Pathology - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 394
Reelin Haploinsufficiency and Late-Adolescent Corticosterone Treatment Induce Long-Lasting and Female-Specific Molecular Changes in the Dorsal Hippocampus
Reelin depletion and stress seem to affect similar pathways including GABAergic and glutamatergic signaling and both are implicated in psychiatric disorders in late adolescence/early adulthood. The interaction between reelin depletion and stress, however, remains unclear. To investigate this, male and female heterozygous reelin mice (HRM) and wildtype (WT) controls were treated with the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT), during late adolescence to simulate chronic stress. Glucocorticoid receptors (GR), N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) subunits, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) and parvalbumin (PV) were measured in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in adulthood. While no changes were seen in male mice, female HRM showed a significant reduction in GR expression in the dorsal hippocampus. In addition, CORT reduced GR levels as well as GluN2B and GluN2C subunits of NMDAr in the dorsal hippocampus in female mice only. CORT furthermore reduced GluN1 levels in the PFC of female mice. The combined effect of HRM and CORT treatment appeared to be additive in terms of GR expression in the dorsal hippocampus. Female-specific CORT-induced changes were associated with overall higher circulating CORT levels in female compared to male mice. This study shows differential effects of reelin depletion and CORT treatment on GR and NMDAr protein expression in male and female mice, suggesting that females are more susceptible to reelin haploinsufficiency as well as late-adolescent stress. These findings shed more light on female-specific vulnerability to stress and have implications for stress-associated mental illnesses with a female bias including anxiety and major depression.
A role for CCL2 in both tumor progression and immunosurveillance
(TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2013-07-01)
The chemokine CCL2, which is best known for its chemotactic functions, is expressed not only by immune cells, but also by several types of malignant and stromal cells. CCL2 has been shown to exert both pro- and anti-tumor effects. However, recent results demonstrate a main role for CCL2 in tumor progression and metastasis, suggesting that this chemokine may constitute a therapeutic target for anticancer drugs. Mammary carcinoma models, including models of implantable, transgenic, and chemically-induced tumors, were employed in the setting of Ccl2 or Ccr2 knockout mice or CCL2 neutralization with a monoclonal antibody to further investigate the role of the CCL2/CCR2 signaling axis in tumor progression and metastatic spread. In our implantable tumor models, an anti-CCL2 monoclonal antibody inhibited the growth of primary malignant lesions in a biphasic manner and reduced the number of metastases. However, in Ccl2-/- or Ccr2-/- mice developing implanted or transgenic tumors, the number of pulmonary metastases was increased despite a reduction in the growth rate of primary neoplasms. Transgenic Mtag.Ccl2-/- or Mtag.Ccr2-/- mice also exhibited a significantly earlier of disease onset. In a chemical carcinogenesis model, anti-CCL2 monoclonal antibody inhibited the growth of established lesions but was ineffective in the tumor induction phase. In contrast to previous studies indicating a role for CCL2 in the establishment of metastases, we have demonstrated that the absence of CCL2/CCR2-signaling results in increased metastatic disease. Thus, the CCL2/CCR2 signaling axis appears to play a dual role in mediating early tumor immunosurveillance and sustaining the growth and progression of established neoplasms. Our findings support the use of anti-CCL2 therapies for the treatment of established breast carcinoma, although the complete abrogation of the CCL2 signaling cascade may also limit immunosurveillance and support metastatic spread.
Tumor necrosis factor is dispensable for the success of immunogenic anticancer chemotherapy
(TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2013-06-01)
The antineoplastic effects of anthracyclines have been shown to rely, at least in part, on a local immune response that involves dendritic cells (DCs) and several distinct subsets of T lymphocytes. Here, we show that the administration of anthracyclines to mice bearing established neoplasms stimulates the intratumoral secretion of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). However, blocking the TNFα/TNF receptor (TNFR) system by three different strategies-namely, (1) neutralizing antibodies, (2) etanercept, a recombinant protein in which TNFR is fused to the constant domain of an IgG1 molecule, and (3) gene knockout-failed to negatively affect the therapeutic efficacy of anthracyclines in three distinct tumor models. In particular, TNFα-blocking strategies did not influence the antineoplastic effects of doxorubicin (a prototypic anthracycline) against MCA205 fibrosarcomas growing in C57BL/6 mice, F244 sarcomas developing in 129/Sv hosts and H2N100 mammary carcinomas arising in BALB/c mice. These findings imply that, in contrast to other cytokines (such as interleukin-1β, interleukin-17 and interferon γ), TNFα is not required for anthracyclines to elicit therapeutic anticancer immune responses.
