-6.47], P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: One third of isoniazid resistant TB cases suffered failure/relapse within 2 years under the old eight month regimen. Over half of these cases were not identified by standard WHO recommended treatment monitoring. Intensified research on early identification and optimal regimens for isoniazid resistant TB is needed. Infection with Beijing genotype of TB is a significant risk factor for bacterial persistence on treatment resulting in failure/relapse within 2 years. The underlying mechanism of increased tolerance for standard drug regimens in Beijing genotype strains remains unknown.
Implications of asymptomatic carriers for infectious disease transmission and control
(ROYAL SOC, 2018-02-01)
For infectious pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, some hosts may carry the pathogen and transmit it to others, yet display no symptoms themselves. These asymptomatic carriers contribute to the spread of disease but go largely undetected and can therefore undermine efforts to control transmission. Understanding the natural history of carriage and its relationship to disease is important for the design of effective interventions to control transmission. Mathematical models of infectious diseases are frequently used to inform decisions about control and should therefore accurately capture the role played by asymptomatic carriers. In practice, incorporating asymptomatic carriers into models is challenging due to the sparsity of direct evidence. This absence of data leads to uncertainty in estimates of model parameters and, more fundamentally, in the selection of an appropriate model structure. To assess the implications of this uncertainty, we systematically reviewed published models of carriage and propose a new model of disease transmission with asymptomatic carriage. Analysis of our model shows how different assumptions about the role of asymptomatic carriers can lead to different conclusions about the transmission and control of disease. Critically, selecting an inappropriate model structure, even when parameters are correctly estimated, may lead to over- or under-estimates of intervention effectiveness. Our results provide a more complete understanding of the role of asymptomatic carriers in transmission and highlight the importance of accurately incorporating carriers into models used to make decisions about disease control.
Variation in human genes encoding adhesion and proinflammatory molecules are associated with severe malaria in the Vietnamese
(NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2012-09-01)
The genetic basis for susceptibility to malaria has been studied widely in African populations but less is known of the contribution of specific genetic variants in Asian populations. We genotyped 67 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1030 severe malaria cases and 2840 controls from Vietnam. After data quality control, genotyping data of 956 cases and 2350 controls were analysed for 65 SNPs (3 gender confirmation, 62 positioned in/near 42 malarial candidate genes). A total of 14 SNPs were monomorphic and 2 (rs8078340 and rs33950507) were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in controls (P<0.01). In all, 7/46 SNPs in 6 genes (ICAM1, IL1A, IL17RC, IL13, LTA and TNF) were associated with severe malaria, with 3/7 SNPs in the TNF/LTA region. Genotype-phenotype correlations between SNPs and clinical parameters revealed that genotypes of rs708567 (IL17RC) correlate with parasitemia (P=0.028, r(2)=0.0086), with GG homozygotes having the lowest parasite burden. Additionally, rs708567 GG homozygotes had a decreased risk of severe malaria (P=0.007, OR=0.78 (95% CI; 0.65-0.93)) and death (P=0.028, OR=0.58 (95% CI; 0.37-0.93)) than those with AA and AG genotypes. In summary, variants in six genes encoding adhesion and proinflammatory molecules are associated with severe malaria in the Vietnamese. Further replicative studies in independent populations will be necessary to confirm these findings.
Metabolically active CD4+T cells expressing Glut1 and OX40 preferentially harbor HIV during in vitro infection
High glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) surface expression is associated with increased glycolytic activity in activated CD4+ T cells. Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) activation measured by p-Akt and OX40 is elevated in CD4+Glut1+ T cells from HIV+ subjects. TCR engagement of CD4+Glut1+ T cells from HIV+ subjects demonstrates hyperresponsive PI3K-mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. High basal Glut1 and OX40 on CD4+ T cells from combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated HIV+ patients represent a sufficiently metabolically active state permissive for HIV infection in vitro without external stimuli. The majority of CD4+OX40+ T cells express Glut1, thus OX40 rather than Glut1 itself may facilitate HIV infection. Furthermore, infection of CD4+ T cells is limited by p110γ PI3K inhibition. Modulating glucose metabolism may limit cellular activation and prevent residual HIV replication in 'virologically suppressed' cART-treated HIV+ persons.
DNA vaccines for bacterial infections
(BLACKWELL SCIENCE, 1997-08-01)
DNA vaccines are an exciting development in vaccine technology which may have a special role in preventing viral infections and as 'theracines' for cancer. Their use in preventing bacterial infections has, by comparison, been less well documented. While it is unlikely that traditional, highly successful and cheap vaccines for diseases such as diphtheria will be replaced by DNA vaccines, naked DNA may be particularly appropriate for preventing bacterial infections where cytotoxic T cells confer protection, or where a Th1 type T cell response mediates resistance. For example, DNA vaccines containing different mycobacterial antigens have been shown to inhibit overt infections by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in rodent models. The use of DNA vaccines in bacterial infections may be complicated by fundamental differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes and gene products, including mRNA stability, codon bias, secondary structures surrounding native start sequences and glycosylation. These problems can be solved by re-synthesis of bacterial genes to produce 'new' sequences which are more highly expressed by eukaryotic cells.
Estimating the Fitness Advantage Conferred by Permissive Neuraminidase Mutations in Recent Oseltamivir-Resistant A(H1N1) pdm09 Influenza Viruses
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2014-04-01)
Oseltamivir is relied upon worldwide as the drug of choice for the treatment of human influenza infection. Surveillance for oseltamivir resistance is routinely performed to ensure the ongoing efficacy of oseltamivir against circulating viruses. Since the emergence of the pandemic 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus (A(H1N1)pdm09), the proportion of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses that are oseltamivir resistant (OR) has generally been low. However, a cluster of OR A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, encoding the neuraminidase (NA) H275Y oseltamivir resistance mutation, was detected in Australia in 2011 amongst community patients that had not been treated with oseltamivir. Here we combine a competitive mixtures ferret model of influenza infection with a mathematical model to assess the fitness, both within and between hosts, of recent OR A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. In conjunction with data from in vitro analyses of NA expression and activity we demonstrate that contemporary A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses are now more capable of acquiring H275Y without compromising their fitness, than earlier A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses circulating in 2009. Furthermore, using reverse engineered viruses we demonstrate that a pair of permissive secondary NA mutations, V241I and N369K, confers robust fitness on recent H275Y A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, which correlated with enhanced surface expression and enzymatic activity of the A(H1N1)pdm09 NA protein. These permissive mutations first emerged in 2010 and are now present in almost all circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. Our findings suggest that recent A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses are now more permissive to the acquisition of H275Y than earlier A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, increasing the risk that OR A(H1N1)pdm09 will emerge and spread worldwide.