Chemical and Biomedical Engineering - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 223
Adsorption Behavior of Divalent Metal Ions onto Surface-functionalized Mesoporous Silicate MCM-41 Having Schiff Base Structure
(JAPAN SOC ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, 2021-04-01)
Surface functionalized mesoporous silicates, MCM-41s, having 3-(2-pyridylmethylideneimino)propyl group (PI-MCM-41) or 3-(2-quinolylmethylideneimino)propyl group (QI-MCM-41) were prepared via Schiff base reaction, and the adsorption behavior of metal ions onto the modified MCM-41s was investigated. The function groups on the modified MCM-41 surface were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and elemental analysis. The metal ions examined, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+, were quantitatively adsorbed on the PI-MCM-41 and QI-MCM-41, except for Mn2+. In the complexation with these metal ions, it was suggested that imine-N and heterocyclic-N atoms act as donor atoms. In addition, it was considered that the hydrophobicity derived from the organo-functional groups modified on MCM-41 contributed to improving the adsorption ability.
Advanced natural language processing technique to predict patient disposition based on emergency triage notes
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the potential of machine learning and capability of natural language processing (NLP) to predict disposition of patients based on triage notes in the ED. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of ED triage notes from St Vincent's Hospital (Melbourne) was used to develop a deep-learning algorithm that predicts patient disposition. Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers, a recent language representation model developed by Google, was utilised for NLP. Eighty percent of the dataset was used for training the model and 20% was used to test the algorithm performance. Ktrain library, a wrapper for TensorFlow Keras, was employed to develop the model. RESULTS: The accuracy of the algorithm was 83% and the area under the curve was 0.88. Sensitivity, specificity, precision and F1-score of the algorithm were 72%, 86%, 56% and 63%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Machine learning and NLP can be together applied to the ED triage note to predict patient disposition with a high level of accuracy. The algorithm can potentially assist ED clinicians in early identification of patients requiring admission by mitigating the cognitive load, thus optimises resource allocation in EDs.
Clean Power Technology
(Gaodeng Jiaoyu Chubanshe, 2020-12-01)
It is timely that Engineering should devote a special issue to the topic of clean energy. The authors of the research articles and the views and comments cover much of what is a very diverse and controversial field. Responses to this topic cover a spectrum ranging from those that argue for emergency action to prevent the extinction of the human race to those that deny the existence of climate change. Before dismissing any group, it is informative for engineers and technologists to note that there is a fairly even distribution across this spectrum
CODE STROKE ALERT-Concept and Development of a Novel Open-Source Platform to Streamline Acute Stroke Management
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2019-07-31)
Introduction: Effective, time-critical intervention in acute stroke is crucial to mitigate mortality rate and morbidity, but delivery of reperfusion treatments is often hampered by pre-, in-, or inter-hospital system level delays. Disjointed, repetitive, and inefficient communication is a consistent contributor to avoidable treatment delay. In the era of rapid reperfusion therapy for ischemic stroke, there is a need for a communication system to synchronize the flow of clinical information across the entire stroke journey. Material/Methods: A multi-disciplinary development team designed an electronic communications platform, integrated between web browsers and a mobile application, to link all relevant members of the stroke treatment pathway. The platform uses tiered notifications, geotagging, incorporates multiple clinical score calculators, and is compliant with security regulations. The system safely saves relevant information for audit and research. Results: Code Stroke Alert is a platform that can be accessed by emergency medical services (EMS) and hospital staff, coordinating the flow of information during acute stroke care, reducing duplication, and error in clinical information handover. Electronic data logs provide an auditable trail of relevant quality improvement metrics, facilitating quality improvement, and research. Discussion: Code Stroke Alert will be freely available to health networks globally. The open-source nature of the software offers valuable potential for future development of plug-ins and add-ons, based on individual institutional needs. Prospective, multi-site implementation, and measurement of clinical impact are underway.
CFD Simulation of Two-Phase Flow in a Hybrid Pulsed Sieve-Plate Solvent Extraction Column: Prediction of Holdup and Axial-dispersion Coefficients
(Taylor & Francis, 2020-01-02)
Two-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for a hybrid pulsed sieve-plate solvent extraction column, as well as a standard pulsed sieve-plate column, have been developed with commercial software ANSYS FLUENT. Hydrodynamic performance including two-phase distribution and velocity fields are generated with the models and comparisons are made between two columns. Important parameters including holdup and axial-dispersion coefficients are studied systematically, and CFD successfully predicts the higher holdup and lower axial-dispersion coefficients for the hybrid pulsed sieve-plate column as measured in the experiments. CFD also gives reasonable predictions for the effect of pulsation intensity, dispersed-phase velocity, and continuous-phase velocity on holdup, except for the effect of pulsation intensity in low pulsation region, and the cause has been discussed from the perspective of droplet breakage and coalescence. Comparison with literature data shows that CFD underestimates the holdup of hybrid pulsed sieve-plate column and standard pulsed sieve-plate column by 23.3% and 31.4%, respectively, and the cause has been discussed from the perspective of drag law. CFD gives good prediction of axial-dispersion coefficients for the hybrid pulsed sieve-plate column and the standard pulsed sieve-plate column with ARD of 12.0% and 14.3%, respectively. This study shows CFD to be a useful tool to predict performance for the novel hybrid pulsed sieve-plate column as well as the standard pulsed sieve-plate column.