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-induced killing in the absence of granzymes A and B is unique and distinct from both apoptosis and perforin-dependent lysis
(ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 2006-04-10)
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-induced death triggered by the granule exocytosis pathway involves the perforin-dependent delivery of granzymes to the target cell. Gene targeting has shown that perforin is essential for this process; however, CTL deficient in the key granzymes A and B maintain the ability to kill their targets by granule exocytosis. It is not clear how granzyme AB(-/-) CTLs kill their targets, although it has been proposed that this occurs through perforin-induced lysis. We found that purified granzyme B or CTLs from wild-type mice induced classic apoptotic cell death. Perforin-induced lysis was far more rapid and involved the formation of large plasma membrane protrusions. Cell death induced by granzyme AB(-/-) CTLs shared similar kinetics and morphological characteristics to apoptosis but followed a distinct series of molecular events. Therefore, CTLs from granzyme AB(-/-) mice induce target cell death by a unique mechanism that is distinct from both perforin lysis and apoptosis.
VariVis: a visualisation toolkit for variation databases
(BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2008-04-23)
BACKGROUND: With the completion of the Human Genome Project and recent advancements in mutation detection technologies, the volume of data available on genetic variations has risen considerably. These data are stored in online variation databases and provide important clues to the cause of diseases and potential side effects or resistance to drugs. However, the data presentation techniques employed by most of these databases make them difficult to use and understand. RESULTS: Here we present a visualisation toolkit that can be employed by online variation databases to generate graphical models of gene sequence with corresponding variations and their consequences. The VariVis software package can run on any web server capable of executing Perl CGI scripts and can interface with numerous Database Management Systems and "flat-file" data files. VariVis produces two easily understandable graphical depictions of any gene sequence and matches these with variant data. While developed with the goal of improving the utility of human variation databases, the VariVis package can be used in any variation database to enhance utilisation of, and access to, critical information.
NKG2D function protects the host from tumor initiation
(ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 2005-09-05)
The activation NKG2D receptor has been shown to play an important role in the control of experimental tumor growth and metastases expressing ligands for NKG2D; however, a function for this recognition pathway in host protection from de novo tumorigenesis has never been demonstrated. We show that neutralization of NKG2D enhances the sensitivity of wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice to methylcholanthrene (MCA)-induced fibrosarcoma. The importance of the NKG2D pathway was additionally illustrated in mice deficient for either IFN-gamma or tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, whereas mice depleted of natural killer cells, T cells, or deficient for perforin did not display any detectable NKG2D phenotype. Furthermore, IL-12 therapy preventing MCA-induced sarcoma formation was also largely dependent on the NKG2D pathway. Although NKG2D ligand expression was variable or absent on sarcomas emerging in WT mice, sarcomas derived from perforin-deficient mice were Rae-1(+) and immunogenic when transferred into WT syngeneic mice. These findings suggest an important early role for the NKG2D in controlling and shaping tumor formation.
Sustained activation of Lyn tyrosine kinase in vivo leads to autoimmunity
(ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 2002-12-16)
Genetic ablation of the Lyn tyrosine kinase has revealed unique inhibitory roles in B lymphocyte signaling. We now report the consequences of sustained activation of Lyn in vivo using a targeted gain-of-function mutation (Lyn(up/up) mice). Lyn(up/up) mice have reduced numbers of conventional B lymphocytes, down-regulated surface immunoglobulin M and costimulatory molecules, and elevated numbers of B1a B cells. Lyn(up/up) B cells are characterized by the constitutive phosphorylation of negative regulators of B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling including CD22, SHP-1, and SHIP-1, and display attributes of lymphocytes rendered tolerant by constitutive engagement of the antigen receptor. However, exaggerated positive signaling is also apparent as evidenced by the constitutive phosphorylation of Syk and phospholipase Cgamma2 in resting Lyn(up/up) B cells. Similarly, Lyn(up/up) B cells show a heightened calcium flux in response to BCR stimulation. Surprisingly, Lyn(up/up) mice develop circulating autoreactive antibodies and lethal autoimmune glomerulonephritis, suggesting that enhanced positive signaling eventually overrides constitutive negative signaling. These studies highlight the difficulty in maintaining tolerance in the face of chronic stimulation and emphasize the pivotal role of Lyn in B cell signaling.
Critical role for tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in immune surveillance against tumor development
(ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 2002-01-21)
Natural killer (NK) cells and interferon (IFN)-gamma have been implicated in immune surveillance against tumor development. Here we show that tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) plays a critical role in the NK cell-mediated and IFN-gamma-dependent tumor surveillance. Administration of neutralizing monoclonal antibody against TRAIL promoted tumor development in mice subcutaneously inoculated with a chemical carcinogen methylcholanthrene (MCA). This protective effect of TRAIL was at least partly mediated by NK cells and totally dependent on IFN-gamma. In the absence of TRAIL, NK cells, or IFN-gamma, TRAIL-sensitive sarcomas preferentially emerged in MCA-inoculated mice. Moreover, development of spontaneous tumors in p53(+/-) mice was also promoted by neutralization of TRAIL. These results indicated a substantial role of TRAIL as an effector molecule that eliminates developing tumors.
