Surgery (St Vincent's) - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 610
eLearning in Physical Therapy: Lessons Learned From Transitioning a Professional Education Program to Full eLearning During the COVID-19 Pandemic.
(Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021-04-04)
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this cross-sectional qualitative study were to explore the perspectives of students enrolled in one physical therapist undergraduate education program in Australia about their experience with transitioning to full eLearning and student recommendations to improve the learning experience during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Seven focus groups with 28 undergraduate physical therapist students were conducted following the transitioning to full eLearning as a result of strict physical distancing measures. Focus group questions explored the students' experiences of the transition from face-to-face to full eLearning approach and the students' recommendations for improving future eLearning experiences. Data were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: The 3 themes identified were: (1) students presenting heightened negative feelings such as anxiety, stress, and reduced motivation to study; (2) students continuing to value the face-to-face learning, as it provided social support and facilitated feedback from peers and tutors; (3) student recommendations for eLearning included having online lectures and supplementary videos but face-to-face practical classes and developing healthy learning habits such as scheduled times for studying, exercise, and other activities that regulate stress. CONCLUSIONS: The transition to a full eLearning approach in an undergraduate physical therapist education program during the COVID-19 pandemic revealed that students had heightened negative emotions due to the pandemic. Students valued face-to-face practical classes to learn and receive social support from peers and tutors. Student recommendations to future eLearning suggested changes to curriculum development geared toward a greater blended approach to learning. Blended learning may include using online lectures instead of face-to-face lectures and online resources to supplement student learning of practical skills. IMPACT: As higher education moves toward a more blended approach, lessons learned from this study can help educators design future physical therapist education programs. The findings can also assist programs in delivering a full eLearning approach as the COVID-19 pandemic continues.
Case Report: Reconstruction After Anterior Pubic Hemipelvectomy
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2021-05-21)
We report on a case of a large atypical cartilaginous tumor of the pelvis and its novel surgical resection with an anterior hemipelvectomy and reconstruction with an iliac crest graft. Surgical intervention is the mainstay treatment of pelvic chondrosarcomas. However, there have been reports of concern regarding preventing pelvic visceral herniation and adequately reconstructing the pelvis. This report is unique within the literature and has yielded good functional outcomes whilst achieving satisfactory surgical margins and minimizing morbidity.
Prophylactic laparoscopic total gastrectomy in a patient with situs inversus totalis.
(Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021-05)
A rare case was demonstrated whereby a prophylactic laparoscopic total gastrectomy was performed in a 29-year-old male with a CDH1 gene mutation in the context of rare anatomical anomaly, situs inversus totalis (SIT). This report provides radiological and laparoscopic images detailing the patient's unique anatomy. We also describe the operative approach and technical challenges whilst accounting for the patient's anatomical anomaly. This is the first known case of a laparoscopic total gastrectomy for a CDH1 gene mutation in a patient with SIT. With sufficient pre-operative evaluation and meticulous intra-operative caution, this technically complex operation is safe and feasible in patients with mirror-image anatomy as seen in SIT.
Treatment Switching and Discontinuation Over 20 Years in the Big Multiple Sclerosis Data Network.
(Frontiers Media SA, 2021)
Background: Although over a dozen disease modifying treatments (DMTs) are available for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS), treatment interruption, switching and discontinuation are common challenges. The objective of this study was to describe treatment interruption and discontinuation in the Big MS data network. Methods: We merged information on 269,822 treatment episodes in 110,326 patients from 1997 to 2016 from five clinical registries in this cohort study. Treatment stop was defined as a clinician recorded DMT end for any reason and included treatment interruptions, switching to alternate DMTs and long-term or permanent discontinuations. Results: The incidence of DMT stopping cross the full observation period was lowest in FTY (19.7 per 100 person-years (PY) of treatment; 95% CI 19.2-20.1), followed by NAT (22.6/100 PY; 95% CI 22.2-23.0), IFNβ (23.3/100 PY; 95% CI 23.2-23.5). Of the 184,013 observed DMT stops, 159,309 (86.6%) switched to an alternate DMT within 6 months. Reasons for stopping a drug were stable during the observation period with lack of efficacy being the most common reason followed by lack of tolerance and side effects. The proportion of patients continuing on most DMTs were similarly stable until 2014 and 2015 when drop from 83 to 75% was noted. Conclusions: DMT stopping reasons and rates were mostly stable over time with a slight increase in recent years, with the availability of more DMTs. The overall results suggest that discontinuation of MS DMTs is mostly due to DMT properties and to a lesser extent to risk management and a competitive market.
Stabilisation of Collagen Sponges by Glutaraldehyde Vapour Crosslinking.
