University Services - Research Publications
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Principles for open access to research outputs at Melbourne
In Australia, the 2017 Policy Statement on F.A.I.R. Access to Australia’s Research Outputs was released, endorsed by Universities Australia. The University of Melbourne supports this policy statement through the adoption of Principles for Open Access to Research Outputs at Melbourne. These principles signal that the University of Melbourne is committed to disseminating its research as widely as possible to improve the public good by accelerating the pace of discovery, encouraging innovation, enriching education, and stimulating the economy. The University supports the deposit of research outputs to repositories as a means of openly disseminating research and publication in open access journals.
Botanizing at Badminton House: The Botanical Pursuits of Mary Somerset, First Duchess of Beaufort
In the last decades of the seventeenth century, Mary Somerset, the third Marchioness of Worcester and first Duchess of Beaufort, actively collected, identified, and classified thousands of plants from around the world. She worked with her gardener, George Adams, and several famous botanists to grow, study, catalogue, distribute, dry, and paint her specimens. Friends, family, and colleagues from both Oxford and the Royal Society of London contributed to her collection. Yet she also obtained many plants and seeds through conventional garden suppliers, and she commissioned agents to hunt down and collect specimens within the British Isles and abroad. The report of just one such shipment, received in 1696, indicates that she had hundreds of seeds, leaves, cuttings, saplings, and even several large trees shipped to her from Barbados. This particular consignment was so large that the first 11 tubs were split between five ships, with eight more promised in the next fleet. Each tub was large enough to contain, in one instance, one fern tree, seven water common trees, and one white mangrove tree, and, in another, one great bay tree and 50 saplings.1 In this way, Somerset amassed an exceptionally large and diverse collection of plants at the family estate of Badminton House in Gloucestershire, which provided the foundation for her botanical pursuits.
Substrate Depth, Vegetation and Irrigation Affect Green Roof Thermal Performance in a Mediterranean Type Climate
(MDPI AG, 2017-08-01)
Green roofs are consistently being used to reduce some of the negative environmental impacts of cities. The increasing interest in extensive green roofs requires refined studies on their design and operation, and on the effects of their relevant parameters on green roof thermal performance. The effects of two design parameters, substrate thickness (ST) and conductivity of dry soil (CDS), and four operating parameters, leaf area index (LAI), leaf reflectivity (LR), stomatal resistance (SR), and moisture content (MC), were investigated using the green roof computer model developed by Sailor in 2008. The computer simulations showed that among the operating parameters, LAI has the largest effects on thermal performance while CDS is a more influential design parameter than ST. Experimental investigations of non-vegetated and sparsely vegetated green roofs in Melbourne were principally used to understand the effect of the substrate and enable better understanding of dominant heat transfer mechanisms involved. Investigated green roofs had three substrate thicknesses (100, 150 and 200 mm), and their performance was compared to a bare conventional roof. In contrast to the computer simulations, the experimental results for summer and winter showed the importance of MC and ST in reducing the substrate temperature and heat flux through the green roof.
Rotavirus inhibits IFN-induced STAT nuclear translocation by a mechanism that acts after STAT binding to importin-alpha
(SOC GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY, 2014-08-01)
The importance of innate immunity to rotaviruses is exemplified by the range of strategies evolved by rotaviruses to interfere with the IFN response. We showed previously that rotaviruses block gene expression induced by type I and II IFNs, through a mechanism allowing activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 and STAT2 but preventing their nuclear accumulation. This normally occurs through activated STAT1/2 dimerization, enabling an interaction with importin α5 that mediates transport into the nucleus. In rotavirus-infected cells, STAT1/2 inhibition may limit the antiviral actions of IFN produced early in infection. Here we further analysed the block to STAT1/2 nuclear accumulation, showing that activated STAT1 accumulates in the cytoplasm in rotavirus-infected cells. STAT1/2 nuclear accumulation was inhibited by rotavirus even in the presence of the nuclear export inhibitor Leptomycin B, demonstrating that enhanced nuclear export is not involved in STAT1/2 cytoplasmic retention. The ability to inhibit STAT nuclear translocation was completely conserved amongst the group A rotaviruses tested, including a divergent avian strain. Analysis of mutant rotaviruses indicated that residues after amino acid 47 of NSP1 are dispensable for STAT inhibition. Furthermore, expression of any of the 12 Rhesus monkey rotavirus proteins did not inhibit IFN-stimulated STAT1 nuclear translocation. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation experiments from transfected epithelial cells showed that STAT1/2 binds importin α5 normally following rotavirus infection. These findings demonstrate that rotavirus probably employs a novel strategy to inhibit IFN-induced STAT signalling, which acts after STAT activation and binding to the nuclear import machinery.
