Surgery (Austin & Northern Health) - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 696
The Impact of Intraoperative Donor Blood on Packed Red Blood Cell Transfusion During Deceased Donor Liver Transplantation: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
(Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2021-07-01)
BACKGROUND: Blood from deceased organ donors, also known as donor blood (DB), has the potential to reduce the need for packed red blood cells (PRBCs) during liver transplantation (LT). We hypothesized that DB removed during organ procurement is a viable resource that could reduce the need for PRBCs during LT. METHODS: We retrospectively examined data on LT recipients aged over 18 y who underwent a deceased donor LT. The primary aim was to compare the incidence of PRBC transfusion in LT patients who received intraoperative DB (the DB group) to those who did not (the nondonor blood [NDB] group). RESULTS: After a propensity score matching process, 175 patients received DB and 175 did not. The median (first-third quartile) volume of DB transfused was 690.0 mL (500.0-900.0), equivalent to a median of 3.1 units (2.3-4.1). More patients in the NDB group received an intraoperative PRBC transfusion than in the DB group: 74.3% (95% confidence intervals, 67.8-80.8) compared with 60% (95% confidence intervals, 52.7-67.3); P = 0.004. The median number of PRBCs transfused intraoperatively was higher in the NDB group compared with the DB group: 3 units (0-6) compared with 2 units (0-4); P = 0.004. There were no significant differences observed in the secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Use of DB removed during organ procurement and reinfused to the recipient is a viable resource for reducing the requirements for PRBCs during LT. Use of DB minimizes the exposure of the recipient to multiple donor sources.
SARS-CoV-2 infection and venous thromboembolism after surgery: an international prospective cohort study
SARS-CoV-2 has been associated with an increased rate of venous thromboembolism in critically ill patients. Since surgical patients are already at higher risk of venous thromboembolism than general populations, this study aimed to determine if patients with peri-operative or prior SARS-CoV-2 were at further increased risk of venous thromboembolism. We conducted a planned sub-study and analysis from an international, multicentre, prospective cohort study of elective and emergency patients undergoing surgery during October 2020. Patients from all surgical specialties were included. The primary outcome measure was venous thromboembolism (pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis) within 30 days of surgery. SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis was defined as peri-operative (7 days before to 30 days after surgery); recent (1-6 weeks before surgery); previous (≥7 weeks before surgery); or none. Information on prophylaxis regimens or pre-operative anti-coagulation for baseline comorbidities was not available. Postoperative venous thromboembolism rate was 0.5% (666/123,591) in patients without SARS-CoV-2; 2.2% (50/2317) in patients with peri-operative SARS-CoV-2; 1.6% (15/953) in patients with recent SARS-CoV-2; and 1.0% (11/1148) in patients with previous SARS-CoV-2. After adjustment for confounding factors, patients with peri-operative (adjusted odds ratio 1.5 (95%CI 1.1-2.0)) and recent SARS-CoV-2 (1.9 (95%CI 1.2-3.3)) remained at higher risk of venous thromboembolism, with a borderline finding in previous SARS-CoV-2 (1.7 (95%CI 0.9-3.0)). Overall, venous thromboembolism was independently associated with 30-day mortality (5.4 (95%CI 4.3-6.7)). In patients with SARS-CoV-2, mortality without venous thromboembolism was 7.4% (319/4342) and with venous thromboembolism was 40.8% (31/76). Patients undergoing surgery with peri-operative or recent SARS-CoV-2 appear to be at increased risk of postoperative venous thromboembolism compared with patients with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Optimal venous thromboembolism prophylaxis and treatment are unknown in this cohort of patients, and these data should be interpreted accordingly.
'It's going to change the way we train': Qualitative evaluation of a transformative faculty development workshop
INTRODUCTION: Relatively little is known about faculty development (FD) activities that help participants achieve sustainable behavioral change. This qualitative study evaluated the medium- to long-term impact of a FD workshop informed by transformative learning (TL) theory. It aimed to discover which aspects of FD prompted healthcare professionals (HPs) to adopt effective teaching and learning practices. METHODS: Seventeen participants were interviewed between January and July 2020, 7 to 30 months after the workshop. Purposeful sampling strategies were used to collect data and analysis was performed using reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Four themes were identified: perspectival shift in educational practice, re-affirmation of current practices, becoming an educator, and valuing FD that accommodates HPs' multiple communities of practice (CoPs). Workshop activities foregrounding critical discourse and reflection helped participants gain new knowledge and deeper understanding of education. TL was likely when participants already identified as an educator in addition to their HP identity. Additionally, a workplace CoP determined the type and level of support affecting HPs' development as educators. DISCUSSION: Aspects of FD that prompted HPs to adopt effective teaching and learning practices included initiatives that catalyzed critical discourse and reflection. Readiness for TL is promoted when HPs have a strong educator identity because of workplace educator CoPs. Future research could explore effecting sustainable post-workshop behavioral change in HPs through the strengthening of workplace educator CoPs. To do this, institutions could send co-located HPs from different disciplines to the same FD program.
