Melbourne Veterinary School - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 121
Muscle, Ageing and Temperature Influence the Changes in Texture, Cooking Loss and Shrinkage of Cooked Beef
This study aimed to quantify the effect of muscle, ageing and cooking temperature on the texture, cooking loss and shrinkage of cooked beef. Cuboids from unaged (1 day post mortem) and aged (14 days post mortem) semitendinosus, biceps femoris and psoas major muscles, from both sides of five beef carcasses, were cooked at four different cooking temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C) for 30 min. and their Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), cooking loss and shrinkage (longitudinal and transverse) were quantified. The WBSF was reduced by ageing in the muscles at the specific cooking temperatures: psoas major (cooked at 50, 60 and 80 °C), semitendinosus (70 and 80 °C) and biceps femoris (80 °C). The cooking loss was 3% greater in aged compared to unaged muscles. The longitudinal shrinkage was greatest in psoas major at 80 °C amongst the muscle types and it was reduced by ageing in psoas major (70 and 80 °C) and biceps femoris (80 °C). The transverse shrinkage was reduced by ageing only in biceps femoris, across all temperatures; and the diameter of homogenized fibre fragments from semitendinosus and biceps femoris was reduced more by cooking at 50 °C in unaged compared to aged condition. WBSF was related to transverse shrinkage, and cooking loss was related to longitudinal shrinkage. The effect of muscle type on the physical changes occurring during cooking of beef is dependent on ageing and cooking temperature.
Knockdown of a disintegrin A metalloprotease 12 (ADAM12) during adipogenesis reduces cell numbers, delays differentiation, and increases lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells
(AMER SOC CELL BIOLOGY, 2018-08-01)
Mouse models have shown that a disintegrin A metalloprotease 12 (ADAM12) is implicated during adipogenesis; the molecular pathways are not well understood. Stealth RNA interference was used to knock down ADAM12 in 3T3-L1 cells. Using gene profiling and metabolic enzymatic markers, we have identified signaling pathways ADAM12 impacts upon during proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of adipocytes. ADAM12 reduced cell numbers in proliferating preadipocytes, delayed differentiation of preadipocytes to adipocytes, and increased lipid accumulation in mature adipocytes. The pathway most affected by ADAM12 knockdown was regulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) activity by insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs); ADAM12 is known to cleave IGFBP3 and IGFBP5. The IGF/mTOR signaling pathway was down-regulated, supporting a role for ADAM12 in the IGFBP/IGF/mTOR-growth pathway. PPARγ signaling was also down-regulated by ADAM12 knockdown. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the extracellular matrix was the cellular compartment most impacted. Filtering for matrisome genes, connective tissue growth factor ( Ctgf) was up-regulated. CTGF and IGBP3 can interact with PPARγ to hinder its regulation. Increased expression of these molecules could have influenced PPARγ signaling reducing differentiation and an imbalance of lipids. We believe ADAM12 regulates cell proliferation of preadipocytes through IGFBP/IGF/mTOR signaling and delays differentiation through altered PPAR signaling to cause an imbalance of lipids within mature adipocytes.
Endovascular embolization of canine hepatic arteriovenous malformations using precipitating hydrophobic injectable liquid (PHIL) liquid embolic agent: a proof of concept study.
BACKGROUND: Hepatic arteriovenous malformations (HAVMs) are rare congenital lesions consisting of multiple high-pressure arteries feeding into low-pressure veins via a central nidus. Massive haemorrhage, portal hypertension and hepatic insufficiency can ensue. Endovascular embolization is increasingly a first line treatment method although there is no general consensus or guidelines on the most effective embolic agent or approach. We describe the novel treatment of two dogs with congenital hepatic AVMs using a modified version of the 'pressure cooker' technique often utilised in neurointervention with the DMSO-based PHIL embolic agent delivered via the DMSO compatible Scepter-XC dual lumen balloon catheter. CASE PRESENTATION: Two paediatric dogs were diagnosed with hepatic AVMs. Both dogs presented with ascites and abnormal liver function tests. CT angiograms revealed hepatic arterio-portal malformations arising from an enlarged celiac artery. Selective catheterisation of the artery supplying the AVM was achieved via a femoral artery approach. A Scepter XC dual-lumen compliant balloon microcatheter and Traxcess 0.014 guidewire combination was advanced to the nidus via through the 5Fr guide catheter towards the nidus. Inflation of the balloon occluded arterial inflow and PHIL was injected under continuous fluoroscopic screening until the PHIL embolic agent penetrated into the draining portal vein beyond the nidus. In patient 1, normal portal venous waveform was restored with reversal of severe hepatic insufficiency. Whilst there was initial improvement post-operatively in patient 2 with normalisation of portal vein pressures and flow, opening of collateral nidus vessels re-established the high-pressure communication, and euthanasia was elected by the owner. CONCLUSIONS: The 'pressure cooker' technique is a safe and efficacious approach to the treatment of canine HAVMs. The novel use of PHIL and the Scepter XC balloon catheter has several advantages over conventional endovascular approaches. Translational application to human paediatric interventions for similar conditions where embolic and contrast agent volume constraints are similar can be considered.
