Physiology - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 237
Utilising polymorphisms to achieve allele-specific genome editing in zebrafish
(COMPANY BIOLOGISTS LTD, 2017-01-15)
The advent of genome editing has significantly altered genetic research, including research using the zebrafish model. To better understand the selectivity of the commonly used CRISPR/Cas9 system, we investigated single base pair mismatches in target sites and examined how they affect genome editing in the zebrafish model. Using two different zebrafish strains that have been deep sequenced, CRISPR/Cas9 target sites containing polymorphisms between the two strains were identified. These strains were crossed (creating heterozygotes at polymorphic sites) and CRISPR/Cas9 complexes that perfectly complement one strain injected. Sequencing of targeted sites showed biased, allele-specific editing for the perfectly complementary sequence in the majority of cases (14/19). To test utility, we examined whether phenotypes generated by F0 injection could be internally controlled with such polymorphisms. Targeting of genes bmp7a and chordin showed reduction in the frequency of phenotypes in injected 'heterozygotes' compared with injecting the strain with perfect complementarity. Next, injecting CRISPR/Cas9 complexes targeting two separate sites created deletions, but deletions were biased to selected chromosomes when one CRISPR/Cas9 target contained a polymorphism. Finally, integration of loxP sequences occurred preferentially in alleles with perfect complementarity. These experiments demonstrate that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) present throughout the genome can be utilised to increase the efficiency of in cis genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 in the zebrafish model.
A process and mechanism of action evaluation of the effect of early and intensive nutrition care, delivered via telephone or mobile application, on quality of life in people with upper gastrointestinal cancer: a study protocol
BACKGROUND: Cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract commonly result in malnutrition, which increases morbidity and mortality. Current nutrition best practice lacks a mechanism to provide early and intensive nutrition support to these patients. A 3-arm parallel randomised controlled trial is testing the provision of a tailored, nutritional counselling intervention delivered using a synchronous, telephone-based approach or an asynchronous, mobile application-based approach to address this problem. This protocol outlines the design and methods that will be used to undertake an evaluation of the implementation process, which is imperative for successful replication and dissemination. METHODS: A concurrent triangulation mixed methods comparative analysis will be undertaken. The nutrition intervention will be provided using best practice behaviour change techniques and communicated either via telephone or via mHealth. The implementation outcomes that will be measured are: fidelity to the nutrition intervention protocol and to the delivery approach; engagement; acceptability and contextual factors. Qualitative data from recorded telephone consultations and written messages will be analysed through a coding matrix against the behaviour change techniques outlined in the standard operating procedure, and also thematically to determine barriers and enablers. Negative binomial regression will be used to test for predictive relationships between intervention components with health-related quality of life and nutrition outcomes. Post-intervention interviews with participants and health professionals will be thematically analysed to determine the acceptability of delivery approaches. NVivo 11 Pro software will be used to code for thematic analysis. STATA version 15 will be used to perform quantitative analysis. DISCUSSION: The findings of this process evaluation will provide evidence of the core active ingredients that enable the implementation of best practice nutrition intervention for people with upper gastrointestinal cancer. Elucidation of the causal pathways of successful implementation and the important relationship to contextual delivery are anticipated. With this information, a strategy for sustained implementation across broader settings will be developed which impact the quality of life and nutritional status of individuals with upper gastrointestinal cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION: 27th January 2017 Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ( ACTRN12617000152325 ).
The Y chromosome: a blueprint for men's health?
(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2017-11)
The Y chromosome has long been considered a 'genetic wasteland' on a trajectory to completely disappear from the human genome. The perception of its physiological function was restricted to sex determination and spermatogenesis. These views have been challenged in recent times with the identification of multiple ubiquitously expressed Y-chromosome genes and the discovery of several unexpected associations between the Y chromosome, immune system and complex polygenic traits. The collected evidence suggests that the Y chromosome influences immune and inflammatory responses in men, translating into genetically programmed susceptibility to diseases with a strong immune component. Phylogenetic studies reveal that carriers of a common European lineage of the Y chromosome (haplogroup I) possess increased risk of coronary artery disease. This occurs amidst upregulation of inflammation and suppression of adaptive immunity in this Y lineage, as well as inferior outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus infection. From structural analysis and experimental data, the UTY (Ubiquitously Transcribed Tetratricopeptide Repeat Containing, Y-Linked) gene is emerging as a promising candidate underlying the associations between Y-chromosome variants and the immunity-driven susceptibility to complex disease. This review synthesises the recent structural, experimental and clinical insights into the human Y chromosome in the context of men's susceptibility to disease (with a particular emphasis on cardiovascular disease) and provides an overview of the paradigm shift in the perception of the Y chromosome.
