Medical Education - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 129
Treatment Outcomes for Rectal Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Men Who Have Sex with Men Using Doxycycline, Azithromycin, or Both: A Review of Clinical Cases
(LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2017-04-01)
BACKGROUND: Treatment for rectal lymphogranuloma venereum where doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for 21 days was used-either alone or together with azithromycin 1 g single dose-resulted in microbiological cure of 97%. These data support doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for 21 days as the preferred treatment for rectal lymphogranuloma venereum.
Global, regional, and national burden of chronic kidney disease, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.
BACKGROUND: Health system planning requires careful assessment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) epidemiology, but data for morbidity and mortality of this disease are scarce or non-existent in many countries. We estimated the global, regional, and national burden of CKD, as well as the burden of cardiovascular disease and gout attributable to impaired kidney function, for the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017. We use the term CKD to refer to the morbidity and mortality that can be directly attributed to all stages of CKD, and we use the term impaired kidney function to refer to the additional risk of CKD from cardiovascular disease and gout. METHODS: The main data sources we used were published literature, vital registration systems, end-stage kidney disease registries, and household surveys. Estimates of CKD burden were produced using a Cause of Death Ensemble model and a Bayesian meta-regression analytical tool, and included incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability, mortality, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). A comparative risk assessment approach was used to estimate the proportion of cardiovascular diseases and gout burden attributable to impaired kidney function. FINDINGS: Globally, in 2017, 1·2 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1·2 to 1·3) people died from CKD. The global all-age mortality rate from CKD increased 41·5% (95% UI 35·2 to 46·5) between 1990 and 2017, although there was no significant change in the age-standardised mortality rate (2·8%, -1·5 to 6·3). In 2017, 697·5 million (95% UI 649·2 to 752·0) cases of all-stage CKD were recorded, for a global prevalence of 9·1% (8·5 to 9·8). The global all-age prevalence of CKD increased 29·3% (95% UI 26·4 to 32·6) since 1990, whereas the age-standardised prevalence remained stable (1·2%, -1·1 to 3·5). CKD resulted in 35·8 million (95% UI 33·7 to 38·0) DALYs in 2017, with diabetic nephropathy accounting for almost a third of DALYs. Most of the burden of CKD was concentrated in the three lowest quintiles of Socio-demographic Index (SDI). In several regions, particularly Oceania, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America, the burden of CKD was much higher than expected for the level of development, whereas the disease burden in western, eastern, and central sub-Saharan Africa, east Asia, south Asia, central and eastern Europe, Australasia, and western Europe was lower than expected. 1·4 million (95% UI 1·2 to 1·6) cardiovascular disease-related deaths and 25·3 million (22·2 to 28·9) cardiovascular disease DALYs were attributable to impaired kidney function. INTERPRETATION: Kidney disease has a major effect on global health, both as a direct cause of global morbidity and mortality and as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. CKD is largely preventable and treatable and deserves greater attention in global health policy decision making, particularly in locations with low and middle SDI. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Two-Year Outcomes After Aquablation Compared to TURP: Efficacy and Ejaculatory Improvements Sustained
INTRODUCTION: To compare 2-year safety and efficacy outcomes after Aquablation or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). METHODS: One hundred eighty-one patients with BPH were assigned at random (2:1 ratio) to either Aquablation or TURP. Patients and follow-up assessors were blinded to treatment. Assessments included the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Male Sexual Health Questionnaire (MSHQ), International Index of Erectile Function and uroflow. The focus of analysis was 2-year outcomes. RESULTS: At 2 years, IPSS scores improved by 14.7 points in the Aquablation group and 14.9 points in TURP (p = .8304, 95% CI for difference - 2.1 to 2.6 points). Two-year improvements in maximum flow rate (Qmax) were large in both groups at 11.2 and 8.6 cc/s for Aquablation and TURP, respectively (p = 0.1880, 95% CI for difference - 1.3 to 6.4). Sexual function as assessed by MSHQ was stable in the Aquablation group and decreased slightly in the TURP group. At 2 years, PSA was reduced significantly in both groups by 0.7 and 1.2 points, respectively; the reduction was similar across groups (p = 0.1816). Surgical retreatment rates after 12 months for Aquablation were 1.7% and 0% for TURP. Over 2 years, surgical BPH retreatment rates were 4.3% and 1.5% (p = 0.4219), respectively. CONCLUSION: Two-year efficacy outcomes after TURP and Aquablation were similar, and the rate of surgical retreatment was low and similar to TURP. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT02505919. FUNDING: PROCEPT BioRobotics.