Clinical outcomes of patients with two small hepatocellular carcinomas
(BAISHIDENG PUBLISHING GROUP INC, 2021-10-27)
BACKGROUND: Management of single small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is straightforward with curative outcomes achieved by locoregional therapy or resection. Liver transplantation is often considered for multiple small or single large HCC. Management of two small HCC whether presenting synchronously or sequentially is less clear. AIM: To define the outcomes of patients presenting with two small HCC. METHODS: Retrospective review of HCC databases from multiple institutions of patients with either two synchronous or sequential HCC ≤ 3 cm between January 2000 and March 2018. Primary outcomes were overall survival (OS) and transplant-free survival (TFS). RESULTS: 104 patients were identified (male n = 89). Median age was 63 years (interquartile range 58-67.75) and the most common aetiology of liver disease was hepatitis C (40.4%). 59 (56.7%) had synchronous HCC and 45 (43.3%) had sequential. 36 patients died (34.6%) and 25 were transplanted (24.0%). 1, 3 and 5-year OS was 93.0%, 66.1% and 62.3% and 5-year post-transplant survival was 95.8%. 1, 3 and 5-year TFS was 82.1%, 45.85% and 37.8%. When synchronous and sequential groups were compared, OS (1,3 and 5 year synchronous 91.3%, 63.8%, 61.1%, sequential 95.3%, 69.5%, 64.6%, P = 0.41) was similar but TFS was higher in the sequential group (1,3 and 5 year synchronous 68.5%, 37.3% and 29.7%, sequential 93.2%, 56.6%, 48.5%, P = 0.02) though this difference did not remain during multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: TFS in patients presenting with two HCC ≤ 3 cm is poor regardless of the timing of the second tumor. All patients presenting with two small HCC should be considered for transplantation.
Results of a single-arm pilot study of 32P microparticles in unresectable locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma with gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel or FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy.
(Elsevier BV, 2021-12-22)
BACKGROUND: Unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) is generally managed with chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, but prognosis is poor with a median survival of ∼13 months (or up to 19 months in some studies). We assessed a novel brachytherapy device, using phosphorous-32 (32P) microparticles, combined with standard-of-care chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this international, multicentre, single-arm, open-label pilot study, adult patients with histologically or cytologically proven unresectable LAPC received 32P microparticles, via endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle implantation, planned for week 4 of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) or gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel chemotherapy, per investigator's choice. The primary endpoint was safety and tolerability measured using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. The lead efficacy endpoint was local disease control rate at 16 weeks. RESULTS: Fifty patients were enrolled and received chemotherapy [intention-to-treat (ITT) population]. Forty-two patients received 32P microparticle implantation [per protocol (PP) population]. A total of 1102 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were reported in the ITT/safety population (956 PP), of which 167 (139 PP) were grade ≥3. In the PP population, 41 TEAEs in 16 (38.1%) patients were possibly or probably related to 32P microparticles or implantation procedure, including 8 grade ≥3 in 3 (7.1%) patients, compared with 609 TEAEs in 42 (100%) patients attributed to chemotherapy, including 67 grade ≥3 in 28 patients (66.7%). The local disease control rate at 16 weeks was 82.0% (95% confidence interval: 68.6% to 90.9%) (ITT) and 90.5% (95% confidence interval: 77.4% to 97.3%) (PP). Tumour volume, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels, and metabolic tumour response at week 12 improved significantly. Ten patients (20.0% ITT; 23.8% PP) had surgical resection and median overall survival was 15.2 and 15.5 months for ITT and PP populations, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided 32P microparticle implantation has an acceptable safety profile. This study also suggests clinically relevant benefits of combining 32P microparticles with standard-of-care systemic chemotherapy for patients with unresectable LAPC.