Leukocyte telomere length variation due to DNA extraction method.
(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2014-12-04)
BACKGROUND: Telomere length is indicative of biological age. Shorter telomeres have been associated with several disease and health states. There are inconsistencies throughout the literature amongst relative telomere length measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and different extraction methods or kits used. We quantified whole-blood leukocyte telomere length using the telomere to single copy gene (T/S) ratio by qPCR in 20 young (18-25 yrs) men after extracting DNA using three common extraction methods: Lahiri and Nurnberger (high salt) method, PureLink Genomic DNA Mini kit (Life Technologies) and QiaAmp DNA Mini kit (Qiagen). Telomere length differences of DNA extracted from the three extraction methods was assessed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: DNA purity differed between extraction methods used (P=0.01). Telomere length was impacted by the DNA extraction method used (P=0.01). Telomeres extracted using the Lahiri and Nurnberger method (mean T/S ratio: 2.43, range: 1.57-3.02) and PureLink Genomic DNA Mini Kit (mean T/S ratio: 2.57, range: 2.24-2.80) did not differ (P=0.13). Likewise, QiaAmp and Purelink-extracted telomeres were not statistically different (P=0.14). The Lahiri-extracted telomeres, however, were significantly shorter than those extracted using the QiaAmp DNA Mini Kit (mean T/S ratio: 2.71, range: 2.32-3.02; P=0.003). DNA purity was associated with telomere length. CONCLUSION: There are discrepancies between the length of leukocyte telomeres extracted from the same individuals according to the DNA extraction method used. DNA purity could be responsible for the discrepancy in telomere length but this will require validation studies. We recommend using the same DNA extraction kit when quantifying leukocyte telomere length by qPCR or when comparing different cohorts to avoid erroneous associations between telomere length and traits of interest.
Telomeres, Aging and Exercise: Guilty by Association?
Telomeres are repetitive tandem DNA sequences that cap chromosomal ends protecting genomic DNA from enzymatic degradation. Telomeres progressively shorten with cellular replication and are therefore assumed to correlate with biological and chronological age. An expanding body of evidence suggests (i) a predictable inverse association between telomere length, aging and age-related diseases and (ii) a positive association between physical activity and telomere length. Both hypotheses have garnered tremendous research attention and broad consensus; however, the evidence for each proposition is inconsistent and equivocal at best. Telomere length does not meet the basic criteria for an aging biomarker and at least 50% of key studies fail to find associations with physical activity. In this review, we address the evidence in support and refutation of the putative associations between telomere length, aging and physical activity. We finish with a brief review of plausible mechanisms and potential future research directions.
Uncovering genetic mechanisms of kidney aging through transcriptomics, genomics, and epigenomics
(ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2019-03-01)
Nephrons scar and involute during aging, increasing the risk of chronic kidney disease. Little is known, however, about genetic mechanisms of kidney aging. We sought to define the signatures of age on the renal transcriptome using 563 human kidneys. The initial discovery analysis of 260 kidney transcriptomes from the TRANScriptome of renaL humAn TissuE Study (TRANSLATE) and the Cancer Genome Atlas identified 37 age-associated genes. For 19 of those genes, the association with age was replicated in 303 kidney transcriptomes from the Nephroseq resource. Surveying 42 nonrenal tissues from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project revealed that, for approximately a fifth of the replicated genes, the association with age was kidney-specific. Seventy-three percent of the replicated genes were associated with functional or histological parameters of age-related decline in kidney health, including glomerular filtration rate, glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and arterial narrowing. Common genetic variants in four of the age-related genes, namely LYG1, PPP1R3C, LTF and TSPYL5, correlated with the trajectory of age-related changes in their renal expression. Integrative analysis of genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic information revealed that the observed age-related decline in renal TSPYL5 expression was determined both genetically and epigenetically. Thus, this study revealed robust molecular signatures of the aging kidney and new regulatory mechanisms of age-related change in the kidney transcriptome.
Maternal high fat feeding does not have long-lasting effects on body composition and bone health in female and male Wistar rat offspring at young adulthood.
