Medicine (Western Health) - Research Publications

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    What shapes research and research capacity building in rural health services? Context matters
    Shee, AW ; Quilliam, C ; Corboy, D ; Glenister, K ; McKinstry, C ; Beauchamp, A ; Alston, L ; Maybery, D ; Aras, D ; Mc Namara, K (WILEY, 2022-02-21)
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the contextual factors influencing research and research capacity building in rural health settings. DESIGN: Qualitative study using semi-structured telephone interviews to collect data regarding health professionals' research education and capacity building. Analysis involved inductive coding using Braun and Clark's thematic analysis; and deductive mapping to the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). SETTING: Victorian rural health services and university campuses. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty senior rural health managers, academics and/or research coordinators. Participants had at least three years' experience in rural public health, health-related research or health education settings. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Contextual factors influencing the operationalisation and prioritisation of research capacity building in rural health services. RESULTS: Findings reflected the CFIR domains and constructs: intervention characteristics (relative advantage); outer setting (cosmopolitanism, external policies and incentives); inner setting (implementation climate, readiness for implementation); characteristics of individuals (self-efficacy); and process (planning, engaging). Findings illustrated the implementation context and the complex contextual tensions, which either prevent or enhance research capacity building in rural health services. CONCLUSIONS: Realising the Australian Government's vision for improved health service provision and health outcomes in rural areas requires a strong culture of research and research capacity building in rural health services. Low levels of rural research funding, chronic workforce shortages and the tension between undertaking research and delivering health care, all significantly impact the operationalisation and prioritisation of research capacity building in rural health services. Effective policy and investment addressing these contextual factors is crucial for the success of research capacity building in rural health services.
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    Carotid artery stenosis and inflammatory biomarkers: the role of inflammation-induced immunological responses affecting the vascular systems
    Wijeratne, T ; Menon, R ; Sales, C ; Karimi, L ; Crewther, S (AME PUBL CO, 2020-10-01)
    The death, disability and economic cost of stroke are enormous. Indeed, among the 16 million people worldwide who suffer a stroke' annually, nearly six million die, and another five million are left permanently disabled making prevention of stroke one of the most important priorities in healthcare. Currently carotid artery stenosis (CS) or narrowing of the common carotid artery (CCA) or internal carotid artery (ICA) due to atherosclerotic plaque, accounts for 20-30% of all ischemic strokes. Atherosclerosis is now regarded as a chronic inflammatory disease in response to vascular compromise especially from hypertension. This has long been known to lead to inflammation and atherosclerotic plaque formation in the blood vessels. This mini-review aims to highlight the role of inflammation and neuro-immunological processes in carotid artery disease. Various cellular elements of inflammation and advanced imaging techniques have been identified as potential markers of plaque progression. Therapies related to decreasing and modulating immune-responsive inflammation in the carotid vessels have been shown to translate into decreased occurrence of acute neurologic events and improvement of clinical outcomes.
