University Services - Research Publications
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Principles for open access to research outputs at Melbourne
In Australia, the 2017 Policy Statement on F.A.I.R. Access to Australia’s Research Outputs was released, endorsed by Universities Australia. The University of Melbourne supports this policy statement through the adoption of Principles for Open Access to Research Outputs at Melbourne. These principles signal that the University of Melbourne is committed to disseminating its research as widely as possible to improve the public good by accelerating the pace of discovery, encouraging innovation, enriching education, and stimulating the economy. The University supports the deposit of research outputs to repositories as a means of openly disseminating research and publication in open access journals. (Minor revisions were approved by University Executive on 22 April 2020)
Neighborhood Built Environment and Transport and Leisure Physical Activity: Findings Using Objective Exposure and Outcome Measures in New Zealand
(US DEPT HEALTH HUMAN SCIENCES PUBLIC HEALTH SCIENCE, 2012-07-01)
BACKGROUND: Evidence of associations between neighborhood built environments and transport-related physical activity (PA) is accumulating, but few studies have investigated associations with leisure-time PA. OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations of five objectively measured characteristics of the neighborhood built environment-destination access, street connectivity, dwelling density, land-use mix and streetscape quality-with residents' self-reported PA (transport, leisure, and walking) and accelerometer-derived measures of PA. METHODS: Using a multicity stratified cluster sampling design, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 2,033 adults who lived in 48 New Zealand neighborhoods. Multilevel regression modeling, which was adjusted for individual-level (sociodemographic and neighborhood preference) and neighborhood-level (deprivation) confounders, was used to estimate associations of built environment with PA. RESULTS: We found that 1-SD increases in destination access, street connectivity, and dwelling density were associated with any versus no self-reported transport, leisure, or walking PA, with increased odds ranging from 21% [street connectivity with leisure PA, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0%, 47%] to 44% (destination accessibility with walking, 95% CI: 17%, 79%). Among participants who self-reported some PA, a 1-SD increase in street connectivity was associated with a 13% increase in leisure PA (95% CI: 0, 28%). SD increases in destination access, street connectivity, and dwelling density were each associated with 7% increases in accelerometer counts. CONCLUSIONS: Associations of neighborhood destination access, street connectivity, and dwelling density with self-reported and objectively measured PA were moderately strong, indicating the potential to increase PA through changes in neighborhood characteristics.
Linking GPS and travel diary data using sequence alignment in a study of children's independent mobility
(BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2011-12-05)
BACKGROUND: Global positioning systems (GPS) are increasingly being used in health research to determine the location of study participants. Combining GPS data with data collected via travel/activity diaries allows researchers to assess where people travel in conjunction with data about trip purpose and accompaniment. However, linking GPS and diary data is problematic and to date the only method has been to match the two datasets manually, which is time consuming and unlikely to be practical for larger data sets. This paper assesses the feasibility of a new sequence alignment method of linking GPS and travel diary data in comparison with the manual matching method. METHODS: GPS and travel diary data obtained from a study of children's independent mobility were linked using sequence alignment algorithms to test the proof of concept. Travel diaries were assessed for quality by counting the number of errors and inconsistencies in each participant's set of diaries. The success of the sequence alignment method was compared for higher versus lower quality travel diaries, and for accompanied versus unaccompanied trips. Time taken and percentage of trips matched were compared for the sequence alignment method and the manual method. RESULTS: The sequence alignment method matched 61.9% of all trips. Higher quality travel diaries were associated with higher match rates in both the sequence alignment and manual matching methods. The sequence alignment method performed almost as well as the manual method and was an order of magnitude faster. However, the sequence alignment method was less successful at fully matching trips and at matching unaccompanied trips. CONCLUSIONS: Sequence alignment is a promising method of linking GPS and travel diary data in large population datasets, especially if limitations in the trip detection algorithm are addressed.