Axial Dispersion and Mass Transfer of a Pulsed Solvent Extraction Column with Novel Ceramic Internals
(AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2017-03-22)
Two types of novel anticorrosive ceramic internals, the hybrid ceramic internal and ceramic plate, are designed and tested under pilot conditions for future industrial application in lithium extraction from salt lake brine. A standard liquid–liquid system with medium interfacial tension, 30% TBP in Shellsol 2046–water with acetic acid as solute, is used to test axial dispersion and mass-transfer parameters, which are important to determine height of extraction columns, over a range of operating conditions. Results show that the hybrid ceramic internal has 50% lower axial dispersion coefficient and 50% higher mass-transfer coefficient, both contributing to better mass-transfer performance. Under proper operating conditions, the height of the transfer unit of the hybrid ceramic internal can reach as low as approximately 0.2 m, which shows very good efficiency and makes it promising for application in the near future.
A state-of-the-art review on single drop study in liquid–liquid extraction: Experiments and simulations
(Elsevier BV, 2019-12)
The experimental and numerical investigations of single drop in liquid/liquid extraction system have been reviewed with particular focus on experimental techniques and computational fluid dynamic simulation approaches. Comprehensive surveys of available experimental techniques and numerical approaches for single drop rising and falling were given. Subsequently, single drop mass transfer was also reviewed both experimentally and numerically. Additionally, single drop breakage and coalescence process and the influencing factors were summarized and compared, so as to establish sub-models for population balance model. Future directions on single drop mass transfer, drop breakage and coalescence were suggested. It is believed that the single drop is a powerful tool to assist extraction process design from lab-scale to pilot-scale.
An experimental study on single drop rising in a low interfacial tension liquid–liquid system
Terminal velocity of liquid drops is one of the key parameters in liquid–liquid extraction column design. It is important in determining residence time, droplet lifetime, and mass transfer rate. In present paper, the rising behavior of a single drops were investigated in a low interfacial tension system by high speed camera. An n-butanol/water system was used as test system. Correlations for terminal velocity were evaluated and compared, both explicitly and implicitly. Moreover, the influence of salt addition in aqueous phase was also studied, including salt concentrations and types. A Weber–Reynolds correlation was derived on the basis of experimental data. Drag coefficient was then calculated and showed a good agreement compared to the correlations in literatures.
Review of Membranes for Helium Separation and Purification
Membrane gas separation has potential for the recovery and purification of helium, because the majority of membranes have selectivity for helium. This review reports on the current state of the research and patent literature for membranes undertaking helium separation. This includes direct recovery from natural gas, as an ancillary stage in natural gas processing, as well as niche applications where helium recycling has potential. A review of the available polymeric and inorganic membranes for helium separation is provided. Commercial gas separation membranes in comparable gas industries are discussed in terms of their potential in helium separation. Also presented are the various membrane process designs patented for the recovery and purification of helium from various sources, as these demonstrate that it is viable to separate helium through currently available polymeric membranes. This review places a particular focus on those processes where membranes are combined in series with another separation technology, commonly pressure swing adsorption. These combined processes have the most potential for membranes to produce a high purity helium product. The review demonstrates that membrane gas separation is technically feasible for helium recovery and purification, though membranes are currently only applied in niche applications focused on reusing helium rather than separation from natural sources.
Surface Modification of Spider Silk Particles to Direct Biomolecular Corona Formation.
(American Chemical Society, 2020-05-20)
In recent years, spider silk-based materials have attracted attention because of their biocompatibility, processability, and biodegradability. For their potential use in biomaterial applications, i.e., as drug delivery systems and implant coatings for tissue regeneration, it is vital to understand the interactions between the silk biomaterial surface and the biological environment. Like most polymeric carrier systems, spider silk material surfaces can adsorb proteins when in contact with blood, resulting in the formation of a biomolecular corona. Here, we assessed the effect of surface net charge of materials made of recombinant spider silk on the biomolecular corona composition. In-depth proteomic analysis of the biomolecular corona revealed that positively charged spider silk materials surfaces interacted predominantly with fibrinogen-based proteins. This fibrinogen enrichment correlated with blood clotting observed for both positively charged spider silk films and particles. In contrast, negative surface charges prevented blood clotting. Genetic engineering allows the fine-tuning of surface properties of the spider silk particles providing a whole set of recombinant spider silk proteins with different charges or peptide tags to be used for, for example, drug delivery or cell docking, and several of these were analyzed concerning the composition of their biomolecular corona. Taken together this study demonstrates how the surface net charge of recombinant spider silk surfaces affects the composition of the biomolecular corona, which in turn affects macroscopic effects such as fibrin formation and blood clotting.
Modulating the Selectivity and Stealth Properties of Ellipsoidal Polymersomes through a Multivalent Peptide Ligand Display
There is a need for improved nanomaterials to simultaneously target cancer cells and avoid non‐specific clearance by phagocytes. An ellipsoidal polymersome system is developed with a unique tunable size and shape property. These particles are functionalized with in‐house phage‐display cell‐targeting peptide to target a medulloblastoma cell line in vitro. Particle association with medulloblastoma cells is modulated by tuning the peptide ligand density on the particles. These polymersomes has low levels of association with primary human blood phagocytes. The stealth properties of the polymersomes are further improved by including the peptide targeting moiety, an effect that is likely driven by the peptide protecting the particles from binding blood plasma proteins. Overall, this ellipsoidal polymersome system provides a promising platform to explore tumor cell targeting in vivo.