Veterinary Clinical Sciences - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 30
Ring and peg electrodes for minimally-Invasive and long-term sub-scalp EEG recordings
OBJECTIVE: Minimally-invasive approaches are needed for long-term reliable Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to assist with epilepsy diagnosis, investigation and more naturalistic monitoring. This study compared three methods for long-term implantation of sub-scalp EEG electrodes. METHODS: Three types of electrodes (disk, ring, and peg) were fabricated from biocompatible materials and implanted under the scalp in five ambulatory ewes for 3months. Disk electrodes were inserted into sub-pericranial pockets. Ring electrodes were tunneled under the scalp. Peg electrodes were inserted into the skull, close to the dura. EEG was continuously monitored wirelessly. High resolution CT imaging, histopathology, and impedance measurements were used to assess the status of the electrodes at the end of the study. RESULTS: EEG amplitude was larger in the peg compared with the disk and ring electrodes (p<0.05). Similarly, chewing artifacts were lower in the peg electrodes (p<0.05). Electrode impedance increased after long-term implantation particularly for those within the bone (p<0.01). Micro-CT scans indicated that all electrodes stayed within the sub-scalp layers. All pegs remained within the burr holes as implanted with no evidence of extrusion. Eight of 10 disks partially eroded into the bone by 1.0mm from the surface of the skull. The ring arrays remained within the sub-scalp layers close to implantation site. Histology revealed that the electrodes were encapsulated in a thin fibrous tissue adjacent to the pericranium. Overlying this was a loose connective layer and scalp. Erosion into the bone occurred under the rim of the sub-pericranial disk electrodes. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the peg electrodes provided high quality EEG, mechanical stability, and lower chewing artifact. Whereas, ring electrode arrays tunneled under the scalp enable minimal surgical techniques to be used for implantation and removal.
Analysis of the complete genomic sequences of two virus subpopulations of the Australian infectious bronchitis virus vaccine VicS
(TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2015-05-04)
Although sequencing of the 3' end of the genome of Australian infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs) has shown that their structural genes are distinct from those of IBVs found in other countries, their replicase genes have not been analysed. To examine this, the complete genomic sequences of the two subpopulations of the VicS vaccine, VicS-v and VicS-del, were determined. Compared with VicS-v, the more attenuated VicS-del strain had two non-synonymous changes in the non-structural protein 6 (nsp6), a transmembrane (TM) domain that may participate in autocatalytic release of the 3-chymotrypsin-like protease, a polymorphic difference at the end of the S2 gene, which coincided with the body transcription-regulating sequence (B-TRS) of mRNA 3 and a truncated open reading frame for a peptide encoded by gene 4 (4b). These genetic differences could be responsible for the differences between these variants in pathogenicity in vivo, and replication in vitro. Phylogenetic analysis of the whole genome showed that VicS-v and VicS-del did not cluster with strains from other countries, supporting the hypothesis that Australian IBV strains have been evolving independently for some time, and analyses of individual polymerase peptide and S glycoprotein genes suggested a distant common ancestor with no recent recombination. This study suggests the potential role of the TM domain in nsp6, the integrity of the S2 protein and the B-TRS 3, and the putative accessory protein 4b, as well as the 3' untranslated region, in the virulence and replication of IBV and has provided a better understanding of relationships between the Australian vaccine strain of IBV and those used elsewhere.
Full Genome Analysis of Australian Infectious Bronchitis Viruses Suggests Frequent Recombination Events between Vaccine Strains and Multiple Phylogenetically Distant Avian Coronaviruses of Unknown Origin
Australian strains of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) have been evolving independently for many years, with control achieved by vaccination with local attenuated strains. Previous studies have documented the emergence of recombinants over the last 20 years, with the most recent one, Ck/Aus/N1/08, detected in 2008. These recombinants did not appear to be controlled by the vaccines currently in use. In this study we sequenced the complete genomes of three emergent Australian strains of IBV (IBV/Ck/Aus/N1/88, IBV/Ck/Aus/N1/03 and IBV/Ck/Aus/N1/08) and a previously incompletely characterised vaccine strain, IBV/Ck/Aus/Armidale, and compared them to the genome of the vaccine strain VicS. We detected multiple recombination events throughout the genome between wild type viruses and the vaccine strains in all three emergent isolates. Moreover, we found that strain N1/88 was not entirely exogenous, as was previously hypothesised. Rather, it originated from a recombination event involving the VicS vaccine strain. The S glycoprotein genes of N1/88 and N1/03 were known to be genetically distinct from previously characterised circulating strains and from each other, and the original donors of these genes remains unknown. The S1 glycoprotein gene of N1/88, a subgroup 2 strain, shares a high nucleotide identity with the sequence of the S1 gene of the recent isolate N1/08. As the subgroup 2 strains have not been isolated for at least 20 years, it appears likely that an unknown avian coronavirus that was the donor of the S1 glycoprotein sequence of N1/88 in the 1980s is still recombining with IBV strains in the field.