Substrate depth, vegetation and irrigation affect green roof thermal performance in a Mediterranean type climate
(MDPI AG, 2017-08-16)
Green roofs are consistently being used to reduce some of the negative environmental impacts of cities. The increasing interest in extensive green roofs requires refined studies on their design and operation, and on the effects of their relevant parameters on green roof thermal performance. The effects of two design parameters, substrate thickness (ST) and conductivity of dry soil (CDS), and four operating parameters, leaf area index (LAI), leaf reflectivity (LR), stomatal resistance (SR), and moisture content (MC), were investigated using the green roof computer model developed by Sailor in 2008. The computer simulations showed that among the operating parameters, LAI has the largest effects on thermal performance while CDS is a more influential design parameter than ST. Experimental investigations of non-vegetated and sparsely vegetated green roofs in Melbourne were principally used to understand the effect of the substrate and enable better understanding of dominant heat transfer mechanisms involved. Investigated green roofs had three substrate thicknesses (100, 150 and 200 mm), and their performance was compared to a bare conventional roof. In contrast to the computer simulations, the experimental results for summer and winter showed the importance of MC and ST in reducing the substrate temperature and heat flux through the green roof.
Measuring the impact: Springer Book Archives at Melbourne
(Neal-Schuman Publishers, 2017)
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine usage trends during the first four years of the implementation of the Springer Book Archives (SBA) at the University of Melbourne. The article assesses the benefits of the SBA against perceptions at the time of purchase and seeks to evaluate the long term value of the purchase. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology included a literature search to identify issues in the adoption of large backlists of ebooks, examination of detailed usage data supplied in COUNTER complaint spreadsheets and tables by Springer, validating findings with librarians and academics and positing next steps. Findings: Usage of ebooks, like other electronic resources is difficult to predict. Resources expected to be used, may not be and vice versa. Access to large aggregations of electronic content creates new opportunities for teaching and research, additional economies and benefits as well as unexpected outcomes. Research limitations: Detailed data on user profiles was not available and an evaluation of user perceptions was not possible at this time. Originality/value: The literature review suggests that this is the only published study of institutional usage of the Springer book archives at this time.
Discharge Patterns of Human Tensor Palatini Motor Units during Sleep Onset
(OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2012-05-01)
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Upper airway muscles such as genioglossus (GG) and tensor palatini (TP) reduce activity at sleep onset. In GG reduced muscle activity is primarily due to inspiratory modulated motor units becoming silent, suggesting reduced respiratory pattern generator (RPG) output. However, unlike GG, TP shows minimal respiratory modulation and presumably has few inspiratory modulated motor units and minimal input from the RPG. Thus, we investigated the mechanism by which TP reduces activity at sleep onset. DESIGN: The activity of TP motor units were studied during relaxed wakefulness and over the transition from wakefulness to sleep. SETTING: Sleep laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Nine young (21.4 ± 3.4 years) males were studied on a total of 11 nights. INTERVENTION: Sleep onset. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Two TP EMGs (thin, hooked wire electrodes), and sleep and respiratory measures were recorded. One hundred twenty-one sleep onsets were identified (13.4 ± 7.2/subject), resulting in 128 motor units (14.3 ± 13.0/subject); 29% of units were tonic, 43% inspiratory modulated (inspiratory phasic 18%, inspiratory tonic 25%), and 28% expiratory modulated (expiratory phasic 21%, expiratory tonic 7%). There was a reduction in both expiratory and inspiratory modulated units, but not tonic units, at sleep onset. Reduced TP activity was almost entirely due to de-recruitment. CONCLUSIONS: TP showed a similar distribution of motor units as other airway muscles. However, a greater proportion of expiratory modulated motor units were active in TP and these expiratory units, along with inspiratory units, tended to become silent over sleep onset. The data suggest that both expiratory and inspiratory drive components from the RPG are reduced at sleep onset in TP.
