Pathology - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 438
Increased metal content in the TDP-43(A315T) transgenic mouse model of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
(FRONTIERS RESEARCH FOUNDATION, 2014-02-11)
Disrupted metal homeostasis is a consistent feature of neurodegenerative disease in humans and is recapitulated in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and neuronal ceriod lipofuscinosis. While the definitive pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease in humans remains to be fully elucidated, disease-like symptoms in the mouse models are all driven by the presence or over-expression of a putative pathogenic protein, indicating an in vivo relationship between expression of these proteins, disrupted metal homeostasis and the symptoms of neuronal failure. Recently it was established that mutant TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is associated with the development of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and ALS. Subsequent development of transgenic mice that express human TDP-43 carrying the disease-causing A315T mutation has provided new opportunity to study the underlying mechanisms of TDP-43-related neurodegenerative disease. We assessed the cognitive and locomotive phenotype of TDP-43 (A315T) mice and their wild-type littermates and also assessed bulk metal content of brain and spinal cord tissues. Metal levels in the brain were not affected by the expression of mutant TDP-43, but zinc, copper, and manganese levels were all increased in the spinal cords of TDP-43 (A315T) mice when compared to wild-type littermates. Performance of the TDP-43 (A315T) mice in the Y-maze test for cognitive function was not significantly different to wild-type mice. By contrast, performance of the TDP-43 (A315T) in the rotarod test for locomotive function was consistently worse than wild-type mice. These preliminary in vivo data are the first to show that expression of a disease-causing form of TDP-43 is sufficient to disrupt metal ion homeostasis in the central nervous system. Disrupted metal ion homeostasis in the spinal cord but not the brain may explain why the TDP-43 (A315T) mice show symptoms of locomotive decline and not cognitive decline.
Neuroinflammation and copper in Alzheimer's disease.
(Hindawi Limited, 2013)
Inflammation is the innate immune response to infection or tissue damage. Initiation of proinflammatory cascades in the central nervous system (CNS) occurs through recognition of danger associated molecular patterns by cognate immune receptors expressed on inflammatory cells and leads to rapid responses to remove the danger stimulus. The presence of activated microglia and astrocytes in the vicinity of amyloid plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and mouse models implicates inflammation as a contributor to AD pathogenesis. Activated microglia play a critical role in amyloid clearance, but chronic deregulation of CNS inflammatory pathways results in secretion of neurotoxic mediators that ultimately contribute to neurodegeneration in AD. Copper (Cu) homeostasis is profoundly affected in AD, and accumulated extracellular Cu drives A β aggregation, while intracellular Cu deficiency limits bioavailable Cu required for CNS functions. This review presents an overview of inflammatory events that occur in AD in response to A β and highlights recent advances on the role of Cu in modulation of beneficial and detrimental inflammatory responses in AD.
Rab6a/a ' Are Important Golgi Regulators of Pro-Inflammatory TNF Secretion in Macrophages
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2013-02-21)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) to elicit innate immune responses. Secretion of these cytokines is also a major contributing factor in chronic inflammatory disease. In previous studies we have begun to elucidate the pathways and molecules that mediate the intracellular trafficking and secretion of TNF. Rab6a and Rab6a' (collectively Rab6) are trans-Golgi-localized GTPases known for roles in maintaining Golgi structure and Golgi-associated trafficking. We found that induction of TNF secretion by LPS promoted the selective increase of Rab6 expression. Depletion of Rab6 (via siRNA and shRNA) resulted in reorganization of the Golgi ribbon into more compact structures that at the resolution of electron microcopy consisted of elongated Golgi stacks that likely arose from fusion of smaller Golgi elements. Concomitantly, the delivery of TNF to the cell surface and subsequent release into the media was reduced. Dominant negative mutants of Rab6 had similar effects in disrupting TNF secretion. In live cells, Rab6-GFP were localized on trans-Golgi network (TGN)-derived tubular carriers demarked by the golgin p230. Rab6 depletion and inactive mutants altered carrier egress and partially reduced p230 membrane association. Our results show that Rab6 acts on TNF trafficking at the level of TGN exit in tubular carriers and our findings suggest Rab6 may stabilize p230 on the tubules to facilitate TNF transport. Both Rab6 isoforms are needed in macrophages for Golgi stack organization and for the efficient post-Golgi transport of TNF. This work provides new insights into Rab6 function and into the role of the Golgi complex in cytokine secretion in inflammatory macrophages.