(MDPI AG, 2013-12-06)
High fat diets adversely affect body composition, bone mineral and strength, and alter bone fatty acid composition. It is unclear if maternal high fat (HF) feeding permanently alters offspring body composition and bone health. Female rats were fed control (CON) or HF diet for 10 weeks, bred, and continued their diets throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male and female offspring were studied at weaning and 3 months, following consumption of CON diet. At weaning, but not 3 months of age, male and female offspring from dams fed HF diet had lower lean mass and higher fat and bone mass, and higher femur bone mineral density (females only) than offspring of dams fed CON diet. Male and female offspring femurs from dams fed HF diet had higher monounsaturates and lower n6 polyunsaturates at weaning than offspring from dams fed CON diet, where females from dams fed HF diet had higher saturates and lower n6 polyunsaturates at 3 months of age. There were no differences in strength of femurs or lumbar vertebrae at 3 months of age in either male or female offspring. In conclusion, maternal HF feeding did not permanently affect body composition and bone health at young adulthood in offspring.
Exercise Protects Against Olanzapine-Induced Hyperglycemia in Male C57BL/6J Mice.
(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2018-01-15)
Olanzapine is a widely prescribed antipsychotic drug. While effective in reducing psychoses, treatment with olanzapine causes rapid increases in blood glucose. We wanted to determine if a single bout of exercise, immediately prior to treatment, would attenuate the olanzapine-induced rise in blood glucose and if this occurred in an IL-6 dependent manner. We found that exhaustive, but not moderate exercise, immediately prior to treatment, prevented olanzapine-induced hyperglycemia and this occurred in parallel with increases in serum IL-6. To determine if IL-6 was involved in the mechanisms through which exhaustive exercise protected against olanzapine-induced hyperglycemia several additional experiments were completed. Treatment with IL-6 (3 ng/g bw, IP) alone did not protect against olanzapine-induced increases in blood glucose. The protective effects of exhaustive exercise against olanzapine-induced increases in blood glucose were intact in whole body IL-6 knockout mice. Similarly, treating mice with an IL-6 neutralizing antibody prior to exhaustive exercise did not negate the protective effect of exercise against olanzapine-induced hyperglycemia. Our findings provide evidence that a single bout of exhaustive exercise protects against acute olanzapine-induced hyperglycemia and that IL-6 is neither sufficient, nor required for exercise to protect against increases in blood glucose with olanzapine treatment.
Dataset from the global phosphoproteomic mapping of early mitotic exit in human cells
(ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2015-12-01)
The presence or absence of a phosphorylation on a substrate at any particular point in time is a functional readout of the balance in activity between the regulatory kinase and the counteracting phosphatase. Understanding how stable or short-lived a phosphorylation site is required for fully appreciating the biological consequences of the phosphorylation. Our current understanding of kinases and their substrates is well established; however, the role phosphatases play is less understood. Therefore, we utilized a phosphatase dependent model of mitotic exit to identify potential substrates that are preferentially dephosphorylated. Using this method, we identified >16,000 phosphosites on >3300 unique proteins, and quantified the temporal phosphorylation changes that occur during early mitotic exit (McCloy et al., 2015 ). Furthermore, we annotated the majority of these phosphorylation sites with a high confidence upstream kinase using published, motif and prediction based methods. The results from this study have been deposited into the ProteomeXchange repository with identifier PXD001559. Here we provide additional analysis of this dataset; for each of the major mitotic kinases we identified motifs that correlated strongly with phosphorylation status. These motifs could be used to predict the stability of phosphorylated residues in proteins of interest, and help infer potential functional roles for uncharacterized phosphorylations. In addition, we provide validation at the single cell level that serine residues phosphorylated by Cdk are stable during phosphatase dependent mitotic exit. In summary, this unique dataset contains information on the temporal mitotic stability of thousands of phosphorylation sites regulated by dozens of kinases, and information on the potential preference that phosphatases have at both the protein and individual phosphosite level. The compellation of this data provides an invaluable resource for the wider research community.