Simulation training in non-cancer palliative care for healthcare workers: a systematic review of controlled studies
(BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2021-06-01)
Background The need for healthcare workers (HCWs) to have skills and knowledge in non-cancer palliative care has been recognised. Simulation is increasingly being used for palliative care training, offering participants the opportunity to learn in a realistic environment and fully interactive way. Objective The aim of this systematic review was to summarise and critically appraise controlled studies on simulation training in non-cancer palliative care for HCWs. Selection Medline, CINAHL, PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were searched using palliative care and simulation terms. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised RCTs and controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies were included. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts and undertook full article review using predefined selection criteria. Studies that met the inclusion criteria had data extracted and risk of bias assessed using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care risk of bias criteria. Findings Five articles were included: three RCTs and two CBA studies. All studies assessed learners’ palliative care communication skills, most studies evaluated learners’ perception of change in skills and one study assessed impact on patient outcomes and learners’ change in behaviour when applied in practice. There was variation in intervention content, intensity and duration, outcome measures and study design, making it difficult to compare and synthesise results. Conclusion There is a paucity of evidence to support simulation training to improve non-cancer palliative care. This review highlights the need for more robust research, including multicentre studies that use standardised outcome measures to assess clinician skills, changes in clinical practice and patient-related outcomes.
Strategies for success: a multi-institutional study on robot-assisted partial nephrectomy for complex renal lesions
OBJECTIVE: To describe our technique, illustrated with images and videos, of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) for challenging renal tumours. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A study of 249 patients who underwent RAPN in multiple institutions was performed. Patients were identified using prospective RAPN databases. Complex renal lesion were defined as those with a RENAL nephrometry score ≥10. Data were analysed and differences among groups examined. RESULTS: A total of 31 (12.4%) RAPNs were performed for complex renal tumours. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) patient age was 57 (50.5-70.5) years and 21 patients (67.7%) were men. The median (IQR) American Society of Anesthesiologists score was 2 (2-3). The median (IQR) operating time was 200 (50-265) min, warm ischaemia time was 23 (18.5-29) min, and estimated blood loss was 200 (50-265) mL. There were no intra-operative complications. Two patients (6.4%) had postoperative complications. One patient (3.2%) had a positive surgical margin. The median (IQR) length of stay was 3.5 (3-5) days and the median (IQR) follow-up was 12.5 (7-24) months. There were no recurrences. RAPN resulted in statistically significant changes in renal function 3 months after RAPN compared with preoperative renal function (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our results showed that RAPN was a safe approach for selected patients with complex renal tumours and may facilitate tumour resection and renorrhaphy for challenging cases, offering a minimally invasive surgical option for patients who may otherwise require open surgery.
Quality of handwritten surgical operative notes from surgical trainees: a noteworthy issue
BACKGROUND: Surgical operation notes are crucial for medical record keeping and information flow in continued patient care. In addition to inherent medical implications, the quality of operative notes also has important economic and medico-legal ramifications. Further, well-documented records can also be useful for audit purposes and propagation of research, facilitating the improvement of delivery of care to patients. We aimed to assess the quality of surgical operation notes written by junior doctors and trainees against a set standard, to ascertain whether these standards were met. METHOD: We undertook an audit of Urology and General Surgery operation notes handwritten by junior doctors and surgical trainees in a tertiary teaching hospital over a month period both in 2014 and 2015. Individual operative notes were assessed for quality based on parameters described by the Royal College of Surgeons of England guidelines. RESULTS: Based on the Royal College of Surgeons of England guidelines, a significant proportion of analysed surgical operative notes were incomplete, with information pertaining to the time of surgery, name of anaesthetist and deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis in particular being recorded less than 50% of the time (22.42, 36.36 and 43.03%, respectively).Overall, 80% compliance was achieved in 14/20 standards and 100% compliance was attained in only one standard. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of surgical operation notes written by junior doctors and trainees demonstrated significant deficiencies when compared against a set standard. There is a clear need to educate junior medical staff and to provide systems and ongoing education to improve quality. This would involve leadership from senior staff, ongoing audit and the development of systems that are part of the normal workflow to improve quality and compliance.
Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate can evade androgen deprivation, with emergence of castrate-tolerant cells
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relevance of intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) in advanced prostate cancer by first examining whether IDC-P was originally present in patients who later developed advanced prostate cancer and then using patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) to investigate the response of IDC-P to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective pathology review of IDC-P in primary prostate biopsy or surgery specimens from 38 men who subsequently developed advanced prostate cancer. Overall survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. To demonstrate the response of IDC-P to ADT, we established PDXs from seven patients with familial and/or high-risk sporadic prostate cancer. After castration and testosterone restoration of host mice, we measured the volume and proliferation of IDC-P within PDX grafts. RESULTS: We found that IDC-P was a prominent feature in the primary prostate specimens, present in 63% of specimens and often co-existing with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Overall survival was similar in patients with or without IDC-P. In the PDXs from all seven patients, IDC-P was identified and present at a similar volume to adenocarcinoma. Residual IDC-P lesions persisted after host castration and, similar to castrate-tolerant adenocarcinoma, testosterone restoration led to tumour regeneration. CONCLUSION: The study showed that IDC-P is prevalent in aggressive prostate cancer and contains cells that can withstand androgen deprivation. Thus, IDC-P appears functionally relevant in advanced prostate cancer. The presence of IDC-P may be a trigger to develop innovative clinical management plans.
The supervisory encounter and the senior GP trainee: managing for, through and with
OBJECTIVE: Help-seeking supervisory encounters provide important learning experiences for trainees preparing for independent practice. Although there is a body of expert opinion and theories on how supervisor encounters should happen, supporting empirical data are limited. This is particularly true for the senior general practice (GP) trainee. Without knowing what happens during these encounters, we cannot know how to maximise their educational potential. This study aimed to understand what happens when senior GP trainees call on their supervisor when caring for patients and how learning can be enhanced when this occurs. METHODS: This is an analysis of data from a multi-case study of five GP supervisory pairs, each with a GP registrar and their supervisor. The data are recordings of 45 supervisory encounters, 78 post-encounter reflections and six interviews. We used Wenger's communities of practice theory and rhetorical genre theory as analytical lenses. RESULTS: The supervisory encounters followed a consistent format, which fitted the form of a genre. Within this genre, three dominant interactional patterns were identified, which we labelled 'managing for', 'managing through' and 'managing with'. Each pattern presented different opportunities and drew on different skills. The primary agenda was always developing a plan for the patient. Education agendas included acquiring knowledge, developing skills and achieving independence. Other agendas were issues of control, credibility and relationship building. Both supervisor and trainee could be purposeful in their supervisory engagement. CONCLUSIONS: For supervisors and trainees to achieve the educational potential of their supervisory encounters they require flexibility. This depends on understanding the genre of the supervisory encounter, the agendas at play, the options they have in engaging and having the skills to utilise these options. Educators can facilitate supervisors and trainees in acquiring this understanding and these skills. We recommend further research into the genre of the supervisory encounter.
Adolescent temperament dimensions as stable prospective risk and protective factors for salivary C-reactive protein
OBJECTIVE: Temperament has associations with later physical health outcomes, yet there is a dearth of research exploring the connection between temperament and mechanisms that have known associations with these health outcomes. Recent research has delineated a connection between personality and inflammation during adulthood, but this association has not yet been studied in adolescent samples. DESIGN: We investigated whether stable adolescent temperament (averaged over two years), specifically effortful control and negative emotionality, provided a more robust prediction of inflammation as measured by salivary C-reactive protein (sCRP), than depressive symptoms. METHODS: Temperament and depressive symptoms were measured in a sample of sixty-three adolescents (37 males) when they were approximately 12 years old (mean age = 12.30, SD = 0.69) and again when they were approximately 14 years old (mean age = 14.84, SD = 0.49). Levels of sCRP were determined approximately 7 months later (mean = 6.77, SD = 2.99) when participants were approximately 15 years old (mean age = 15.49, SD = 0.49). RESULTS: Regression analyses revealed that effortful control (EC) was significantly associated with lower sCRP levels, while higher negative emotionality (NE) was significantly associated with higher sCRP levels. Furthermore, these associations were larger than those for depressive symptoms and were differentially impacted by the addition of covariates. Implications for the role of stable risk and protective factors in inflammatory processes are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are the first to show associations between adolescent temperament and inflammation. Furthermore, these findings extend previous personality research to temperamental research in a younger sample of adolescents. Statement of contribution What is already known? There is a large extant literature on the association between depressive symptoms and inflammation. There is a smaller extant literature on the association between personality and inflammation. No studies have examined how adolescent temperament traits may relate to inflammation. What does this study add? Longitudinal data collection over the course of 3 years in an adolescent sample. Addresses the question of whether temperament factors relate to inflammation. Temperament provides a more robust predictor of later inflammation than depressive symptoms.