Discharge Patterns of Human Tensor Palatini Motor Units during Sleep Onset
(OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2012-05-01)
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Upper airway muscles such as genioglossus (GG) and tensor palatini (TP) reduce activity at sleep onset. In GG reduced muscle activity is primarily due to inspiratory modulated motor units becoming silent, suggesting reduced respiratory pattern generator (RPG) output. However, unlike GG, TP shows minimal respiratory modulation and presumably has few inspiratory modulated motor units and minimal input from the RPG. Thus, we investigated the mechanism by which TP reduces activity at sleep onset. DESIGN: The activity of TP motor units were studied during relaxed wakefulness and over the transition from wakefulness to sleep. SETTING: Sleep laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Nine young (21.4 ± 3.4 years) males were studied on a total of 11 nights. INTERVENTION: Sleep onset. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Two TP EMGs (thin, hooked wire electrodes), and sleep and respiratory measures were recorded. One hundred twenty-one sleep onsets were identified (13.4 ± 7.2/subject), resulting in 128 motor units (14.3 ± 13.0/subject); 29% of units were tonic, 43% inspiratory modulated (inspiratory phasic 18%, inspiratory tonic 25%), and 28% expiratory modulated (expiratory phasic 21%, expiratory tonic 7%). There was a reduction in both expiratory and inspiratory modulated units, but not tonic units, at sleep onset. Reduced TP activity was almost entirely due to de-recruitment. CONCLUSIONS: TP showed a similar distribution of motor units as other airway muscles. However, a greater proportion of expiratory modulated motor units were active in TP and these expiratory units, along with inspiratory units, tended to become silent over sleep onset. The data suggest that both expiratory and inspiratory drive components from the RPG are reduced at sleep onset in TP.
German receptions of the works of Joseph Glanvill: philosophical transmissions from England to Germany in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century
(Informa UK, 2016)
The Royal Society of London, founded for the collaborative advancement of knowledge of the natural world, was famous for its advocacy of experimental scientific methodologies in the late seventeenth century. The product of an intellectual climate which produced some of the most influential thinkers of the age, the Royal Society is often credited with leading the development of the modern scientific method. Indeed, this view was perpetuated by the Society itself through the propagandistic works it commissioned, particularly: Thomas Sprat’s History of the Royal Society (1667) and Joseph Glanvill’s Plus ultra (1668). In this paper, I will trace the reactions of some of Germany’s pre-eminent philosophers, including Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Jakob Thomasius and his son, Christian Thomasius and Georg Daniel Morhof to the Plus ultra. In the process, I will consider how this work, and the Royal Society more broadly, is represented in several discourses, which were significant to the development of German philosophy. Then, I will explore how Glanvill’s philosophical reputation in this context is connected to the later spread of the German translation of his Saducismus triumphatus (1701). As yet, little is known about Glanvill’s influence beyond England, and work on this subject is perhaps of most significance to the development of a comprehensive understanding of the impact of his work. Nevertheless, tracing the influence of his works in German debates also provides an interesting perspective on the German reactions to the Royal Society’s experimental method and its relationship to the supernatural.