Proteomic Analysis of GLUT4 Storage Vesicles Reveals Tumor Suppressor Candidate 5 (TUSC5) as a Novel Regulator of Insulin Action in Adipocytes
(AMER SOC BIOCHEMISTRY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY INC, 2015-09-25)
Insulin signaling augments glucose transport by regulating glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) trafficking from specialized intracellular compartments, termed GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs), to the plasma membrane. Proteomic analysis of GSVs by mass spectrometry revealed enrichment of 59 proteins in these vesicles. We measured reduced abundance of 23 of these proteins following insulin stimulation and assigned these as high confidence GSV proteins. These included established GSV proteins such as GLUT4 and insulin-responsive aminopeptidase, as well as six proteins not previously reported to be localized to GSVs. Tumor suppressor candidate 5 (TUSC5) was shown to be a novel GSV protein that underwent a 3.7-fold increase in abundance at the plasma membrane in response to insulin. siRNA-mediated knockdown of TUSC5 decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, although overexpression of TUSC5 had the opposite effect, implicating TUSC5 as a positive regulator of insulin-stimulated glucose transport in adipocytes. Incubation of adipocytes with TNFα caused insulin resistance and a concomitant reduction in TUSC5. Consistent with previous studies, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ agonism reversed TNFα-induced insulin resistance. TUSC5 expression was necessary but insufficient for PPARγ-mediated reversal of insulin resistance. These findings functionally link TUSC5 to GLUT4 trafficking, insulin action, insulin resistance, and PPARγ action in the adipocyte. Further studies are required to establish the exact role of TUSC5 in adipocytes.
Exercise-induced molecular mechanisms promoting glycogen supercompensation in human skeletal muscle.
(Elsevier BV, 2018-10)
OBJECTIVE: A single bout of exercise followed by intake of carbohydrates leads to glycogen supercompensation in prior exercised muscle. Our objective was to illuminate molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon in skeletal muscle of man. METHODS: We studied the temporal regulation of glycogen supercompensation in human skeletal muscle during a 5 day recovery period following a single bout of exercise. Nine healthy men depleted (day 1), normalized (day 2) and supercompensated (day 5) muscle glycogen in one leg while the contralateral leg served as a resting control. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps in combination with leg balance technique allowed for investigating insulin-stimulated leg glucose uptake under these 3 experimental conditions. Cellular signaling in muscle biopsies was investigated by global proteomic analyses and immunoblotting. We strengthened the validity of proposed molecular effectors by follow-up studies in muscle of transgenic mice. RESULTS: Sustained activation of glycogen synthase (GS) and AMPK in combination with elevated expression of proteins determining glucose uptake capacity were evident in the prior exercised muscle. We hypothesize that these alterations offset the otherwise tight feedback inhibition of glycogen synthesis and glucose uptake by glycogen. In line with key roles of AMPK and GS seen in the human experiments we observed abrogated ability for glycogen supercompensation in muscle with inducible AMPK deletion and in muscle carrying a G6P-insensitive form of GS in muscle. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that both AMPK and GS are key regulators of glycogen supercompensation following a single bout of glycogen-depleting exercise in skeletal muscle of both man and mouse.
mTORC2 and AMPK differentially regulate muscle triglyceride content via Perilipin 3
OBJECTIVE: We have recently shown that acute inhibition of both mTOR complexes (mTORC1 and mTORC2) increases whole-body lipid utilization, while mTORC1 inhibition had no effect. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that mTORC2 regulates lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. METHODS: Body composition, substrate utilization and muscle lipid storage were measured in mice lacking mTORC2 activity in skeletal muscle (specific knockout of RICTOR (Ric mKO)). We further examined the RICTOR/mTORC2-controlled muscle metabolome and proteome; and performed follow-up studies in other genetic mouse models and in cell culture. RESULTS: Ric mKO mice exhibited a greater reliance on fat as an energy substrate, a re-partitioning of lean to fat mass and an increase in intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) content, along with increases in several lipid metabolites in muscle. Unbiased proteomics revealed an increase in the expression of the lipid droplet binding protein Perilipin 3 (PLIN3) in muscle from Ric mKO mice. This was associated with increased AMPK activity in Ric mKO muscle. Reducing AMPK kinase activity decreased muscle PLIN3 expression and IMTG content. AMPK agonism, in turn, increased PLIN3 expression in a FoxO1 dependent manner. PLIN3 overexpression was sufficient to increase triglyceride content in muscle cells. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a novel link between mTORC2 and PLIN3, which regulates lipid storage in muscle. While mTORC2 is a negative regulator, we further identified AMPK as a positive regulator of PLIN3, which impacts whole-body substrate utilization and nutrient partitioning.