Medical Education - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 1114
Medical students use, attitudes towards, and knowledge of complementary and alternative medicine: A scoping review
(Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, 2021-10-05)
Introduction: Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is popular in the general population and medical practitioners may not be fully equipped in their knowledge of CAM to advise patients appropriately. The aim of this paper was to perform a scoping review of current literature describing undergraduate medical student use, attitudes, and knowledge of CAM as a means of better understanding the educational needs of these students. Methods: A systematic search of Medline, PubMed and the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) databases with keywords related to “complementary and alternative medicine” and “undergraduate medical students” for relevant articles published until August 2020. Results: Of 131 papers identified, 38 underwent full review. It was found 13-80% of medical students use CAM, and overall have a positive attitude towards CAM therapies. Female medical students and those with religiosity had more positive attitudes towards CAM than their male colleagues and those without a religion. Knowledge of CAM is lacking with approximately only half of students feeling they were knowledgeable about CAM therapies. Popular information resources are the Internet and social media, but students expressed they want more teaching of CAM in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Conclusion: Evidence suggests high usage of CAM amongst undergraduate medical students, and positive attitudes towards CAM therapies; however, knowledge of CAM is poor, and students want more CAM teaching to upskill them in counselling patients interested in CAM therapies. Further areas for research include a better understanding of resources medical students use for their knowledge and how gender and religiosity influence attitudes towards CAM.
Clonal hematopoiesis, myeloid disorders and BAX-mutated myelopoiesis in patients receiving venetoclax for CLL.
(American Society of Hematology, 2021-09-01)
The BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax has established therapeutic roles in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and acute myeloid leukemia. As BCL2 is an important determinant of survival of both myeloid progenitor and B cells, we investigated whether clinical and molecular abnormalities arise in the myeloid compartment during long-term continuous venetoclax treatment for CLL in 89 patients (87 with relapsed/refractory CLL). Over a median follow-up of 75 (range 21-98) months, persistent cytopenias (³ 1 of neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia) lasting ³4 months and unrelated to CLL occurred in 25 patients (28%). Of these patients, 20 (80%) displayed clonal hematopoiesis, including 10 with therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (tMNs). tMNs occurred exclusively in patients previously exposed to fludarabine-alkylator combination therapy with a cumulative 5-year incidence of 10.4% after venetoclax initiation, consistent with rates reported for patients exposed to fludarabine-alkylator combination therapy without venetoclax. To determine whether the altered myelopoiesis reflected acquisition of mutations, we analyzed samples from patients with no or minimal bone marrow CLL burden (n = 41). Mutations in the apoptosis effector BAX were identified in 32% (13/41). In cellular assays, C-terminal BAX mutants abrogated outer mitochondrial membrane localization of BAX and engendered resistance to venetoclax killing. BAX-mutated clonal hematopoiesis occurred independently of prior fludarabine-alkylator combination therapy exposure and was not associated with tMNs. Single cell sequencing revealed clonal co-occurrence of mutations in BAX with DNMT3A or ASXL1. We also observed simultaneous BCL2 mutations within CLL cells and BAX mutations in the myeloid compartment of the same patients, indicating lineage-specific adaptation to venetoclax therapy.
Mental health on the move: An observational study to characterize post-migration depression symptoms among migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa in China
(PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2021-10-01)
OBJECTIVE: Migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa to China faced challenges in accessing healthcare. Less is known about their depression prevalence. We aim to address this gap by providing an initial estimation on symptoms indicative of depression. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August to October in 2019. Eligibility was defined as being originally from a Sub-Saharan African country and cumulative residence in China for at least one month. A convenience sample was drawn from snowball sampling online and venue-based sampling by community outreach. The primary outcome, symptoms indicative of depression, were measured by the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale using 16 as the cutoff. Multivariable logistic regressions were employed to examine the association between depression symptoms and their migration-related correlates. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.4. RESULTS: The prevalence of symptoms indicative of depression assessed by CES-D was high at 44% among 928 participants when using 16 as a cutoff. Depression symptoms were associated with unsatisfactory housing conditions (aOR: 1.7, 95%CI: 0.8 to 3.3) and perception of very unfriendly attitudes from the local people (aOR: 4.5, 95%CI: 1.2 to 16.1) after adjusting for covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Depression symptoms were prevalent among SSA migrants in China and warrants attention and intervention. Support should be provided during the post-migration period in China to mitigate depression risks. Future studies are needed to build more evidence on SSA migrants' mental health and to inform global health policies and programming.
VALIDATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF FUNCTIONING, DISABILITY AND HEALTH CORE SETS FOR TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY FROM AUSTRALIAN COMMUNITY PATIENT PERSPECTIVES
(FOUNDATION REHABILITATION INFORMATION, 2021-07-01)
OBJECTIVE: To examine the validity of the Comprehensive and Brief International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for Traumatic Brain Injury for patients with traumatic brain injury living in the community in Australia. DESIGN: Qualitative methodology using focus groups and individual interviews. PATIENTS: Community-dwelling adult persons with traumatic brain injury. METHODS: Patients sustaining traumatic brain injury with post-traumatic amnesia between September 2009 and August 2013, selected from the Royal Melbourne Hospital Trauma Registry, were invited to participate in the study. Participants were asked structured questions based on the ICF framework. Digital recordings of the discussions were transcribed in full for linking to the ICF categories. RESULTS: Saturation of data was reached after 5 groups involving 21 participants. Participants identified as relevant 77.7% (n = 108/139) and 100% (n = 23/23) of the Comprehensive and Brief ICF Core Sets for traumatic brain injury, respectively. Additional ICF categories identified in 2 or more groups were: b180 "experience of self and time functions"; b250 "taste function"; b265 "touch function"; b530 "weight maintenance function"; b780 "sensation related to muscles and movement"; and d650 "caring for household objects". CONCLUSION: The study found additional ICF categories to consider and supports the use of the ICF Core Sets for traumatic brain injury in Australian adults in the community.
Molecular Classification of the PORTEC-3 Trial for High-Risk Endometrial Cancer: Impact on Prognosis and Benefit From Adjuvant Therapy
(AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, 2020-10-10)
PURPOSE: The randomized Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy Versus Radiotherapy Alone in Women With High-Risk Endometrial Cancer (PORTEC-3) trial investigated the benefit of combined adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy (CTRT) versus radiotherapy alone (RT) for women with high-risk endometrial cancer (EC). Because The Cancer Genome Atlas defined an EC molecular classification with strong prognostic value, we investigated prognosis and impact of chemotherapy for each molecular subgroup using tissue samples from PORTEC-3 trial participants. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded tissues of 423 consenting patients were collected. Immunohistochemistry for p53 and mismatch repair (MMR) proteins, and DNA sequencing for POLE exonuclease domain were done to classify tumors as p53 abnormal (p53abn), POLE-ultramutated (POLEmut), MMR-deficient (MMRd), or no specific molecular profile (NSMP). The primary end point was recurrence-free survival (RFS). Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox model were used for analysis. RESULTS: Molecular analysis was successful in 410 high-risk EC (97%), identifying the 4 subgroups: p53abn EC (n = 93; 23%), POLEmut (n = 51; 12%), MMRd (n = 137; 33%), and NSMP (n = 129; 32%). Five-year RFS was 48% for patients with p53abn EC, 98% for POLEmut EC, 72% for MMRd EC, and 74% for NSMP EC (P < .001). The 5-year RFS with CTRT versus RT for p53abn EC was 59% versus 36% (P = .019); 100% versus 97% for patients with POLEmut EC (P = .637); 68% versus 76% (P = .428) for MMRd EC; and 80% versus 68% (P = .243) for NSMP EC. CONCLUSION: Molecular classification has strong prognostic value in high-risk EC, with significantly improved RFS with adjuvant CTRT for p53abn tumors, regardless of histologic type. Patients with POLEmut EC had an excellent RFS in both trial arms. EC molecular classification should be incorporated in the risk stratification of these patients as well as in future trials to target specific subgroups of patients.
Emergency medicine patient wait time multivariable prediction models: a multicentre derivation and validation study.
OBJECTIVE: Patients, families and community members would like emergency department wait time visibility. This would improve patient journeys through emergency medicine. The study objective was to derive, internally and externally validate machine learning models to predict emergency patient wait times that are applicable to a wide variety of emergency departments. METHODS: Twelve emergency departments provided 3 years of retrospective administrative data from Australia (2017-2019). Descriptive and exploratory analyses were undertaken on the datasets. Statistical and machine learning models were developed to predict wait times at each site and were internally and externally validated. Model performance was tested on COVID-19 period data (January to June 2020). RESULTS: There were 1 930 609 patient episodes analysed and median site wait times varied from 24 to 54 min. Individual site model prediction median absolute errors varied from±22.6 min (95% CI 22.4 to 22.9) to ±44.0 min (95% CI 43.4 to 44.4). Global model prediction median absolute errors varied from ±33.9 min (95% CI 33.4 to 34.0) to ±43.8 min (95% CI 43.7 to 43.9). Random forest and linear regression models performed the best, rolling average models underestimated wait times. Important variables were triage category, last-k patient average wait time and arrival time. Wait time prediction models are not transferable across hospitals. Models performed well during the COVID-19 lockdown period. CONCLUSIONS: Electronic emergency demographic and flow information can be used to approximate emergency patient wait times. A general model is less accurate if applied without site-specific factors.