Genetics of epilepsy The testimony of twins in the molecular era
(LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2014-09-16)
OBJECTIVE: Analysis of twins with epilepsy to explore the genetic architecture of specific epilepsies, to evaluate the applicability of the 2010 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) organization of epilepsy syndromes, and to integrate molecular genetics with phenotypic analyses. METHODS: A total of 558 twin pairs suspected to have epilepsy were ascertained from twin registries (69%) or referral (31%). Casewise concordance estimates were calculated for epilepsy syndromes. Epilepsies were then grouped according to the 2010 ILAE organizational scheme. Molecular genetic information was utilized where applicable. RESULTS: Of 558 twin pairs, 418 had confirmed seizures. A total of 534 twin individuals were affected. There were higher twin concordance estimates for monozygotic (MZ) than for dizygotic (DZ) twins for idiopathic generalized epilepsies (MZ = 0.77; DZ = 0.35), genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (MZ = 0.85; DZ = 0.25), and focal epilepsies (MZ = 0.40; DZ = 0.03). Utilizing the 2010 ILAE scheme, the twin data clearly demonstrated genetic influences in the syndromes designated as genetic. Of the 384 tested twin individuals, 10.9% had mutations of large effect in known epilepsy genes or carried validated susceptibility alleles. CONCLUSIONS: Twin studies confirm clear genetic influences for specific epilepsies. Analysis of the twin sample using the 2010 ILAE scheme strongly supported the validity of grouping the "genetic" syndromes together and shows this organizational scheme to be a more flexible and biologically meaningful system than previous classifications. Successful selected molecular testing applied to this cohort is the prelude to future large-scale next-generation sequencing of epilepsy research cohorts. Insights into genetic architecture provided by twin studies provide essential data for optimizing such approaches.
The Impact of Family History of Allergy on Risk of Food Allergy: A Population-Based Study of Infants
(MDPI AG, 2013-11-01)
The apparent rapid increase in IgE-mediated food allergy and its implications are now widely recognized, but little is known about the relationship between family history (an indirect measure of genetic risk) and the risk of food allergy. In a population-based study of 5,276 one year old infants (HealthNuts), the prevalence of oral food challenge-confirmed food allergy was measured. Associations between family history of allergic disease and food allergy in infants were examined using multiple logistic regression. Food allergy was diagnosed in 534 infants. Compared to those with no family history of allergic disease, children meeting the current definition of "high risk" for allergic disease (one immediate family member with a history of any allergic disease) showed only a modest increase (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7) in food allergy, while having two or more allergic family members was more strongly predictive of food allergy in the child (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.3). There were also differences in the associations between family history and egg and peanut allergy in the child. Re-defining "high risk" as two or more allergic family members may be more useful for identification of groups with a significantly increased risk of food allergy both clinically and within research studies.
Paid Parental Leave and Child Health in Australia
Providing mothers with access to paid parental leave may be an important public policy to improve child and maternal health. Using extensive informatioan from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, we estimate how paid parental leave entitlements influence children's health up to age 7. Exploiting detailed information on children's health, family background, mothers’ pre-birth work histories and mothers’ health behaviours during pregnancy, we show that paid parental leave entitlements go together with a reduced probability of a child having multiple ongoing health conditions, but show no significant correlation with any single condition. We find that the reduction in multiple conditions is strongest for children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Our study implies that the provision of paid parental leave for short periods is unlikely to substantially improve child health on average, but may potentially benefit the health of more disadvantaged children.
Measuring the impact: Springer Book Archives at Melbourne
(Neal-Schuman Publishers, 2017)
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine usage trends during the first four years of the implementation of the Springer Book Archives (SBA) at the University of Melbourne. The article assesses the benefits of the SBA against perceptions at the time of purchase and seeks to evaluate the long term value of the purchase. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology included a literature search to identify issues in the adoption of large backlists of ebooks, examination of detailed usage data supplied in COUNTER complaint spreadsheets and tables by Springer, validating findings with librarians and academics and positing next steps. Findings: Usage of ebooks, like other electronic resources is difficult to predict. Resources expected to be used, may not be and vice versa. Access to large aggregations of electronic content creates new opportunities for teaching and research, additional economies and benefits as well as unexpected outcomes. Research limitations: Detailed data on user profiles was not available and an evaluation of user perceptions was not possible at this time. Originality/value: The literature review suggests that this is the only published study of institutional usage of the Springer book archives at this time.