Suppression of lymphoma and epithelial malignancies effected by interferon gamma
(ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 2002-07-01)
The immunosurveillance of transformed cells by the immune system remains one of the most controversial and poorly understood areas of immunity. Gene-targeted mice have greatly aided our understanding of the key effector molecules in tumor immunity. Herein, we describe spontaneous tumor development in gene-targeted mice lacking interferon (IFN)-gamma and/or perforin (pfp), or the immunoregulatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-12, IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Both IFN-gamma and pfp were critical for suppression of lymphomagenesis, however the level of protection afforded by IFN-gamma was strain specific. Lymphomas arising in IFN-gamma-deficient mice were very nonimmunogenic compared with those derived from pfp-deficient mice, suggesting a comparatively weaker immunoselection pressure by IFN-gamma. Single loss of IL-12, IL-18, or TNF was not sufficient for spontaneous tumor development. A significant incidence of late onset adenocarcinoma observed in both IFN-gamma- and pfp-deficient mice indicated that some epithelial tissues were also subject to immunosurveillance.
A critical role for natural killer T cells in immunosurveillance of methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas
(ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 2002-07-01)
Natural killer (NK) T cells initiate potent antitumor responses when stimulated by exogenous factors such as interleukin (IL)-12 or alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer), however, it is not clear whether this reflects a physiological role for these cells in tumor immunity. Through adoptive transfer of NK T cells from wild-type to NK T cell-deficient (T cell receptor [TCR] Jalpha281-/-) mice, we demonstrate a critical role for NK T cells in immunosurveillance of methylcholanthrene (MCA)-induced fibrosarcomas, in the absence of exogenous stimulatory factors. Using the same approach with gene-targeted and/or antibody-depleted donor or recipient mice, we have shown that this effect depends on CD1d recognition and requires the additional involvement of both NK and CD8+ T cells. Interferon-gamma production by both NK T cells and downstream, non-NK T cells, is essential for protection, and perforin production by effector cells, but not NK T cells, is also critical. The protective mechanisms in this more physiologically relevant system are distinct from those associated with alpha-GalCer-induced, NK T cell-mediated, tumor rejection. This study demonstrates that, in addition to their importance in tumor immunotherapy induced by IL-12 or alpha-GalCer, NK T cells can play a critical role in tumor immunosurveillance, at least against MCA-induced sarcomas, in the absence of exogenous stimulation.
Sequential activation of NKT cells and NK cells provides effective innate immunotherapy of cancer
(ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 2005-06-20)
The CD1d reactive glycolipid, alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer), potently activates T cell receptor-alpha type I invariant NKT cells that secondarily stimulate the proliferation and activation of other leukocytes, including NK cells. Here we report a rational approach to improving the antitumor activity of alpha-GalCer by using delayed interleukin (IL)-21 treatment to mature the alpha-GalCer-expanded pool of NK cells into highly cytotoxic effector cells. In a series of experimental and spontaneous metastases models in mice, we demonstrate far superior antitumor activity of the alpha-GalCer/IL-21 combination above either agent alone. Superior antitumor activity was critically dependent upon the increased perforin-mediated cytolytic activity of NK cells. Transfer of alpha-GalCer-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) followed by systemic IL-21 caused an even more significant reduction in established (day 8) metastatic burden and prolonged survival. In addition, this combination prevented chemical carcinogenesis more effectively. Combinations of IL-21 with other NK cell-activating cytokines, such as IL-2 and IL-12, were much less effective in the same experimental metastases models, and these cytokines did not substitute effectively for IL-21 in combination with alpha-GalCer. Overall, the data suggest that NK cell antitumor function can be enhanced greatly by strategies that are designed to expand and differentiate NK cells via DC activation of NKT cells.
A nonclassical non-V alpha 14J alpha 18 CD1d-restricted (type II) NKT cell is sufficient for down-regulation of tumor immunosurveillance
(ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 2005-12-19)
The importance of immunoregulatory T cells has become increasingly apparent. Both CD4+CD25+ T cells and CD1d-restricted NKT cells have been reported to down-regulate tumor immunity in mouse tumor models. However, the relative roles of both T cell populations have rarely been clearly distinguished in the same tumor models. In addition, CD1d-restricted NKT cells have been reported to play a critical role not only in the down-regulation of tumor immunity but also in the promotion of the immunity. However, the explanation for these apparently opposite roles in different tumor models remains unclear. We show that in four mouse tumor models in which CD1d-restricted NKT cells play a role in suppression of tumor immunity, depletion of CD4+CD25+ T cells did not induce enhancement of immunosurveillance. Surprisingly, among the two subpopulations of CD1d-restricted NKT cells, Valpha14Jalpha18+ (type I) and Valpha14Jalpha18- (type II) NKT cells, type I NKT cells were not necessary for the immune suppression. These unexpected results may now resolve the paradox in the role of CD1d-restricted NKT cells in the regulation of tumor immunity, in that type II NKT cells may be sufficient for negative regulation, whereas protection has been found to be mediated by alpha-galactosylceramide-responsive type I NKT cells.