Trust, power and learning in workplace-based assessment: The trainee perspective
For trainees to participate meaningfully in workplace-based assessment (WBA), they must have trust in their assessor. However, the trainee's dependent position complicates such trust. Understanding how power and trust influence WBAs may help us make them more effective learning opportunities. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 17 postgraduate anaesthesia trainees across Australia and New Zealand. Sensitised by notions of power, we used constructivist grounded theory methodology to examine trainees' experiences with trusting their supervisors in WBAs. In our trainee accounts, we found that supervisors held significant power to mediate access to learning opportunities and influence trainee progress in training. All episodes where supervisors could observe trainees, from simply working together to formal WBAs, were seen to generate assessment information with potential consequences. In response, trainees actively acquiesced to a deferential role, which helped them access desirable expertise and minimise the risk of reputational harm. Trainees granted trust based on how they anticipated a supervisor would use the power inherent in their role. Trainees learned to ration exposure of their authentic practice to supervisors in proportion to their trust in them. Trainees were more trusting and open to learning when supervisors used their power for the trainee's benefit and avoided WBAs with supervisors they perceived as less trustworthy. If assessment for learning is to flourish, then the trainee-supervisor power dynamic must evolve. Enhancing supervisor behaviour through reflection and professional development to better reward trainee trust would invite more trainee participation in assessment for learning. Modifying the assessment system design to nudge the power balance towards the trainee may also help. Modifications could include designated formative and summative assessments or empowering trainees to select which assessments count towards progress decisions. Attending to power and trust in WBA may stimulate progress towards the previously aspirational goal of assessment for learning in the workplace.
Exploring the attitudes of men who have sex with men on anal self-examination for early detection of primary anorectal syphilis: a qualitative study
BACKGROUND: Studies show men who have sex with men (MSM) practising receptive anal sex are more likely to present with secondary syphilis, suggesting anorectal primary lesions are being missed. Regular anal self-examination might be able to detect anorectal syphilis lesions, hence potentially reducing transmission. This study aimed to explore the attitudes of MSM on performing anal self-examination to detect primary syphilis. METHODS: In this qualitative study, 20 MSM over 18 years of age were purposively sampled from a sexual health clinic to participate in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and data analysed thematically. RESULTS: Four major themes and 12 sub-themes were generated from the study: (1) reasons for performing anal self-examination, (2) preferred educational resources for anal self-examination, (3) attitudes towards partner anal examination, and (4) acceptability of anal self-examination. Most participants had performed some form of anal self-examination in the past, and, just over half performed regularly for mostly health-related concerns. Most participants who infrequently or never performed anal self-examination were agreeable to perform regularly if it was recommended by health professionals with appropriate guidance. Participants preferred education on anal self-examination from health professionals and trusted online learning resources. CONCLUSION: Our study showed MSM were agreeable to anal self-examination however would like to receive education and training to gain more confidence in conducting anal self-examination as a screening tool. Further studies are required to explore the adherence and acceptability of anal self-examination for syphilis prior to studies examining efficacy. The study provides foundation for any future policy aiming at utilising anal self-examination as a screening tool for syphilis among MSM.
Sexual health service adaptations to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Australia: a nationwide online survey
OBJECTIVE: Examine the changes in service delivery Australian public sexual health clinics made to remain open during lockdown. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey designed and delivered on Qualtrics was emailed to 21 directors of public sexual health clinics across Australia from July-August 2020 and asked about a variety of changes to service delivery. Descriptive statistics were calculated. RESULTS: Twenty clinics participated, all remained open and reported service changes, including suspension of walk-in services in eight clinics. Some clinics stopped offering asymptomatic screening for varying patient populations. Most clinics transitioned to a mix of telehealth and face-to-face consultations. Nineteen clinics reported delays in testing and 13 reported limitations in testing. Most clinics changed to phone consultations for HIV medication refills (n=15) and eleven clinics prescribed longer repeat prescriptions. Fourteen clinics had staff redeployed to assist the COVID-19 response. CONCLUSION: Public sexual health clinics pivoted service delivery to reduce risk of COVID-19 transmission in clinical settings, managed staffing reductions and delays in molecular testing, and maintained a focus on urgent and symptomatic STI presentations and those at higher risk of HIV/STI acquisition. Implications for public health: Further research is warranted to understand what impact reduced asymptomatic screening may have had on community STI transmission.
Aussie KIDS SAVE LIVES: A position statement from the Australian Resuscitation Council and supported by stakeholders
Every year 25 000 Australians experience a cardiac arrest in our community, but only 12% survive. The faster cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation, known as basic life support (BLS), is commenced, the greater the chance of survival. Currently, only half of the Australian adults are trained in BLS. The Australian Resuscitation Council and key stakeholder organisations believe that the best way to ensure all Australians know how to save a life is by mandating BLS education and training in our schools. This 'Aussie KIDS SAVE LIVES' position statement outlines our strategy to help facilitate the introduction of a programme of regular BLS training into the Australian school curriculum.