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    COLD SNARE POLYPECTOMY OF COLORECTAL POLYPS <= 10MM ON CLOPIDOGREL: AN AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL
    Ket, SN ; Hewett, DG ; Kheir, AO ; Metz, AJ ; Moss, A ; Ogra, R ; Tjandra, DP ; Tam, W ; Secomb, R ; Raftopoulos, S ; Cavalieri, L ; Urquhart, P ; Brown, GJ (MOSBY-ELSEVIER, 2020-06-01)
    Abstract Background and study aims Optimal peri-colonoscopic management of clopidogrel remains unclear. Cold snare polypectomy is safe and effective for removing polyps ≤ 10 mm and clips can control intraprocedural bleeding. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to compare continuation of clopidogrel versus temporary replacement of clopidogrel with aspirin for routine colonoscopy using cold snare polypectomy for polyps ≤ 10 mm. Patients and methods Between August 2016 and August 2019, consenting participants at 12 centers were randomized to continuation of clopidogrel as a single or dual antiplatelet agent, or to temporarily take aspirin alone from 7 days prior to 2 days after routine colonoscopy. Endoscopists were blinded to group allocation. Cold snare polypectomy was used to remove polyps ≤ 10 mm, with endoscopic clips applied if intraprocedural bleeding continued for > 2 minutes. Follow-up was performed on Day 30. The trial was stopped early due to delayed patient enrollment. Results Two hundred seventy-six consecutive polyps ≤ 10 mm were removed from 107 patients. Of the patients, 61.7 % were male with a median age of 69 years (interquartile range [IQR] 63 to 76.75). Fifty-nine patients continued on clopidogrel and 48 temporarily took aspirin instead. One hundred thirty-four polyps were removed from 49 patients who continued on clopidogrel vs 142 from 43 patients temporarily took aspirin instead (P = 0.33). Intraprocedural bleeding requiring clips occurred in 11 of 49 patients who continued on clopidogrel and in two of 43 patients who temporarily took replacing with aspirin instead (P = 0.02). More post-procedural minor bleeding was seen in the aspirin arm (six of 43 vs one of 49; P = 0.03). One patient in each arm had acute coronary syndrome, which was medically managed. None of the patients had clinically significant post-procedural bleeding. Conclusions Continuation of clopidogrel in patients undergoing cold snare polypectomy for colorectal polyps ≤ 10 mm does not appear to increase the rate of clinically significant postpolypectomy bleeding. It is associated with an increase in intraprocedural bleeding, which can be successfully treated with clips.
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    Evaluation of an Algorithm to Guide Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Treated With Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion on How to Respond to Real-Time Continuous Glucose Levels A randomized controlled trial
    Jenkins, AJ ; Krishnamurthy, B ; Best, JD ; Cameron, F ; Colman, PG ; Farish, S ; Hamblin, PS ; O'Connell, MA ; Rodda, C ; Rowley, K ; Teede, H ; O'Neal, DN (AMER DIABETES ASSOC, 2010-06-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an algorithm guiding responses of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII)-treated type 1 diabetic patients using real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixty CSII-treated type 1 diabetic participants (aged 13-70 years, including adult and adolescent subgroups, with A1C
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    Depression: An Important Comorbidity With Metabolic Syndrome in a General Population
    Dunbar, JA ; Reddy, P ; Davis-Lameloise, N ; Philpot, B ; Laatikainen, T ; Kilkkinen, A ; Bunker, SJ ; Best, JD ; Vartiainen, E ; Lo, SK ; Janus, ED (AMER DIABETES ASSOC, 2008-12-01)
    OBJECTIVE: There is a recognized association among depression, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine in a sample representative of the general population whether depression, anxiety, and psychological distress are associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Three cross-sectional surveys including clinical health measures were completed in rural regions of Australia during 2004-2006. A stratified random sample (n = 1,690, response rate 48%) of men and women aged 25-84 years was selected from the electoral roll. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults, Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Anxiety and depression were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and psychological distress by the Kessler 10 measure. RESULTS: Metabolic syndrome was associated with depression but not psychological distress or anxiety. Participants with the metabolic syndrome had higher scores for depression (n = 409, mean score 3.41, 95% CI 3.12-3.70) than individuals without the metabolic syndrome (n = 936, mean 2.95, 95% CI 2.76-3.13). This association was also present in 338 participants with the metabolic syndrome and without diabetes (mean score 3.37, 95% CI 3.06-3.68). Large waist circumference and low HDL cholesterol showed significant and independent associations with depression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show an association between metabolic syndrome and depression in a heterogeneous sample. The presence of depression in individuals with the metabolic syndrome has implications for clinical management.
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    Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with breathlessness in Australia: weighted using the 2016 Australian census.
