Medical Education - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 148
Hair-thread tourniquet syndrome
We report a case of hair-thread tourniquet syndrome involving the labia majora of a 14-year-old autistic child. 'Hair-thread tourniquet' refers to the process whereby a thread of hair leads to the ischaemic strangulation of an appendage or other piece of tissue. Uncommonly recognized, this syndrome has gradually gained recognition since its first description in 1612. As it remains infrequent, many have attributed its aetiology to abuse or socio-cultural practices. We review the published literature on this infrequent but important paediatric condition.
Patient Perception of Lower Limb Non-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Angiography and Digital Subtraction Angiography in Diabetic Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease
(Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging, 2017-10)
Objective: Non-contrast magnetic resonance angiography (NC-MRA) is an attractive technique for imaging peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in diabetic patients where arterial calcification and renal impairment are common. Our purpose was to evaluate patient perception of lower limb NC-MRA and compare this perception to that of digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Materials and Methods: Thirty-one diabetic patients (18 male, 13 female, mean age=69 years) with symptomatic PAD (critical ischemia, n=10) referred for DSA were prospectively recruited, and 1.5T quiescent-interval single-shot NC-MRA was performed before DSA (intervention performed during DSA, n=23). Patients rated anxiety, pain, discomfort, willingness to repeat (Likert scale: 1 most favorable to 7 least favorable), and difficulty compared to expectations (-3 better to +3 worse). Results: Twenty-nine patients’ results were analyzed (DSA under general anesthesia, n=1; incomplete NC-MRA due to morbid obesity, n=1). NC-MRA and DSA median scores were 1 vs. 3, 1 vs. 2, 2 vs. 2, and 1 vs. 1 for anxiety, pain, discomfort, and willingness to repeat, respectively. The median score for difficulty compared to expectations was 0 (as expected) for both examinations. The anxiety and pain scores for NC-MRA were significantly lower than those for DSA (p=0.006 and p=0.001, respectively). Reasons for the less favorable NC-MRA experience included machine noise (n=3), pain from coil pressure (n=3), and claustrophobia (n=1). Conclusion: NC-MRA was well tolerated overall, and better than DSA for anxiety and pain. Although DSA is commonly required for intervention in PAD, NC-MRA may inform disease management and potentially obviate DSA where conservative management, or open surgery, are indicated. Reduced acoustic noise, lighter receiver coils, and wider scan bores may improve procedural tolerance.
Promoting routine syphilis screening among men who have sex with men in China: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of syphilis self-testing and lottery incentive
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a high burden of syphilis infection. Expanding syphilis testing to improve timely diagnosis and treatment is critical to improve syphilis control. However, syphilis testing rates remain low among MSM, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We describe the protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to assess whether provision of syphilis self-testing services can increase the uptake of syphilis testing among MSM in China. METHODS: Four hundred forty-four high-risk MSM will be recruited online and randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to (1) standard syphilis self-testing arm; (2) a self-testing arm program enhanced with crowdsourcing and a lottery-based incentive, and (3) a standard of care (control). Self-testing services include a free syphilis self-test kit through the mail at monthly intervals. Participants in the lottery incentive arm will additionally receive health promotion materials generated from an open crowdsourcing contest and be given a lottery draw with a 10% chance to win 100 RMB (approximately 15 US Dollars) upon confirmed completion of syphilis testing. Syphilis self-test kits have step-by-step instructions and an instructional video. This is a non-blinded, open-label, parallel RCT. Participants in each arm will be followed-up at three and 6 months through WeChat (a social media app like Facebook messenger). Confirmation of syphilis self-test use will be determined by requiring participants to submit a photo of the used test kit to study staff via secure data messaging. Both self-testing and facility-based testing will be ascertained by sending a secure photographic image of the completed kit through an existing digital platform. The primary outcome is the proportion of participants who tested for syphilis in the past 3 months. DISCUSSION: Findings from this study will provide much needed insight on the impact of syphilis self-testing on promoting routine syphilis screening among MSM. The findings will also contribute to our understanding of the safety, effectiveness and acceptability of syphilis self-testing. These findings will have important implications for self-testing policy, both in China and internationally. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR1900022409 (10 April, 2019).
Anticipated HIV stigma among HIV negative men who have sex with men in China: a cross-sectional study.