Increased Zinc and Manganese in Parallel with Neurodegeneration, Synaptic Protein Changes and Activation of Akt/GSK3 Signaling in Ovine CLN6 Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2013-03-14)
Mutations in the CLN6 gene cause a variant late infantile form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL; Batten disease). CLN6 loss leads to disease clinically characterized by vision impairment, motor and cognitive dysfunction, and seizures. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in metal homeostasis and cellular signaling pathways are implicated in several neurodegenerative and developmental disorders, yet little is known about their role in the NCLs. To explore the disease mechanisms of CLN6 NCL, metal concentrations and expression of proteins implicated in cellular signaling pathways were assessed in brain tissue from South Hampshire and Merino CLN6 sheep. Analyses revealed increased zinc and manganese concentrations in affected sheep brain in those regions where neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration first occur. Synaptic proteins, the metal-binding protein metallothionein, and the Akt/GSK3 and ERK/MAPK cellular signaling pathways were also altered. These results demonstrate that altered metal concentrations, synaptic protein changes, and aberrant modulation of cellular signaling pathways are characteristic features in the CLN6 ovine form of NCL.
Biometals in rare neurodegenerative disorders of childhood
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2013-03-25)
Copper, iron, and zinc are just three of the main biometals critical for correct functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). They have diverse roles in many functional processes including but not limited to enzyme catalysis, protein stabilization, and energy production. The range of metal concentrations within the body is tightly regulated and when the balance is perturbed, debilitating effects ensue. Homeostasis of brain biometals is mainly controlled by various metal transporters and metal sequestering proteins. The biological roles of biometals are vastly reviewed in the literature with a large focus on the connection to neurological conditions associated with ageing. Biometals are also implicated in a variety of debilitating inherited childhood disorders, some of which arise soon following birth or as the child progresses into early adulthood. This review acts to highlight what we know about biometals in childhood neurological disorders such as Wilson's disease (WD), Menkes disease (MD), neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), and neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). Also discussed are some of the animal models available to determine the pathological mechanisms in these childhood disorders, which we hope will aid in our understanding of the role of biometals in disease and in attaining possible therapeutics in the future.
Enhancing the antitumor effects of radiotherapy with combinations of immunostimulatory antibodies
(LANDES BIOSCIENCE, 2012-12-01)
The development and use of combination immunotherapy-based anticancer regimens is at an early but clearly exciting stage. We now demonstrate that the antibody-based co-targeting of multiple immunostimulatory and/or inhibitory pathways can be used safely and effectively in combination with single dose or fractionated radiotherapy to cure mice bearing established mammary tumors.
Whole Exome Sequencing Suggests Much of Non-BRCA1/BRCA2 Familial Breast Cancer Is Due to Moderate and Low Penetrance Susceptibility Alleles
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2013-02-08)
The identification of the two most prevalent susceptibility genes in breast cancer, BRCA1 and BRCA2, was the beginning of a sustained effort to uncover new genes explaining the missing heritability in this disease. Today, additional high, moderate and low penetrance genes have been identified in breast cancer, such as P53, PTEN, STK11, PALB2 or ATM, globally accounting for around 35 percent of the familial cases. In the present study we used massively parallel sequencing to analyze 7 BRCA1/BRCA2 negative families, each having at least 6 affected women with breast cancer (between 6 and 10) diagnosed under the age of 60 across generations. After extensive filtering, Sanger sequencing validation and co-segregation studies, variants were prioritized through either control-population studies, including up to 750 healthy individuals, or case-control assays comprising approximately 5300 samples. As a result, a known moderate susceptibility indel variant (CHEK2 1100delC) and a catalogue of 11 rare variants presenting signs of association with breast cancer were identified. All the affected genes are involved in important cellular mechanisms like DNA repair, cell proliferation and survival or cell cycle regulation. This study highlights the need to investigate the role of rare variants in familial cancer development by means of novel high throughput analysis strategies optimized for genetically heterogeneous scenarios. Even considering the intrinsic limitations of exome resequencing studies, our findings support the hypothesis that the majority of non-BRCA1/BRCA2 breast cancer families might be explained by the action of moderate and/or low penetrance susceptibility alleles.