K(Ca)3.1 channel blockade attenuates microvascular remodelling in a large animal model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis
(NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-12-27)
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive lung disease with limited therapeutic options and poor prognosis. IPF has been associated with aberrant vascular remodelling, however the role of vascular remodelling in pulmonary fibrosis is poorly understood. Here, we used a novel segmental challenge model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in sheep to evaluate the remodelling of the pulmonary vasculature, and to investigate the changes to this remodelling after the administration of the KCa3.1 channel inhibitor, senicapoc, compared to the FDA-approved drug pirfenidone. We demonstrate that in vehicle-treated sheep, bleomycin-infused lung segments had significantly higher blood vessel density when compared to saline-infused control segments in the same sheep. These microvascular density changes were significantly attenuated by senicapoc treatment. The increases in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and endothelial cell proliferation in bleomycin-infused lung segments were significantly reduced in sheep treated with the senicapoc, when compared to vehicle-treated controls. These parameters were not significantly suppressed with pirfenidone treatment. Senicapoc treatment attenuated vascular remodelling through inhibition of capillary endothelial cell proliferation and VEGF expression. These findings suggest a potential new mode of action for the novel drug senicapoc which may contribute to its efficacy in combatting pulmonary fibrosis.
Adenylosuccinic acid therapy ameliorates murine Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
(NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2020-01-24)
Arising from the ablation of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a debilitating and fatal skeletal muscle wasting disease underpinned by metabolic insufficiency. The inability to facilitate adequate energy production may impede calcium (Ca2+) buffering within, and the regenerative capacity of, dystrophic muscle. Therefore, increasing the metabogenic potential could represent an effective treatment avenue. The aim of our study was to determine the efficacy of adenylosuccinic acid (ASA), a purine nucleotide cycle metabolite, to stimulate metabolism and buffer skeletal muscle damage in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Dystrophin-positive control (C57BL/10) and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice were treated with ASA (3000 µg.mL-1) in drinking water. Following the 8-week treatment period, metabolism, mitochondrial density, viability and superoxide (O2-) production, as well as skeletal muscle histopathology, were assessed. ASA treatment significantly improved the histopathological features of murine DMD by reducing damage area, the number of centronucleated fibres, lipid accumulation, connective tissue infiltration and Ca2+ content of mdx tibialis anterior. These effects were independent of upregulated utrophin expression in the tibialis anterior. ASA treatment also increased mitochondrial viability in mdx flexor digitorum brevis fibres and concomitantly reduced O2- production, an effect that was also observed in cultured immortalised human DMD myoblasts. Our data indicates that ASA has a protective effect on mdx skeletal muscles.
Detection and characterisation of canine astrovirus, canine parvovirus and canine papillomavirus in puppies using next generation sequencing.
(Nature Publishing Group, 2019-03-14)
Gastroenteritis in young animals is a clinical presentation with many infectious and non- infectious aetiologies. We used next generation sequencing (NGS) to investigate the possible infectious causes of gastroenteritis in puppies from a dog kennel in Victoria, Australia. The near complete genome of a canine astrovirus was obtained from pooled faecal samples, and was found to be 94.7% identical with a canine astrovirus detected in the United Kingdom in 2012. The phylogenetic analysis of the capsid gene found similarities to those of canine astroviruses identified in Italy in 2005 and in UK and Hungary in 2012, but distant from that of a canine astrovirus previously identified in Australia in 2012. Thus, different serotypes of canine astrovirus are likely circulating in Australia. The close relationship to European astroviruses also suggested that there had been recent movements of ancestor canine astroviruses between Australia and Europe. NGS also detected other infections in the puppies including several canine papillomaviruses and a canine parvovirus (vaccine strain) as well as a very low level of campylobacter. Canine astrovirus was the probable cause of diarrhoea in these puppies, with the possible involvement of campylobacter bacteria. NGS was effective as a non-targeted method to determine the likely infectious cause of gastroenteritis.
Evolutionary analysis of human parechovirus type 3 and clinical outcomes of infection during the 2017-18 Australian epidemic.