A urinary microRNA signature can predict the presence of bladder urothelial carcinoma in patients undergoing surveillance
(NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2016-02-16)
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine whether microRNA (miRNA) profiling of urine could identify the presence of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) and to compare its performance characteristics to that of cystoscopy. METHODS: In the discovery cohort we screened 81 patients, which included 21 benign controls, 30 non-recurrers and 30 patients with active cancer (recurrers), using a panel of 12 miRNAs. Data analysis was performed using a machine learning approach of a Support Vector Machine classifier with a Student's t-test feature selection procedure. This was trained using a three-fold cross validation approach and performance was measured using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). The miRNA signature was validated in an independent cohort of a further 50 patients. RESULTS: The best predictor to distinguish patients with UCB from non-recurrers was achieved using a combination of six miRNAs (AUC=0.85). This validated in an independent cohort (AUC=0.74) and detected UCB with a high sensitivity (88%) and sufficient specificity (48%) with all significant cancers identified. The performance of the classifier was best in detecting clinically significant disease such as presence of T1 Stage disease (AUC=0.92) and high-volume disease (AUC=0.81). Cystoscopy rates in the validation cohort would have been reduced by 30%. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary profiling using this panel of miRNAs shows promise for detection of tumour recurrence in the surveillance of UCB. Such a panel may be useful in reducing the morbidity and costs associated with cystoscopic surveillance, and now merits prospective evaluation.
First Multi-Center All-Comers Study for the Aquablation Procedure
Waterjet-based prostate resection (Aquablation procedure) is an increasingly recognized treatment for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We confirmed the safety and effectiveness of the Aquablation procedure in the commercial setting in 178 men at five sites. The mean prostate volume was 59 cc. The procedure time averaged 24 min and total anesthesia duration was 50 min. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) decreased from 21.6 at the baseline to 6.5 at the 12-month follow-up, a 15.3-point improvement (p < 0.0001). The maximum urinary flow rate increased from 10 cc/s at the baseline to 20.8 cc/s at month 12 (increase of 11.8 cc, p < 0.0001). Ejaculatory function was relatively preserved. Prostate volume assessed with transrectal ultrasound decreased 36% by month three. Five patients (2.7%) underwent a transfusion in the first week after the procedure. Real-world evidence shows that Aquablation is safe and effective for the treatment of BPH.
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Doxycycline Efficacy for Rectal Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Men Who Have Sex with Men
(CENTERS DISEASE CONTROL & PREVENTION, 2016-10-01)
Rectal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) has reemerged as a sexually transmitted infection among men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly those who are HIV-positive. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the efficacy of doxycycline (100 mg 2×/d for 21 days) for rectal LGV in MSM. Nine studies were included: 4 prospective, 4 retrospective, and 1 combined retrospective and prospective. In total, 282 MSM with rectal LGV were included in the studies. All studies reported using nucleic acid amplification tests to assess microbial cure. Most patients (>80%) had symptomatic rectal infection. The fixed-effects pooled efficacy for doxycycline was 98.5% (95% CI 96.3%-100%, I (2) = 0%; p = 0.993). Doxycycline at 100 mg twice daily for 21 days demonstrated a high microbial cure rate. These data support doxycycline at this dosage and duration as first-line therapy for rectal LGV in MSM.