    Toelle, BG ; Ampon, RD ; Abramson, MJ ; James, AL ; Maguire, GP ; Wood-Baker, R ; Johns, DP ; Marks, GB (Wiley, 2021-05)
    Access to up-to-date Australian disease prevalence estimates assists health services and consumer organisations to plan and allocate resources. The Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study was conducted between 2006 and 2012 and provided chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (post-bronchodilator airflow limitation) prevalence estimates weighted to the 2006 Australian census. Using the 2016 Australian census, an updated prevalence estimate of all COPD is 8.30% (95% confidence interval = 6.59%-10.01%) for adults aged 40 or more years in Australia and includes 2.52% with mild breathlessness, 0.99% with moderate breathlessness and 0.91% with severe breathlessness.
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    A blended learning exercise physiology theory module that supports student autonomy and improves academic performance.
    Julien, BL ; Tangalakis, K ; Hayes, A ; Lexis, L (American Physiological Society, 2022-09-01)
    A limited number of studies have explored the impact of blended exercise physiology theory curricula on student learning and experience. This study aimed to investigate the impact of an exercise physiology blended learning theory module on student performance, engagement, and perceptions. The module, which comprised a range of elements (student guide, lecturer-recorded videos, supplementary videos, formative quizzes, workshops, and discussion forum), was implemented in a third-year subject taken by students in nonspecialist undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degrees. Students chose which elements to engage with to support their learning. Exam performance was assessed by comparing exam marks from fully face-to-face delivery to the blended delivery with an independent t test. Student perceptions were determined via an end-of-module questionnaire comprised of Likert-scale questions and open-ended questions. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted on the Likert-scale responses, and qualitative content analysis was conducted on the open-ended responses. Student engagement with online resources was determined through analysis of access statistics from the learning management system. Student exam marks in the blended learning student group were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than in the face-to-face group, even though the questions were of a higher Bloom's level in the blended learning group. Students preferred blended delivery over fully face-to-face delivery. Most students accessed the student guide, lecturer-recorded videos, and quizzes, with supplementary videos, workshops, and discussion forums accessed by fewer students. In conclusion, a blended exercise physiology theory module improved student exam performance and was positively perceived by students, and engagement with the elements of the module was varied.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Few studies have explored the impact of blended delivery of exercise physiology theory curricula on student learning and experience. This study investigated the impact of a novel blended model on student learning and experience. The module comprised a range of elements (student guide, lecturer-recorded videos, supplementary videos, formative quizzes, workshops, and discussion forum), where students were able to choose which elements to engage with to support their learning.
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    Mature mediastinal teratoma with tumor rupture into airway
    Anderson, JE ; Taylor, MR ; Romberg, EK ; Riehle, KJ ; Kapur, R ; Crocker, ME ; Crotty, EE ; Hergenroeder, G ; Greenberg, SLM (Elsevier BV, 2022-06-01)
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    COVID-19-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) presenting as appendicitis with shock.
    Anderson, JE ; Campbell, JA ; Durowoju, L ; Greenberg, SLM ; Rice-Townsend, SE ; Gow, KW ; Avansino, J (Elsevier BV, 2021-08)
    Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is an identified complication of the COVID-19 infection. A common presentation of both COVID-19 and MIS-C is acute abdominal pain, sometimes mimicking appendicitis. We report two cases of patients initially diagnosed with appendicitis who either presented with or developed signs of shock and were found to have MIS-C. An 8-year-old girl who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) presented with fever, abdominal pain, and shock with ultrasound findings consistent with acute appendicitis. After being treated for MIS-C, she underwent appendectomy and improved. Final pathology was consistent with acute appendicitis. A 9-year-old girl who tested negative for COVID RT-PCR presented with uncomplicated appendicitis and underwent laparoscopic appendectomy, but developed post-operative fever and shock. Antibody testing was positive and she responded to treatment for MIS-C. Histology showed lymphohistiocytic inflammation within the muscularis propria, mesoappendix and serosa without the typical neutrophil-rich inflammation and mucosal involvement of acute appendicitis. The diagnosis was MIS-C, not appendicitis. Given the new reality of the COVID-19 pandemic, pediatric surgeons must be aware of MIS-C as a possible diagnosis and should understand the diagnostic criteria and current treatment guidelines.
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