(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-06-20)
Human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV3) can cause severe sepsis-like illness in young infants and may be associated with long term neurodevelopmental delay later in childhood. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of HPeV infection in thirty three infants requiring hospitalization before, during and after the peak of the 2017/18 HPeV epidemic wave in Australia. During the peak of the epidemic, all cases were infected with an HPeV3, while before and after the peak, HPeV1 was the predominant type detected. The predominant HPeV3 was the recombinant HPeV3 also detected in the 2013/14 and 2015/16 Australian epidemics. Sepsis-like or meningitis-like symptoms were only reported in cases infected with the recombinant HPeV3. Phylogenetic analysis of the recombinant HPeV3 revealed that the virus continued to evolve, also between the Australian outbreaks, thus indicating continued circulation, despite not being detected and reported in Australia or elsewhere in between epidemic waves. The recombinant HPeV3 continued to show a remarkable stability in its capsid amino acid sequence, further strengthening our previous argument for development of a vaccine or immunotherapeutics to reduce the severity of HPeV3 outbreaks due to this virus.
Compartmental fat distribution in the abdomen of dogs relative to overall body fat composition
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue may have different metabolic and endocrine functions depending on the region of the body in which it is located. While visceral or intra-abdominal fat has been found to contribute to leptin concentrations, insulin resistance and obesity-related diseases, there are only a few imaging studies documenting the preferential distribution of body fat to either the intra-abdominal or subcutaneous compartments in dogs. This study aimed to determine if CT-measured abdominal fat distributed preferentially to the visceral space (V) relative to the subcutaneous space (SQ), with increasing DXA-determined total body fat percentage; and if ultrasound measurements of the ventral midline subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose thickness (VAT) can be used to estimate the distribution of fat to the subcutaneous and visceral abdominal spaces, in a sample of 22 dogs with variable body condition. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed no statistically significant correlation between visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio (V/SQ) and increasing total body fat percentage (β = - 0.07, p = 0.733), but strong correlation with age (β = 0.71 p = 0.002). A substantial amount of variation for the ultrasound visceral adipose thickness to subcutaneous fat thickness (VAT/SAT) could be explained by both CT V/SQ and sex (R2Adjusted = 0.477, p = 0.001), with female dogs having significant lower VAT/SAT ratios compared to the male dogs (p = 0.047). The ultrasound fat measurements appeared moderately reliable, but a larger sample number is required to confirm this. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that dogs with a relatively healthy to slightly overweight body condition score, distribute fat relatively similarly between their peritoneal (visceral) and subcutaneous abdominal compartments with increasing total body fat percentage. However, there was increased fat distribution to the peritoneal space relative to the subcutaneous space with increasing age. Further, abdominal ultrasound may be useful in estimating the ratio of fat distribution to both the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous spaces.
Investigation of molecular mechanisms of experimental compounds in murine models of chronic allergic airways disease using synchrotron Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy
(NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2020-07-16)
The ovalbumin-induced (OVA) chronic allergic airways murine model is a well-established model for investigating pre-clinical therapies for chronic allergic airways diseases, such as asthma. Here, we examined the effects of several experimental compounds with potential anti-asthmatic effects including resveratrol (RV), relaxin (RLN), L-sulforaphane (LSF), valproic acid (VPA), and trichostatin A (TSA) using both a prevention and reversal model of chronic allergic airways disease. We undertook a novel analytical approach using focal plane array (FPA) and synchrotron Fourier-transform infrared (S-FTIR) microspectroscopic techniques to provide new insights into the mechanisms of action of these experimental compounds. Apart from the typical biological effects, S-FTIR microspectroscopy was able to detect changes in nucleic acids and protein acetylation. Further, we validated the reduction in collagen deposition induced by each experimental compound evaluated. Although this has previously been observed with conventional histological methods, the S-FTIR technique has the advantage of allowing identification of the type of collagen present. More generally, our findings highlight the potential utility of S-FTIR and FPA-FTIR imaging techniques in enabling a better mechanistic understanding of novel asthma therapeutics.
