Medical Education - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 246
Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis Is Associated With Circadian and Other Variability in Embolus Detection
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2019-04-16)
Background and Purpose: Variability in transcranial Doppler (TCD) detection of embolic signals (ES) is important for risk stratification. We tested the effect of time of day on ES associated with 60-99% asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Materials and Methods: Subjects were from the Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis Embolus Detection (ASED) Study such that half were previously ES-positive and half ES-negative with 6-monthly 60-min TCD monitoring. All underwent bilateral TCD monitoring for two 12-h sessions separated by 24 h. ES detection rates were calculated using 6 and 4-h intervals from midnight and effective TCD monitoring time. Results: Ten subjects (8 male, mean age 79.5 years) were monitored. Over 24 h, 5/10 study arteries with 60-99% asymptomatic carotid stenosis were ES-positive (range 1-28 ES/artery, 56 total ES from 177.9 total effective monitoring hours). The remaining five study arteries and all eight successfully monitored contralateral arteries were ES-negative. Using 6-h intervals the mean ES detection rate peaked at 0600-midday (0.64/h) and was lowest 1800-midnight (0.09/h) with an incidence rate ratio of 7.26 (95% CI 2.52-28.64, P ≤ 0.001). Using 4-h intervals the mean ES detection rate peaked at 0800-midday (0.64/h) and was lowest midnight-0400 (0.12/h) with an incidence rate ratio of 5.51 (95% CI 1.78-22.67, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Embolism associated with asymptomatic carotid stenosis shows circadian variation with highest rates 4-6 h before midday. This corresponds with peak circadian incidence of stroke and other vascular complications. These and ASED Study results show that monitoring frequency, duration, and time of day are important in ES detection.
Patient and clinician engagement with health information in the primary care waiting room: A mixed methods case study
(PAGEPress Publications, 2019-03-12)
Background. Primary care waiting rooms can be sites of health promotion and health literacy development through the provision of readily accessible health information. To date, few studies have considered patient engagement with televised health messages in the waiting room, nor have studies investigated whether patients ask their clinicians about this information. The aim of this study was therefore to examine patient (or accompanying person) and clinician engagement with waiting room health information, including televised health messages. Design and methods. The mixed methods case study was undertaken in a regional general practice in Victoria, Australia, utilising patient questionnaires, waiting room observations, and clinician logbooks and interviews. The qualitative data were analysed by content analysis; the questionnaire data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results. Patients engaged with a range of health information in the waiting room and reportedly received health messages from this information. 44% of the questionnaire respondents (33 of 74) reported watching the television health program, and half of these reported receiving a take home health message from this source. Only one of the clinicians (N=9) recalled a patient asking about the televised health program. Conclusions. The general practice waiting room remains a site where people engage with the available health information, with a televised health 'infotainment' program receiving most attention from patients. Our study showed that consumption of health information was primarily passive and tended not to activate patient discussions with clinicians. Future studies could investigate any link between the health infotainment program and behaviour change.
The Interplay Between Lymphatic Vessels and Chemokines
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2019-04-12)
Chemokines are a family of small protein cytokines that act as chemoattractants to migrating cells, in particular those of the immune system. They are categorized functionally as either homeostatic, constitutively produced by tissues for basal levels of cell migration, or inflammatory, where they are generated in association with a pathological inflammatory response. While the extravasation of leukocytes via blood vessels is a key step in cells entering the tissues, the lymphatic vessels also serve as a conduit for cells that are recruited and localized through chemoattractant gradients. Furthermore, the growth and remodeling of lymphatic vessels in pathologies is influenced by chemokines and their receptors expressed by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) in and around the pathological tissue. In this review we summarize the diverse role played by specific chemokines and their receptors in shaping the interaction of lymphatic vessels, immune cells, and other pathological cell types in physiology and disease.
Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis: Higher Suspicious Needed for Earlier Diagnosis (Case Report, Literature Review and Diagnostic Criteria)
(HINDAWI LTD, 2019-12-28)
Background: Auto-immune mediated anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is a very common delayed diagnosed encephalitis which predominately affecting young population. Objectives: This encephalitis is relatively unknown amongst emergency physicians and a majority of patients are admitted to psychiatric wards before their diagnosis is confirmed and appropriate treatments are commenced. We reported a case of a 22-year-old female presented to our emergency department with acute psychiatric symptoms. She was initially diagnosed with first presentation of acute psychosis and was hospitalised under mental health act. further assessment in the emergency department identified possible an organic cause for her acute psychosis and she was later admitted under medical team after her mental health assessment order was revoke. Several days later, her CSF result was positive with anti-NMDA receptor anti-bodies. Appropriate treatments were instituted leading to her full recovery. Conclusion: This case was the first confirmed anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis in our emergency department. It highlights the importance of thorough assessment of psychiatric presentations to emergency departments and consideration of auto-immune medicated encephalitis as one of the differential diagnosis in young patients presenting with first acute psychotic episode.
Early Pregnancy Screening for Women at High-Risk of GDM Results in Reduced Neonatal Morbidity and Similar Maternal Outcomes to Routine Screening
(HINDAWI LTD, 2020-01-29)
The Australasian Diabetes in Pregnancy Society recommends screening high-risk women for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) before 24 weeks gestation, under the assumption that an earlier diagnosis and opportunity to achieve normoglycemia will minimize adverse outcomes. However, little evidence exists for this recommendation. The study objective was to compare the pregnancy outcomes of high-risk women diagnosed with GDM before 24 weeks gestation and routinely diagnosed women after 24 weeks gestation. A retrospective audit was conducted of all pregnancies diagnosed with GDM using International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria over 12 months at a tertiary Australian hospital. Adverse perinatal outcomes were compared between "Early GDM" diagnosed before 24 weeks (n = 133) and "Late GDM" diagnosed from 24 weeks (n = 636). Early GDM had a significantly lower newborn composite outcome frequency (hypoglycemia, birth trauma, NICU/SCN admission, stillbirth, neonatal death, respiratory distress, and phototherapy) compared to Late GDM (20.3% vs. 30.0%, p = 0.02). Primary cesarean, hypertensive disorders, postpartum hemorrhage, birthweight >90th percentile, macrosomia, and preterm birth frequencies were not significantly different between groups. Therefore, high-risk women diagnosed with GDM in early pregnancy were not more likely to have an adverse outcome compared to routinely diagnosed women. As they are a high-risk group, this may indicate a possible benefit to the early diagnosis of GDM.
Waterjet Ablation Therapy for Endoscopic Resection of prostate tissue trial (WATER) vs WATER II: comparing Aquablation therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia in 30-80 and 80-150 mL prostates
OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcomes of Aquablation in 30-80 mL prostates with those in 80-150 mL prostates. Surgical options, especially with short learning curves, are limited when treating large prostates for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Aquablation (AquaBeam System, PROCEPT BioRobotics Inc., Redwood City, CA, USA) could solve this issue with global reproducibility, independent of prostate volume. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Waterjet Ablation Therapy for Endoscopic Resection of prostate tissue (WATER [W-I]; NCT02505919) is a prospective, double-blind, multicentre, international clinical trial comparing Aquablation and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for the treatment of LUTS/BPH in prostates between 30 and 80 mL. WATER II (W-II; NCT03123250) is a prospective, multicentre, single-arm international clinical trial of Aquablation in prostates between 80 and 150 mL. We compare baseline parameters and 12-month outcomes in 116 W-I and 101 W-II study patients. Students' t-test or Wilcoxon tests were used for continuous variables and Fisher's test for binary variables. RESULTS: The mean (SD) operative time was 33 (17) and 37 (13) min in W-I and W-II, respectively. Actual treatment time was 4 and 8 min in W-I and W-II, respectively. The mean change in the International Prostate Symptom Score was substantial averaging (at 12 months) 15.1 in W-I and 17.1 in W-II (P = 0.605). By 3 months, Clavien-Dindo grade ≥II events occurred in 19.8% of W-I patients and 34.7% of W-II patients (P = 0.468). CONCLUSION: Aquablation clinically normalises outcomes between patients with 30-80 mL prostates and patients with 80-150 mL prostates treated for LUTS/BPH, with an expected increase in the risk of complications in larger prostates. Long-term outcomes of procedure durability are needed.
