Melbourne Graduate School of Education - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 1457
What You Don't Know Can Hurt You: Uncertainty Impairs Executive Function
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2020-10-06)
Three studies demonstrated that situational uncertainty impairs executive function on subsequent unrelated tasks. Participants were randomly assigned to either uncertain situations (not knowing whether they would have to give a speech later, Studies 1-2; uncertain about how to complete a task, Study 3) or control conditions. Uncertainty caused poor performance on tasks requiring executive function that were unrelated to the uncertainty manipulation. Uncertainty impaired performance even more than certainty of negative outcomes (might vs. definitely will have to make a speech). A meta-analysis of the experimental studies in this package found that the effect is small and reliable. One potential explanation for this effect of uncertainty on executive function is that uncertainty is a cue for conserving effort.
The Monitoring of Psychosocial Factors During Hospitalization Before and After Cardiac Surgery Until Discharge From Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Research Protocol
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2020-09-29)
Introduction: There is considerable evidence that psychosocial factors contribute to the etiology and prognosis of cardiac illness. Currently, in Italy, psychologists are only obligatory in the cardiac rehabilitation setting, although there are indications that patients could be experiencing distress also during other moments of hospitalization, such as on admission for cardiac surgery. Objective and Methods: The objective of this protocol is to gain more information about cardiac patients, specifically during the various moments of hospitalization for cardiac surgery, by collecting data at admission before cardiac surgery (t0), at admission to cardiac rehabilitation (t1), and at discharge (t2) at the Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) Policlinico San Donato hospital. A psychosocial questionnaire was constructed after consulting the relevant national and international guidelines. Patients admitted for cardiac surgery and attending a rehabilitation program will be evaluated by acquiring data about their civil status, religiosity, education and work capacity, social condition (including the presence and quality of intimate relationships and support received), previous psychological and psychiatric histories, psychological status, lifestyle (including questions on nutrition, smoking, alcohol, and substance abuse), adherence to therapy, quality of life (QoL), health perception, anxiety, and depression at t0. Health perception, anxiety, and depression are also measured at t1 and t2. Discussion and Conclusion: This study is an attempt to identify the recommended psychosocial variables which need to be monitored during cardiac patients' hospitalization for cardiac surgery, through to the completion of cardiac rehabilitation. After implementing this study at the IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, attempts will be made to create studies on a national and international level to generate more evidence regarding these variables, in order to create tailor-made interventions for these patients during these specific and delicate moments.
Examining Emotional Literacy Development Using a Brief On-Line Positive Psychology Intervention with Primary School Children
Wellbeing literacy (WL) may be the missing ingredient required to optimally enhance or enable positive psychology intervention (PPI) effectiveness. This study involved Victorian government funded primary schools, including two rural, two regional, and two city schools; participants included 20 classroom teachers and 131 grade five and six primary school students. A brief online PPI was implemented by teachers for 10-15 min, three times per week, for six weeks. This paper examines quantitative data collected pre and post the six week intervention, and qualitative data gathered in week one of the intervention regarding intervention effectiveness. The aim is to examine if a brief online PPI effectively builds intentional emotional vocabulary use, and to discuss how on-line PPIs can be used in public health to improve young people's WL. Considering evaluations of process effectiveness and outcome measures related to student emotional vocabulary use, results tentatively suggest that online PPIs can positively impact emotional vocabulary capability and intentionality. Multimodal communication was exercised during the PPI, suggesting that the brief online PPI format may provide a valuable tool to promote student WL.
Secondary School Students’ Ideas of Learning and Schooling. A Case-Study of an Intensive, Experiential Middle-Years Program
This article reports on an empirical study of a curriculum innovation at a Victorian government secondary school. The aim of the study was to explore students’ ideas of learning and the purposes of schooling, and how these were influenced by participation in an intensive, experiential middle-years program. Group interviews were held with students who were currently completing the program, recent graduates of the program, and senior students who had completed the program in past years. Photo elicitation was used during interviews to encourage storytelling, multiple perspectives, and use of metaphor. Although somewhat predictable responses were initially given to abstract questions such as: “what is learning?” and “what is the purpose of school?”, student narratives supported by visual imagery and metaphor reveal more subtle, rich and diverse interpretations. These include deeper and more transformative conceptions of learning, a critical questioning of the purpose of schooling, as well as efforts to interpret and navigate the, at times dissonant, pedagogical environments they inhabit within schooling. Multiple layerings, ambivalences and incoherences in student narratives are explored with references to neoliberal discourses of education and notions of pedagogy arising from complexity theory.
"We definitely need an audience": experiences of Twitter, Twitter networks and tweet content in adults with severe communication disabilities who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC).