A gene network switch enhances the oxidative capacity of ovine skeletal muscle during late fetal development
BACKGROUND: The developmental transition between the late fetus and a newborn animal is associated with profound changes in skeletal muscle function as it adapts to the new physiological demands of locomotion and postural support against gravity. The mechanisms underpinning this adaption process are unclear but are likely to be initiated by changes in hormone levels. We tested the hypothesis that this developmental transition is associated with large coordinated changes in the transcription of skeletal muscle genes. RESULTS: Using an ovine model, transcriptional profiling was performed on Longissimus dorsi skeletal muscle taken at three fetal developmental time points (80, 100 and 120 d of fetal development) and two postnatal time points, one approximately 3 days postpartum and a second at 3 months of age. The developmental time course was dominated by large changes in expression of 2,471 genes during the interval between late fetal development (120 d fetal development) and 1-3 days postpartum. Analysis of the functions of genes that were uniquely up-regulated in this interval showed strong enrichment for oxidative metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid cycle indicating enhanced mitochondrial activity. Histological examination of tissues from these developmental time points directly confirmed a marked increase in mitochondrial activity between the late fetal and early postnatal samples. The promoters of genes that were up-regulated during this fetal to neonatal transition were enriched for estrogen receptor 1 and estrogen related receptor alpha cis-regulatory motifs. The genes down-regulated during this interval highlighted de-emphasis of an array of functions including Wnt signaling, cell adhesion and differentiation. There were also changes in gene expression prior to this late fetal--postnatal transition and between the two postnatal time points. The former genes were enriched for functions involving the extracellular matrix and immune response while the latter principally involved functions associated with transcriptional regulation of metabolic processes. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that during late skeletal muscle development there are substantial and coordinated changes in the transcription of a large number of genes many of which are probably triggered by increased estrogen levels. These changes probably underpin the adaption of muscle to new physiological demands in the postnatal environment.
Effect of DLK1 and RTL1 but Not MEG3 or MEG8 on Muscle Gene Expression in Callipyge Lambs
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2009-10-09)
Callipyge sheep exhibit extreme postnatal muscle hypertrophy in the loin and hindquarters as a result of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the imprinted DLK1-DIO3 domain on ovine chromosome 18. The callipyge SNP up-regulates the expression of surrounding transcripts when inherited in cis without altering their allele-specific imprinting status. The callipyge phenotype exhibits polar overdominant inheritance since only paternal heterozygous animals have muscle hypertrophy. Two studies were conducted profiling gene expression in lamb muscles to determine the down-stream effects of over-expression of paternal allele-specific DLK1 and RTL1 as well as maternal allele-specific MEG3, RTL1AS and MEG8, using Affymetrix bovine expression arrays. A total of 375 transcripts were differentially expressed in callipyge muscle and 25 transcripts were subsequently validated by quantitative PCR. The muscle-specific expression patterns of most genes were similar to DLK1 and included genes that are transcriptional repressors or affect feedback mechanisms in beta-adrenergic and growth factor signaling pathways. One gene, phosphodiesterase 7A had an expression pattern similar to RTL1 expression indicating a biological activity for RTL1 in muscle. Only transcripts that localize to the DLK1-DIO3 domain were affected by inheritance of a maternal callipyge allele. Callipyge sheep are a unique model to study over expression of both paternal allele-specific genes and maternal allele-specific non-coding RNA with an accessible and nonlethal phenotype. This study has identified a number of genes that are regulated by DLK1 and RTL1 expression and exert control on postnatal skeletal muscle growth. The genes identified in this model are primary candidates for naturally regulating postnatal muscle growth in all meat animal species, and may serve as targets to ameliorate muscle atrophy conditions including myopathic diseases and age-related sarcopenia.
Immune response to allergens in sheep sensitized to house dust mite
BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergens are a major cause of allergic asthma. Most studies using animal models of allergic asthma have used rodents sensitized with the 'un-natural' allergen ovalbumin. It has only recently been recognized that the use of animal models based on HDM provide a more relevant insight into the allergen-induced mechanisms that underpin human allergic disease. We have previously described a sheep model of human allergic asthma that uses Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus HDM. The present study extends our understanding of the immune effects of HDM and the allergens Der p 1 and Der p 2 in the sheep model of asthma. METHODS: Peripheral blood sera from non-sensitized (control) sheep and sheep sensitized to HDM was collected to determine immunoglobulin (Ig) reactivities to HDM, Der p 1 and Der p 2 by ELISA. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid collected following allergen challenge was also assessed for the presence of HDM-specific antibodies. To examine the cellular immune response to HDM allergens, T cell proliferation and cutaneous responses were assessed in sensitized and control sheep. RESULTS: Strong HDM- and Der p 1-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG2 and IgA serum responses were observed in sensitized sheep, while detectable levels of HDM-specific IgG1 and IgA were seen in BAL fluid of allergen-challenged lungs. In contrast, minimal antibody reactivity was observed to Der p 2. Marked T cell proliferation and late phase cutaneous responses, accompanied by the recruitment of eosinophils, indicates the induction of a cellular and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) type II response by HDM and Der p 1 allergen, but not Der p 2. CONCLUSION: This work characterizes the humoral and cellular immune effects of HDM extract and its major constituent allergens in sheep sensitized to HDM. The effects of allergen in HDM-sensitized sheep were detectable both locally and systemically, and probably mediated via enzymatic and immune actions of the major HDM allergen Der p 1. This study extends our understanding of the actions of this important allergen relevant to human allergic asthma and its effects in sheep experimentally sensitized to HDM allergens.