Self-regulated learning lens on trainee perceptions of the mini-CEX: a qualitative study
(BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-05-01)
OBJECTIVES: The formative aspect of the mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) in postgraduate medical workplace-based assessment is intended to afford opportunities for active learning. Yet, there is little understanding of the perceived relationship between the mini-CEX and how trainees self-regulate their learning. Our objective was to explore trainees' perceptions of their mini-CEX experiences from a learning perspective, using Zimmerman's self-regulated learning theoretical framework as an interpretive lens. DESIGN: Qualitative, using semi-structured interviews conducted in 2017. The interviews were analysed thematically. SETTING: Geriatric medicine training. PARTICIPANTS: Purposive sampling was employed to recruit geriatric medicine trainees in Melbourne, Australia. Twelve advanced trainees participated in the interviews. RESULTS: Four themes were found with a cyclical inter-relationship between three of these themes: namely, goal setting, task translation and perceived outcome. These themes reflect the phases of the self-regulated learning framework. Each phase was influenced by the fourth theme, supervisor co-regulation. Goal setting had motivational properties that had significant impact on the later phases of the cycle. A 'tick box' goal aligned with an opportunistic approach and poorer perceived educational outcomes. Participants reported that external feedback following assessment was critical for their self-evaluation, affective responses and perceived outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Trainees perceived the performance of a mini-CEX as a complex, inter-related cyclical process, influenced at all stages by the supervisor. Based on our trainee perspectives of the mini-CEX, we conclude that supervisor engagement is essential to support trainees to individually regulate their learning in the clinical environment.
Learning outcomes for communication skills across the health professions: a systematic literature review and qualitative synthesis
(BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2017-04-01)
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify and analyse communication skills learning outcomes via a systematic review and present results in a synthesised list. Summarised results inform educators and researchers in communication skills teaching and learning across health professions. DESIGN: Systematic review and qualitative synthesis. METHODS: A systematic search of five databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL plus and Scopus), from first records until August 2016, identified published learning outcomes for communication skills in health professions education. Extracted data were analysed through an iterative process of qualitative synthesis. This process was guided by principles of person centredness and an a priori decision guide. RESULTS: 168 papers met the eligibility criteria; 1669 individual learning outcomes were extracted and refined using qualitative synthesis. A final refined set of 205 learning outcomes were constructed and are presented in 4 domains that include: (1) knowledge (eg, describe the importance of communication in healthcare), (2) content skills (eg, explore a healthcare seeker's motivation for seeking healthcare),( 3) process skills (eg, respond promptly to a communication partner's questions) and (4) perceptual skills (eg, reflect on own ways of expressing emotion). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a list of 205 communication skills learning outcomes that provide a foundation for further research and educational design in communication education across the health professions. Areas for future investigation include greater patient involvement in communication skills education design and further identification of learning outcomes that target knowledge and perceptual skills. This work may also prompt educators to be cognisant of the quality and scope of the learning outcomes they design and their application as goals for learning.
Life satisfaction and musculoskeletal complaints in a population seeking osteopathy care: consecutive sample of 611 patients
(Biomed Central, 2020)
Background: Life satisfaction is a component of the subjective well-being construct. Research consistently suggests that life satisfaction is associated with enhanced social benefits and improved health outcomes. However, its relationship to musculoskeletal health outcomes is underexplored. This study evaluates the life satisfaction of a patient population presenting with musculoskeletal complaints, and the relationship of life satisfaction with other health demographics and behaviours. Method: The study used a consecutive sampling design. Patients attending the Victoria University Osteopathy Clinic (Melbourne, Australia) were invited to complete the PROMIS® General Life Satisfaction scale (GLSS) along with questions related to health demographics and behaviours. Results: The GLSS T-score was not significantly different for gender, being born outside of Australia, speaking English at home, or complaint chronicity. Conclusions: Life satisfaction did not appear to be related to a range of health and demographic variables in the current musculoskeletal pain cohort. The PROMIS® General Life Satisfaction scale could prove useful to explore the relationship between life satisfaction and treatment outcomes for musculoskeletal complaints.