Prospective Evaluation of the Utility of Whole Exome Sequencing in Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Background Dilated cardiomyopathy may be heritable but shows extensive genetic heterogeneity. The utility of whole exome sequencing as a first-line genetic test for patients with dilated cardiomyopathy in a contemporary "real-world" setting has not been specifically established. Using whole exome sequencing with rigorous, evidence-based variant interpretation, we aimed to identify the prevalence of a molecular diagnosis in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy in a clinical setting. Methods and Results Whole exome sequencing was performed in eligible patients (n=83) with idiopathic or familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Variants were prioritized for curation in up to 247 genes and classified using American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics-based criteria. Ten (12%) had a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant. Eight (10%) participants had truncating TTN variants classified as variants of uncertain significance. Five (6%) participants had variants of unknown significance according to strict American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics criteria but classified as either pathogenic or likely pathogenic by other clinical laboratories. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were found in 8 genes (all within tier 1 genes), 2 (20%) of which are not included in a standard commercially available dilated cardiomyopathy panel. Using our bioinformatics pipeline, there was an average of 0.74 variants of uncertain significance per case with ≈0.75 person-hours needed to interpret each of these variants. Conclusions Whole exome sequencing is an effective diagnostic tool for patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. With stringent classification using American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics criteria, the rate of detection of pathogenic variants is lower than previous reports. Efforts to improve adherence to these guidelines will be important to prevent erroneous misclassification of nonpathogenic variants in dilated cardiomyopathy genetic testing and inappropriate cascade screening.
Monitoring skin temperature at the wrist in hospitalised patients may assist in the detection of infection
BACKGROUND: Measuring temperature has always been a key observation in the diagnosis of infection. No studies have examined the usefulness of measuring temperature at the wrist to detect infection. AIM: We sought to determine whether a watch measuring wrist temperature could accurately identify patients who are infected. METHODS: Prospective cross-sectional pilot study of temperature monitoring in an unselected patients in a tertiary referral adult nephrology unit. RESULTS: One hundred and four data recording sessions revealed 88 useful data sets, with recording failures in the others. Patients were retrospectively classified as having no infection (Group A, n = 60), clinically diagnosed infection with less than 24 h of treatment with antibiotics (Group B, n = 5), and clinically diagnosed infection with greater than 24 h on antibiotics (Group C, n = 23). There was a significantly higher average maximum temperature in Group B (mean (SEM)) 38°C (0.6) compared with Groups A (36.1°C (0.1)) and C (36.3°C (0.3)). Based on receiver operating characteristics (ROC) a cut-off temperature of ≥37.5°C gave sensitivity 80% and specificity 98%. Mean electrodermal activity was significantly higher in Groups B and C. CONCLUSIONS: ROC of peripheral skin temperature measurements suggest that such a device may identify many patients requiring treatment for infection. This proof of principle study showed value in using a wearable device in the detection of infection and its potential as an early warning or monitoring device.