(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-01-15)
BACKGROUND: Anticipated HIV stigma, i.e., the expectation of adverse experiences from one's seroconversion, is associated with both negative psychological and behavioral outcomes. We know little about anticipated HIV stigma's relationship with emerging technologies, such as HIV self-testing (HIVST) and online sex-seeking platforms, that have become popular among populations that are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This study examined correlates of anticipated HIV stigma among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: In July 2016, MSM, who were ≥ 16 years old and self-reported as HIV negative or unknown, were recruited from a gay mobile phone application in China. Information regarding socio-demographics, sexual behaviors, sexual health service utilization, and anticipated HIV stigma were collected. Anticipated HIV stigma (i.e., negative attitude toward future stigmatization of HIV seroconversion by others) was measured as the mean score from a 7-item Likert-scale ranging from 1 (low) to 4 (high). Generalized linear models were conducted to examine the factors associated with the anticipated HIV stigma scores. RESULTS: Overall, 2006 men completed the survey. Most men completed high school (1308/2006, 65.2%) and had an annual personal income of ≤9200 USD (1431/2006, 71.3%). The mean anticipated HIV stigma score for the participants was 2.98 ± 0.64. Using social media to seek sexual partners was associated with higher anticipated HIV stigma (Adjusted β = 0.11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05 to 0.17, p = 0.001). HIV self-testing (Adjusted β = - 0.07, 95%CI: - 0.13 to - 0.01, p = 0.02) and having disclosed one's sexual orientation to a healthcare provider (Adjusted β = - 0.16, 95%CI: - 0.22 to - 0.96, p < 0.001) were associated with lower anticipated HIV stigma. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that anticipated HIV stigma is still common among Chinese MSM not living with HIV. Tailored anti-HIV stigma campaigns on social media are especially needed, and the promotion of HIVST may be a promising approach.
Correction to: Prepared for PrEP: preferences for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among Chinese men who have sex with men in an online national survey.
(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-02-27)
After publication of the original article , the authors would like to add a co-author, Dr. Stephen Pan, who contributed sufficiently to this manuscript.
Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) continuation, measurement, and reporting: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
(Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2020-06-17)
OBJECTIVE: To appropriately plan for rollout and monitor impact of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) it is important to understand PrEP continuation and come to a consensus on how best to measure PrEP continuation. This study reviews data on PrEP continuation to document how it is reported, and to compare continuation over time and across populations. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health and reviewed abstracts from HIV conferences from 2017-2018 for studies reporting primary data on PrEP continuation. Findings were summarized along a PrEP cascade and continuation was presented by population at months 1, 6, and 12, with random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Of 2,578 articles and 596 abstracts identified, 41 studies were eligible covering 22,034 individuals. Continuation data were measured and reported inconsistently. Results showed high discontinuation at month 1 and persistent discontinuation at later time points in many studies. Pooled continuation estimates were 66% at month 1 (n = 5,348; 95% CI: 48%-82%), 63% at month 6 (n = 13,629; 95% CI: 48%-77%), and 71% at month 12 (n = 14,933; 95% CI: 60%-81%; higher estimate than previous timepoints due to inclusion of different studies). Adequate data were not available to reliably compare estimates across populations. CONCLUSIONS: This review found that discontinuation at 1 was high, suggesting PrEP initiations may be a poor measure of effectiveness. Continuation declined further over time in many studies, indicating existing cross-sectional indicators may not be adequate to understand PrEP use patterns. Studies do not measure continuation consistently, and consensus is needed.
Changing the Use of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex With Men During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Melbourne, Australia
(Oxford University Press, 2020-07)
We surveyed 204 men who have sex with men (MSM) who were pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) users. One in 4 daily PrEP users stopped taking PrEP during the COVID-19 pandemic, and 5% switched to on-demand PrEP. Most men reduced PrEP use because they stopped having casual sex and reduced the number of casual partners during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Crowdsourcing in health and medical research: a systematic review
BACKGROUND: Crowdsourcing is used increasingly in health and medical research. Crowdsourcing is the process of aggregating crowd wisdom to solve a problem. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize quantitative evidence on crowdsourcing to improve health. METHODS: We followed Cochrane systematic review guidance and systematically searched seven databases up to September 4th 2019. Studies were included if they reported on crowdsourcing and related to health or medicine. Studies were excluded if recruitment was the only use of crowdsourcing. We determined the level of evidence associated with review findings using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: We screened 3508 citations, accessed 362 articles, and included 188 studies. Ninety-six studies examined effectiveness, 127 examined feasibility, and 37 examined cost. The most common purposes were to evaluate surgical skills (17 studies), to create sexual health messages (seven studies), and to provide layperson cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) out-of-hospital (six studies). Seventeen observational studies used crowdsourcing to evaluate surgical skills, finding that crowdsourcing evaluation was as effective as expert evaluation (low quality). Four studies used a challenge contest to solicit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing promotion materials and increase HIV testing rates (moderate quality), and two of the four studies found this approach saved money. Three studies suggested that an interactive technology system increased rates of layperson initiated CPR out-of-hospital (moderate quality). However, studies analyzing crowdsourcing to evaluate surgical skills and layperson-initiated CPR were only from high-income countries. Five studies examined crowdsourcing to inform artificial intelligence projects, most often related to annotation of medical data. Crowdsourcing was evaluated using different outcomes, limiting the extent to which studies could be pooled. CONCLUSIONS: Crowdsourcing has been used to improve health in many settings. Although crowdsourcing is effective at improving behavioral outcomes, more research is needed to understand effects on clinical outcomes and costs. More research is needed on crowdsourcing as a tool to develop artificial intelligence systems in medicine. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO: CRD42017052835. December 27, 2016.