(Informa UK Limited, 2015)
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the Twitter experiences of adults with severe communication disabilities who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) to inform Twitter training and further research on the use of Twitter in populations with communication disabilities. METHOD: This mixed methods research included five adults with severe communication disabilities who use AAC. It combined (a) quantitative analysis of Twitter networks and (b) manual coding of tweets with (c) narrative interviews with participants on their Twitter experiences and results. RESULTS: The five participants who used AAC and Twitter were diverse in their patterns and experiences of using Twitter. Twitter networks reflected interaction with a close-knit network of people rather than with the broader publics on Twitter. Conversational, Broadcast and Pass Along tweets featured most prominently, with limited use of News or Social Presence tweets. Tweets appeared mostly within each participant's micro- or meso-structural layers of Twitter. CONCLUSIONS: People who use AAC report positive experiences in using Twitter. Obtaining help in Twitter, and engaging in hashtag communities facilitated higher frequency of tweets and establishment of Twitter networks. Results reflected an inter-connection of participant Twitter networks that might form part of a larger as yet unexplored emergent community of people who use AAC in Twitter.
'I kind of figured it out': the views and experiences of people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in using social media-self-determination for participation and inclusion online
BACKGROUND: Social media can support people with communication disability to access information, social participation and support. However, little is known about the experiences of people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who use social media to determine their needs in relation to social media use. AIMS: To determine the views and experiences of adults with TBI and cognitive-communication disability on using social media, specifically: (1) the nature of their social media experience; (2) barriers and facilitators to successful use; and (3) strategies that enabled their use of social media. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Thirteen adults (seven men, six women) with TBI and cognitive-communication disability were interviewed about their social media experiences, and a content thematic analysis was conducted. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: Participants used several social media platforms including Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and virtual gaming worlds. All but one participant used social media several times each day and all used social media for social connection. Five major themes emerged from the data: (1) getting started in social media for participation and inclusion; (2) drivers to continued use of social media; (3) manner of using social media; (4) navigating social media; and (5) an evolving sense of social media mastery. In using platforms in a variety of ways, some participants developed an evolving sense of social media mastery. Participants applied caution in using social media, tended to learn through a process of trial and error, and lacked structured supports from family, friends or health professionals. They also reported several challenges that influenced their ability to use social media, but found support from peers in using the social media platforms. This information could be used to inform interventions supporting the use of social media for people with TBI and directions for future research. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: Social media offers adults with TBI several opportunities to communicate and for some to develop and strengthen social relationships. However, some adults with TBI also reported the need for more information about how to use social media. Their stories suggested a need to develop a sense of purpose in relation to using social media, and ultimately more routine and purposeful use to develop a sense of social media mastery. Further research is needed to examine the social media data and networks of people with TBI, to verify and expand upon the reported findings, and to inform roles that family, friends and health professionals may play in supporting rehabilitation goals for people with TBI.
The Impact of Policy Modifiable Factors on Inequalities in Rates of Child Dental Caries in Australia
Background: Poor oral health in childhood can lead to adverse impacts later in life. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and population distribution of childhood dental caries in Australia and investigate factors that might ameliorate inequalities. Methods: Data from the nationally representative birth cohort Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (N = 5107), using questions assessing: The experience of dental caries during each biennial follow-up period (2-3 years to 10-11 years), socioeconomic position (SEP), and policy modifiable oral health factors. Results: The odds of dental caries were higher for children with lowest vs. highest SEP (adjusted OR (adjOR) 1.92, 95% CI 1.49-2.46), and lower where water was fluoridated to recommended levels (adjOR 0.53, 95% CI 0.43-0.64). There was no evidence of an association between caries experience and either reported sugary diet or tooth brushing. When SEP and fluoridation were considered in conjunction, compared to the highest SEP group with water fluoridation children in the lowest SEP with fluoridation had adjOR 1.54 for caries, (95% CI 1.14-2.07), and children in the lowest SEP without fluoridation had adjOR 4.06 (95% CI 2.88-5.42). For patterns of service use: The highest SEP group reported a greater percentage of service use in the absence of caries. Conclusions: Dental caries appears prevalent and is socially distributed in Australia. Policy efforts should consider how to ensure that children with dental caries receive adequate prevention and early care with equitable uptake.
Pair interactions in online assessments of collaborative problem solving: case-based portraits.
(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2018)
This exploratory case study focuses on how pairs of students can build a shared understanding and acquire collaborative problem-solving (CPS) practices during an online assessment of CPS skills, which is seen in the context of the CPS construct, in a symmetrical and asymmetrical task type. Even though CPS is widely recognised as a core twenty-first-century competency, its nature is not yet well understood. Also, until recently, most of studies have focused on the individual's solution to a problem or on the skills individuals bring into a problem-solving space. This study extends from an individual- to group-level focus in CPS, emphasising the role and quality of the social aspects in CPS processes and outcomes. Focusing on the group level because it mediates multiple levels of learning, including individual cognition and socio-cultural practices, may provide us with a better understanding of how pairs establish CPS practices. Because of the complexity of CPS and the general challenges of remote collaboration in an online context, the study relies on the triangulation of multiple data sources and phases of analysis. In this paper, the aim is to explore and visualise through contrasting case-based portraits of two pairs how micro-interaction processes evolve at the pair level. The results show that despite students' similar CPS performance outcome scores and task designs aimed to facilitate collaboration, variations in micro-interactions occur across pairs, for example as individual and joint solution endeavours and as balanced and unbalanced dynamics of group interactions. Studying these patterns at the pair level may provide new insights into CPS and support strategies for acquiring these practices.