(Hindawi Limited, 2017)
Glutaraldehyde is a well-recognised reagent for crosslinking and stabilising collagens and other protein-based materials, including gelatine. In some cases, however, the use of solutions can disrupt the structure of the material, for example, by causing rapid dispersion or distortions from surface interactions. An alternative approach that has been explored in a number of individual cases is the use of glutaraldehyde vapour. In this study, the effectiveness of a range of different glutaraldehyde concentrations in the reservoir providing vapour, from 5% to 25% (w/v), has been explored at incubation times from 5 h to 48 h at room temperature. These data show the effectiveness of the glutaraldehyde vapour approach for crosslinking collagen and show that materials with defined, intermediate stability could be obtained, for example, to control resorption rates in vivo.
Harnessing the Versatility of Bacterial Collagen to Improve the Chondrogenic Potential of Porous Collagen Scaffolds.
Collagen I foams are used in the clinic as scaffolds to promote articular cartilage repair as they provide a bioactive environment for cells with chondrogenic potential. However, collagen I as a base material does not allow for precise control over bioactivity. Alternatively, recombinant bacterial collagens can be used as "blank slate" collagen molecules to offer a versatile platform for incorporation of selected bioactive sequences and fabrication into 3D scaffolds. Here, we show the potential of Streptococcal collagen-like 2 (Scl2) protein foams modified with peptides designed to specifically and noncovalently bind hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate to improve chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) compared to collagen I foams. Specific compositions of functionalized Scl2 foams lead to improved chondrogenesis compared to both nonfunctionalized Scl2 and collagen I foams, as indicated by gene expression, extracellular matrix accumulation, and compression moduli. hMSCs cultured in functionalized Scl2 foams exhibit decreased collagens I and X gene and protein expression, suggesting an advantage over collagen I foams in promoting a chondrocytic phenotype. These highly modular foams can be further modified to improve specific aspects chondrogenesis. As such, these scaffolds also have the potential to be tailored for other regenerative medicine applications.
Enhanced articular cartilage by human mesenchymal stem cells in enzymatically mediated transiently RGDS-functionalized collagen-mimetic hydrogels.
(Elsevier BV, 2017-03-15)
Recapitulation of the articular cartilage microenvironment for regenerative medicine applications faces significant challenges due to the complex and dynamic biochemical and biomechanical nature of native tissue. Towards the goal of biomaterial designs that enable the temporal presentation of bioactive sequences, recombinant bacterial collagens such as Streptococcal collagen-like 2 (Scl2) proteins can be employed to incorporate multiple specific bioactive and biodegradable peptide motifs into a single construct. Here, we first modified the backbone of Scl2 with glycosaminoglycan-binding peptides and cross-linked the modified Scl2 into hydrogels via matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7)-cleavable or non-cleavable scrambled peptides. The cross-linkers were further functionalized with a tethered RGDS peptide creating a system whereby the release from an MMP7-cleavable hydrogel could be compared to a system where release is not possible. The release of the RGDS peptide from the degradable hydrogels led to significantly enhanced expression of collagen type II (3.9-fold increase), aggrecan (7.6-fold increase), and SOX9 (5.2-fold increase) by human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) undergoing chondrogenesis, as well as greater extracellular matrix accumulation compared to non-degradable hydrogels (collagen type II; 3.2-fold increase, aggrecan; 4-fold increase, SOX9; 2.8-fold increase). Hydrogels containing a low concentration of the RGDS peptide displayed significantly decreased collagen type I and X gene expression profiles, suggesting a major advantage over either hydrogels functionalized with a higher RGDS peptide concentration, or non-degradable hydrogels, in promoting an articular cartilage phenotype. These highly versatile Scl2 hydrogels can be further manipulated to improve specific elements of the chondrogenic response by hMSCs, through the introduction of additional bioactive and/or biodegradable motifs. As such, these hydrogels have the possibility to be used for other applications in tissue engineering. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Recapitulating aspects of the native tissue biochemical microenvironment faces significant challenges in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering due to the complex and dynamic nature of the tissue. The ability to take advantage of, mimic, and modulate cell-mediated processes within novel naturally-derived hydrogels is of great interest in the field of biomaterials to generate constructs that more closely resemble the biochemical microenvironment and functions of native biological tissues such as articular cartilage. Towards this goal, the temporal presentation of bioactive sequences such as RGDS on the chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells is considered important as it has been shown to influence the chondrogenic phenotype. Here, a novel and versatile platform to recreate a high degree of biological complexity is proposed, which could also be applicable to other tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.
Temporally degradable collagen-mimetic hydrogels tuned to chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells.