Hypoxia-driven immunosuppression contributes to the pre-metastatic niche
(TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2013-01-01)
Primary tumor cells create favorable microenvironments in secondary organs, termed pre-metastatic niches, that promote the formation of metastases. Using immune competent syngenic breast cancer mouse models, we have recently demonstrated that factors secreted by hypoxic tumor cells condition pre-metastatic niches by recruiting CD11b+/Ly6Cmed/Ly6G+ myeloid cells and suppressing natural killer cell functions.
The combination of histone deacetylase inhibitors with immune-stimulating antibodies has potent anti-cancer effects
(LANDES BIOSCIENCE, 2012-05-01)
The use of immunotherapy to treat cancer is rapidly gaining momentum. Using pre-clinical mouse models, we have recently demonstrated potent and long lasting tumor regression can be elicited by immune-stimulating monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) when combined with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and believe this therapy will have broad application in humans.
Cancer immunoediting by the innate immune system in the absence of adaptive immunity
(ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 2012-09-24)
Cancer immunoediting is the process whereby immune cells protect against cancer formation by sculpting the immunogenicity of developing tumors. Although the full process depends on innate and adaptive immunity, it remains unclear whether innate immunity alone is capable of immunoediting. To determine whether the innate immune system can edit tumor cells in the absence of adaptive immunity, we compared the incidence and immunogenicity of 3'methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas in syngeneic wild-type, RAG2(-/-), and RAG2(-/-)x γc(-/-) mice. We found that innate immune cells could manifest cancer immunoediting activity in the absence of adaptive immunity. This activity required natural killer (NK) cells and interferon γ (IFN-γ), which mediated the induction of M1 macrophages. M1 macrophages could be elicited by administration of CD40 agonists, thereby restoring editing activity in RAG2(-/-)x γc(-/-) mice. Our results suggest that in the absence of adaptive immunity, NK cell production of IFN-γ induces M1 macrophages, which act as important effectors during cancer immunoediting.
The interaction between murine melanoma and the immune system reveals that prolonged responses predispose for autoimmunity
(TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2013-02-01)
An assessment of antitumor immunity versus autoimmunity as provoked by the specific depletion of Foxp3+ Tregs is now possible with the development of Foxp3-diphtheria toxin receptor-like transgenic mouse models. We have used the poorly immunogenic B16F10 melanoma model to characterize a very heterogeneous antitumor effect of the immune response induced by Treg depletion. Depletion and neutralization studies demonstrated the importance of host T cells and interferon γ (IFNγ) in mediating the antitumor response developing in Treg-depleted mice. Such a response correlated with increased proliferation of granzyme B- and IFNγ-producing T cells in the tumor. Furthermore, enhanced antitumor immunity modulated the expression of MHC Class I molecules by B16F10 melanoma cells in Treg-depleted mice. Since Foxp3+ Treg depletion induced a significantly heterogeneous antitumor response, for the first time we were able to assess antitumor immunity and autoimmunity across different groups of responding mice. Strikingly, the duration of the tumor-immune system interaction provoked in individual Treg-depleted mice positively correlated with their propensity to develop vitiligo. A rapid complete tumor rejection was not associated with the development of autoimmunity, however, a proportion of mice that suppressed, but did not effectively clear, B16F10 melanoma did develop vitiligo. The significant implication is that approaches that combine with Treg depletion to rapidly reject tumors may also diminish autoimmune toxicities.
Recommendations for Genetic Variation Data Capture in Developing Countries to Ensure a Comprehensive Worldwide Data Collection
Developing countries have significantly contributed to the elucidation of the genetic basis of both common and rare disorders, providing an invaluable resource of cases due to large family sizes, consanguinity, and potential founder effects. Moreover, the recognized depth of genomic variation in indigenous African populations, reflecting the ancient origins of humanity on the African continent, and the effect of selection pressures on the genome, will be valuable in understanding the range of both pathological and nonpathological variations. The involvement of these populations in accurately documenting the extant genetic heterogeneity is more than essential. Developing nations are regarded as key contributors to the Human Variome Project (HVP; http://www.humanvariomeproject.org), a major effort to systematically collect mutations that contribute to or cause human disease and create a cyber infrastructure to tie databases together. However, biomedical research has not been the primary focus in these countries even though such activities are likely to produce economic and health benefits for all. Here, we propose several recommendations and guidelines to facilitate participation of developing countries in genetic variation data documentation, ensuring an accurate and comprehensive worldwide data collection. We also summarize a few well-coordinated genetic data collection initiatives that would serve as paradigms for similar projects.