Vitamin D supplementation compared to placebo in people with First Episode psychosis-Neuroprotection Design (DFEND): a protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial
BACKGROUND: People experiencing their first episode of psychosis are often deficient in vitamin D. Observational studies have reported an association between low vitamin D concentrations and poorer subsequent health outcomes in psychosis. A vitamin D deficiency in neonates and children has been linked to a later increased risk of schizophrenia and psychotic-like experiences. This trial aims to examine the effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on outcomes in early psychosis. We hypothesise that vitamin D supplementation will be associated with better mental health outcomes. METHODS/DESIGN: The DFEND study is a multicentre double-blind placebo-controlled parallel-group trial of vitamin D supplementation in people with early psychosis. Patients with an ICD-10 diagnosis of functional psychosis will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive either 120,000 IU/month of vitamin D (cholecalciferol) or a matched placebo for 6 months. The primary outcome is the total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) score at the 6-month follow-up for all patients. Secondary outcomes include assessment of mood (Calgary Depression Scale), general function (Global Assessment of Functioning), cardiovascular risk (body mass index, waist circumference, C-reactive protein, cholesterol and HbA1c) and vitamin D levels at the 6-month follow-up. Additionally, 3- and 6-month total PANSS scores will be analysed for those with inadequate vitamin D levels at the baseline. DISCUSSION: The DFEND study is the first trial to examine whether vitamin D supplementation in early psychosis is associated with better mental health outcomes. The findings of this study may help to resolve the clinical equipoise regarding the benefits and cost-effectiveness of routine vitamin D supplementation in people with psychosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ISRCTN12424842. Registered on 25 February 2015.
Preferences for HIV testing services among young people in Nigeria
BACKGROUND: Despite high HIV incidence rates among young people in Nigeria, less than 24% of this population have ever tested for HIV. These low HIV testing rates suggest that current testing services may not align with their testing preferences. To address this gap, the objective of this study was to assess preferences for HIV testing options among young people in Nigeria. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using survey to assess preferences for HIV testing options among 113 youth aged 14-24 years residing in Nigeria. The survey included a series of hypothetical HIV testing options, comprised of six characteristics centered around HIV testing service (i.e. location of testing, test administrator, mode of pre-test, mode of post-test counseling, type of HIV test, and cost of HIV test). For each characteristic, participants were asked to select one of the options that they prefer or indicate none of the above. A descriptive analysis of the preferences made by participants was conducted, summarizing proportions of participants who selected different options for HIV testing. RESULTS: The mean age of study participants was 19.5 years old (SD = 2.7). Most youth (73, 64.6%) had at least a secondary school degree. There was pronounced heterogeneity in HIV testing preferences among young people. Although most youth preferred free HIV testing, 14 (16.7%) reported preferring paying a small amount compared to free testing. More youth preferred blood-based HIV self-testing 39(48.8%) compared to facility-based HIV testing and oral HIV self-testing. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding suggest that young people have a range of HIV testing preferences in Nigeria. This suggests that a "one-size-fits-all" approach to delivering services to youth may be challenging in this context. HIV testing services can be optimized to reach young people if a variety options are provided to meet their unique preferences.
Transfusion rates after 800 Aquablation procedures using various haemostasis methods
OBJECTIVE: To determine if athermal methods are as effective in preventing blood transfusions as the use of cautery across various prostate volumes following prostate tissue resection for benign prostatic hyperplasia using Aquablation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The current commercial AQUABEAM robot that performs Aquablation therapy was first used in 2014. Since then numerous clinical studies have been conducted in various countries; Australia, Canada, Germany, India, Lebanon, Spain, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and the United States. All of the clinical trial data since 2014 were pooled with the early commercial procedures from France, Germany, and Spain to determine the effectiveness of haemostatic techniques in reducing the transfusion rate in patients after Aquablation. RESULTS: In all, 801 patients were treated with Aquablation therapy from 2014 to early 2019. The mean (SD, range) prostate volume was 67 (33, 20-280) mL and 31 (3.9%) transfusions were reported. The largest contributing factor to transfusion risk was prostate size and method of traction. There was an increasing risk of transfusions in larger prostates when robust traction using a catheter-tensioning device (CTD) without cautery was used, ranging from 0.8% to 7.8% in prostates ranging from 20 to 280 mL. However, when standard traction (taping the catheter to the leg, gauze knot synched up to the meatus, or no traction at all) was used and where the surgeon performed bladder neck cautery only when necessary, the risk of transfusion was 1.4-2.5% in prostates ranging from 20 to 280 mL. CONCLUSIONS: While the athermal subgroup with robust traction with a CTD had comparable transfusion rates for smaller prostates, the risk increased significantly as prostate volume increased. With standard traction methods and selective bladder neck cautery, the risk of transfusion was reduced to 1.9% across all prostate sizes.