(Elsevier BV, 2016-08)
Tissue engineering strategies for repairing and regenerating articular cartilage face critical challenges to recapitulate the dynamic and complex biochemical microenvironment of native tissues. One approach to mimic the biochemical complexity of articular cartilage is through the use of recombinant bacterial collagens as they provide a well-defined biological 'blank template' that can be modified to incorporate bioactive and biodegradable peptide sequences within a precisely defined three-dimensional system. We customized the backbone of a Streptococcal collagen-like 2 (Scl2) protein with heparin-binding, integrin-binding, and hyaluronic acid-binding peptide sequences previously shown to modulate chondrogenesis and then cross-linked the recombinant Scl2 protein with a combination of matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7)- and aggrecanase (ADAMTS4)-cleavable peptides at varying ratios to form biodegradable hydrogels with degradation characteristics matching the temporal expression pattern of these enzymes in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) during chondrogenesis. hMSCs encapsulated within the hydrogels cross-linked with both degradable peptides exhibited enhanced chondrogenic characteristics as demonstrated by gene expression and extracellular matrix deposition compared to the hydrogels cross-linked with a single peptide. Additionally, these combined peptide hydrogels displayed increased MMP7 and ADAMTS4 activities and yet increased compression moduli after 6 weeks, suggesting a positive correlation between the degradation of the hydrogels and the accumulation of matrix by hMSCs undergoing chondrogenesis. Our results suggest that including dual degradation motifs designed to respond to enzymatic activity of hMSCs going through chondrogenic differentiation led to improvements in chondrogenesis. Our hydrogel system demonstrates a bimodal enzymatically degradable biological platform that can mimic native cellular processes in a temporal manner. As such, this novel collagen-mimetic protein, cross-linked via multiple enzymatically degradable peptides, provides a highly adaptable and well defined platform to recapitulate a high degree of biological complexity, which could be applicable to numerous tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.
Collagen-mimetic peptide-modifiable hydrogels for articular cartilage regeneration.
(Elsevier BV, 2015-06)
Regenerative medicine strategies for restoring articular cartilage face significant challenges to recreate the complex and dynamic biochemical and biomechanical functions of native tissues. As an approach to recapitulate the complexity of the extracellular matrix, collagen-mimetic proteins offer a modular template to incorporate bioactive and biodegradable moieties into a single construct. We modified a Streptococcal collagen-like 2 protein with hyaluronic acid (HA) or chondroitin sulfate (CS)-binding peptides and then cross-linked with a matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7)-sensitive peptide to form biodegradable hydrogels. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) encapsulated in these hydrogels exhibited improved viability and significantly enhanced chondrogenic differentiation compared to controls that were not functionalized with glycosaminoglycan-binding peptides. Hydrogels functionalized with CS-binding peptides also led to significantly higher MMP7 gene expression and activity while the HA-binding peptides significantly increased chondrogenic differentiation of the hMSCs. Our results highlight the potential of this novel biomaterial to modulate cell-mediated processes and create functional tissue engineered constructs for regenerative medicine applications.
Dieulafoy's disease of the bronchus: a rare cause of massive hemoptysis.
We present the case of a 30-year-old non-smoker who presented with unexplained, massive hemoptysis and was diagnosed with a rare vascular malformation.
INFLUENCE OF REPRODUCTIVE STATUS ON TISSUE COMPOSITION AND BIOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF OVINE VAGINA
(SPRINGER LONDON LTD, 2014-07-01)
OBJECTIVE: To undertake a comprehensive analysis of the biochemical tissue composition and passive biomechanical properties of ovine vagina and relate this to the histo-architecture at different reproductive stages as part of the establishment of a large preclinical animal model for evaluating regenerative medicine approaches for surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse. METHODS: Vaginal tissue was collected from virgin (n = 3), parous (n = 6) and pregnant sheep (n = 6; mean gestation; 132 d; term = 145 d). Tissue histology was analyzed using H+E and Masson's Trichrome staining. Biochemical analysis of the extracellular matrix proteins used a hydroxyproline assay to quantify total collagen, SDS PAGE to measure collagen III/I+III ratios, dimethylmethylene blue to quantify glycosaminoglycans and amino acid analysis to quantify elastin. Uniaxial tensiometry was used to determine the Young's modulus, maximum stress and strain, and permanent strain following cyclic loading. RESULTS: Vaginal tissue of virgin sheep had the lowest total collagen content and permanent strain. Parous tissue had the highest total collagen and lowest elastin content with concomitant high maximum stress. In contrast, pregnant sheep had the highest elastin and lowest collagen contents, and thickest smooth muscle layer, which was associated with low maximum stress and poor dimensional recovery following repetitive loading. CONCLUSION: Pregnant ovine vagina was the most extensible, but the weakest tissue, whereas parous and virgin tissues were strong and elastic. Pregnancy had the greatest impact on tissue composition and biomechanical properties, compatible with significant tissue remodeling as demonstrated in other species. Biochemical changes in tissue protein composition coincide with these altered biomechanical properties.
A new class of animal collagen masquerading as an insect silk.
(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2013-10-04)
Collagen is ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom, where it comprises some 28 diverse molecules that form the extracellular matrix within organisms. In the 1960s, an extracorporeal animal collagen that forms the cocoon of a small group of hymenopteran insects was postulated. Here we categorically demonstrate that the larvae of a sawfly species produce silk from three small collagen proteins. The native proteins do not contain hydroxyproline, a post translational modification normally considered characteristic of animal collagens. The function of the proteins as silks explains their unusual collagen features. Recombinant proteins could be produced in standard bacterial expression systems and assembled into stable collagen molecules, opening the door to manufacture a new class of artificial collagen materials.