An international survey of perceptions of the 2014 FIFA World Cup: National levels of corruption as a context for perceptions of institutional corruption
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2019-09-27)
We conducted a survey about the 2014 FIFA World Cup that measured attitudes about FIFA, players, and officials in 18 languages with 4600 respondents from 29 countries. Sixty percent of respondents perceived FIFA officials as being dishonest, and people from countries with less institutional corruption and stronger rule of law perceived FIFA officials as being more corrupt and less competent running the tournament than people from countries with more corruption and weaker rule of law. In contrast, respondents evaluated players as skilled and honest and match officials as competent and honest. We discuss the implications of our findings for perceptions of corruption in general.
Behavioral Pain Indicators in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit.
(Maad Rayan Publishing Company, 2018-12)
Introduction: A consistent approach to pain assessment for patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) is a major difficulty for health practitioners due to some patients' inability, to express their pain verbally. This study aimed to assess pain behaviors (PBs) in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients at different levels of consciousness. Methods: This study used a repeated-measure, within-subject design with 35 patients admitted to an ICU. The data were collected through observations of nociceptive and non-nociceptive procedures, which were recorded through a 47-item behavior-rating checklist. The analyses were performed by SPSS ver.13 software. Results: The most frequently observed PBs during nociceptive procedures were facial expression levator contractions (65.7%), sudden eye openings (34.3%), frowning (31.4%), lip changes (31.4%), clear movement of extremities (57.1%), neck stiffness (42.9%), sighing (31.4%), and moaning (31.4%). The number of PBs exhibited by participants during nociceptive procedures was significantly higher than those observed before and 15 minutes after the procedures. Also, the number of exhibited PBs in patients during nociceptive procedures was significantly greater than that of exhibited PBs during the non-nociceptive procedure. The results showed a significant difference between different levels of consciousness and also between the numbers of exhibited PBs in participants with different levels of traumatic brain injury severity. Conclusion: The present study showed that most of the behaviors that have been observed during painful stimulation in patients with traumatic brain injury included facial expressions, sudden eye opening, frowning, lip changes, clear movements of extremities, neck stiffness, and sighing or moaning.
The transition to parenthood for Australian heterosexual couples: expectations, experiences and the partner relationship
BACKGROUND: The perinatal period precipitates significant intra- and inter- personal changes. How heterosexual couples understand and account for such changes, however, has received relatively little attention. METHODS: Semi-structured individual interviews were undertaken as part of a longitudinal study on planned first-time parenthood. This article reports on an inductive thematic analysis of a data corpus focused on six interview questions (three from interviews conducted during pregnancy, and three from interviews conducted six months after the birth of the child), derived from interviews with eight individuals (4 women and 4 men) comprising four couples. RESULTS: In antenatal interviews, the theme of intrapersonal changes differentiated participants by two sub-themes that were then linked to postpartum experiences. Those who 'prepared for the worst' reported positive experiences after the arrival of a child, whilst participants who during pregnancy viewed life after the arrival of a child as 'an unknown' experienced challenges. Similarly in terms of the theme of interpersonal change, antenatal interviews were linked to postpartum experiences by two sub-themes, such that participants who approached the impending arrival of a child as a team effort reported that the arrival of a child cemented their relationship, whilst participants who expected that the couple relationship would buffer child-related stressors experienced challenges. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the importance of a focus in antenatal education on the psychological effects of new parenthood, and support for the couple relationship during the perinatal period.
Emotional Responses to Music: Shifts in Frontal Brain Asymmetry Mark Periods of Musical Change
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2017-12-04)
Recent studies have demonstrated increased activity in brain regions associated with emotion and reward when listening to pleasurable music. Unexpected change in musical features intensity and tempo - and thereby enhanced tension and anticipation - is proposed to be one of the primary mechanisms by which music induces a strong emotional response in listeners. Whether such musical features coincide with central measures of emotional response has not, however, been extensively examined. In this study, subjective and physiological measures of experienced emotion were obtained continuously from 18 participants (12 females, 6 males; 18-38 years) who listened to four stimuli-pleasant music, unpleasant music (dissonant manipulations of their own music), neutral music, and no music, in a counter-balanced order. Each stimulus was presented twice: electroencephalograph (EEG) data were collected during the first, while participants continuously subjectively rated the stimuli during the second presentation. Frontal asymmetry (FA) indices from frontal and temporal sites were calculated, and peak periods of bias toward the left (indicating a shift toward positive affect) were identified across the sample. The music pieces were also examined to define the temporal onset of key musical features. Subjective reports of emotional experience averaged across the condition confirmed participants rated their music selection as very positive, the scrambled music as negative, and the neutral music and silence as neither positive nor negative. Significant effects in FA were observed in the frontal electrode pair FC3-FC4, and the greatest increase in left bias from baseline was observed in response to pleasurable music. These results are consistent with findings from previous research. Peak FA responses at this site were also found to co-occur with key musical events relating to change, for instance, the introduction of a new motif, or an instrument change, or a change in low level acoustic factors such as pitch, dynamics or texture. These findings provide empirical support for the proposal that change in basic musical features is a fundamental trigger of emotional responses in listeners.