Genetics of epilepsy The testimony of twins in the molecular era
(LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2014-09-16)
OBJECTIVE: Analysis of twins with epilepsy to explore the genetic architecture of specific epilepsies, to evaluate the applicability of the 2010 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) organization of epilepsy syndromes, and to integrate molecular genetics with phenotypic analyses. METHODS: A total of 558 twin pairs suspected to have epilepsy were ascertained from twin registries (69%) or referral (31%). Casewise concordance estimates were calculated for epilepsy syndromes. Epilepsies were then grouped according to the 2010 ILAE organizational scheme. Molecular genetic information was utilized where applicable. RESULTS: Of 558 twin pairs, 418 had confirmed seizures. A total of 534 twin individuals were affected. There were higher twin concordance estimates for monozygotic (MZ) than for dizygotic (DZ) twins for idiopathic generalized epilepsies (MZ = 0.77; DZ = 0.35), genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (MZ = 0.85; DZ = 0.25), and focal epilepsies (MZ = 0.40; DZ = 0.03). Utilizing the 2010 ILAE scheme, the twin data clearly demonstrated genetic influences in the syndromes designated as genetic. Of the 384 tested twin individuals, 10.9% had mutations of large effect in known epilepsy genes or carried validated susceptibility alleles. CONCLUSIONS: Twin studies confirm clear genetic influences for specific epilepsies. Analysis of the twin sample using the 2010 ILAE scheme strongly supported the validity of grouping the "genetic" syndromes together and shows this organizational scheme to be a more flexible and biologically meaningful system than previous classifications. Successful selected molecular testing applied to this cohort is the prelude to future large-scale next-generation sequencing of epilepsy research cohorts. Insights into genetic architecture provided by twin studies provide essential data for optimizing such approaches.
Rotavirus inhibits IFN-induced STAT nuclear translocation by a mechanism that acts after STAT binding to importin-alpha
(SOC GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY, 2014-08-01)
The importance of innate immunity to rotaviruses is exemplified by the range of strategies evolved by rotaviruses to interfere with the IFN response. We showed previously that rotaviruses block gene expression induced by type I and II IFNs, through a mechanism allowing activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 and STAT2 but preventing their nuclear accumulation. This normally occurs through activated STAT1/2 dimerization, enabling an interaction with importin α5 that mediates transport into the nucleus. In rotavirus-infected cells, STAT1/2 inhibition may limit the antiviral actions of IFN produced early in infection. Here we further analysed the block to STAT1/2 nuclear accumulation, showing that activated STAT1 accumulates in the cytoplasm in rotavirus-infected cells. STAT1/2 nuclear accumulation was inhibited by rotavirus even in the presence of the nuclear export inhibitor Leptomycin B, demonstrating that enhanced nuclear export is not involved in STAT1/2 cytoplasmic retention. The ability to inhibit STAT nuclear translocation was completely conserved amongst the group A rotaviruses tested, including a divergent avian strain. Analysis of mutant rotaviruses indicated that residues after amino acid 47 of NSP1 are dispensable for STAT inhibition. Furthermore, expression of any of the 12 Rhesus monkey rotavirus proteins did not inhibit IFN-stimulated STAT1 nuclear translocation. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation experiments from transfected epithelial cells showed that STAT1/2 binds importin α5 normally following rotavirus infection. These findings demonstrate that rotavirus probably employs a novel strategy to inhibit IFN-induced STAT signalling, which acts after STAT activation and binding to the nuclear import machinery.
The evolving geography of production hubs and regional value chains across East Asia: Trade in value-added
(ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2015-07-01)
The interdependence of regional trade and production networks has important implications for national prosperity, regional stability and the internationalization of production. We ask: What are the locational patterns of trade in value-added in East Asia and how are these patterns changing over time? The disintermediation of value chains and the externalization of business activity create hubs of capability and extend value chains between countries. We adopt input-output techniques to analyze the evolution of production networks in East Asia over the period 1990-2005 from a value chain perspective. A high density of cross-border interaction is reported alongside changing geographic dynamics, and an informal integration derived from intermediates trade in value-addition. The locational interdependence of developed and less-developed countries across the region leverages on the heterogeneity of location-specific advantages within the region.
Negotiating the Transatlantic Relationship: An International, Interdisciplinary Simulation of a Real-World Negotiation
(CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2016-04-01)
This article analyzes the effectiveness of an international, interdisciplinary simulation of an ongoing trade negotiation. It thoroughly describes the simulation, provides links to background information for public use, and off ers suggestions on ways to further strengthen the learning outcomes achieved.