Reducing Listening-Related Stress in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
(SPRINGER/PLENUM PUBLISHERS, 2017-07-01)
High levels of stress and anxiety are common in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Within this study of school-aged children (20 male, 6 female) we hypothesised that functional hearing deficits (also pervasive in ASD) could be ameliorated by auditory interventions and that, as a consequence, stress levels would be reduced. The use of Ear-Level Remote Microphone devices and Classroom Amplification systems resulted in significantly improved listening, communication and social interaction and a reduction in physiologic stress levels (salivary cortisol) in both one-on-one and group listening situations.
Assessment of serum symmetric dimethylarginine and creatinine concentrations in hyperthyroid cats before and after a fixed dose of orally administered radioiodine
Background: Serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) is a sensitive renal biomarker for detecting early chronic kidney disease (CKD) in nonhyperthyroid cats, but knowledge regarding its performance in hyperthyroid cats remains limited. Objectives: To determine the relationship between serum SDMA, creatinine and total thyroxine (TT4) concentrations in hyperthyroid cats before (T0) and 3 months after (T1) receiving a PO fixed dose of radioiodine. Animals: Eighty client‐owned hyperthyroid cats. Methods: Prospective cohort study. Serum TT4, and SDMA, creatinine concentrations, and urine specific gravity were measured at T0 and T1. Nonparametric tests were used to determine the relationship among SDMA, and creatinine and TT4 concentrations. Agreement between SDMA and creatinine regarding CKD staging at both time points was assessed using Goodman and Kruskal's gamma statistic. Results: Mean serum SDMA concentration increased after treatment of hyperthyroidism. However, 21 of 75 cats experienced a decrease in SDMA between T0 and T1, whereas creatinine decreased in only 2 cats. A moderate correlation between SDMA and creatinine was seen at T1 (r = 0.53; P < .001) but not at T0 (r = 0.13; P = .25). Where assessable at T1, poor agreement was observed between SDMA and creatinine and CKD stage (Goodman and Kruskal's gamma 0.20; P = .29). Conclusions and clinical importance: Discordant outcomes between SDMA and creatinine after radioiodine treatment in cats with hyperthyroidism suggest extrarenal factors may interfere with the reliability of SDMA to adequately reflect renal function. As a result, SDMA should not be interpreted in isolation in hyperthyroid cats treated with radioiodine.
Intestinal Small Cell Lymphoma: Are Dogs Big Cats?
Previously T-cell lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract in human were classified as enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) type I and type II. Type I is associated with celiac disease and characterized by large lymphocytes, whereas type II is not associated to enteropathies and characterized by small lymphocytes. In view of these differences, the nomenclature has been changed and EATL currently refers only to type I and type II has been renamed monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma (MEITL).1 EATL has an aggressive clinical course and tumor cells most commonly have an αβ T-cell receptor phenotype. In comparison MEITL tumour cells express CD8, CD56, and megakaryocyte-associated tyrosine kinase. T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (TLPD) is another type of small cell lymphoma described in the intestinal tract. This lymphoma has typically an indolent clinical course and commonly express CD8 and is negative for CD4 and CD56, Markers of T-cell lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract have been much less extensively studied in cats and dogs and for this reason for the purpose of this lecture small cell lymphoma (SCL) will be used for neoplastic cells with nuclei smaller than 2 red blood cells in diameter and large cell lymphoma (LCL) for larger neoplastic cells. SCL characterized by infiltration of the intestinal mucosa by mature T-cells with variable epitheliotropism has been described for more than 10 years in cats. SCL has better outcome than other types of lymphoma in this species, with median survival times over 1.5 years.3 Although criteria have been described in cats to diagnose SCL, these are not as well defined in dogs. However, several recent studies support that SCL is also present in dogs and the clinical findings and outcome will be described in this presentation.
Chronic Enteropathy In Canines: Prevalence, Impact And Management Strategies
(Dove Press, 2019-12-06)
In this article, the studies about the prevalence of chronic enteropathy are reviewed as well as the information regarding short- and long-term prognosis for dogs treated with the three most common therapies; these include dietary modification, antibiotics, and immunosuppressants. Although the data available are limited, most studies support a good to excellent long-term response in dogs that have a successful food trial, whereas the response is poor with antibiotics or on-going treatment is required to retain remission. There is a risk of antimicrobial resistance developing with inappropriate use of antimicrobials such as in these situations. The published information highlights the need for alternative strategies to antibiotic treatment to manipulate the GI microbiome, and in the final part of this article studies on the use of probiotic for the treatment of chronic enteropathy are reviewed.
ACVIM consensus statement on the diagnosis of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in dogs and cats
Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in dogs. IMHA also occurs in cats, although less commonly. IMHA is considered secondary when it can be attributed to an underlying disease, and as primary (idiopathic) if no cause is found. Eliminating diseases that cause IMHA may attenuate or stop immune-mediated erythrocyte destruction, and adverse consequences of long-term immunosuppressive treatment can be avoided. Infections, cancer, drugs, vaccines, and inflammatory processes may be underlying causes of IMHA. Evidence for these comorbidities has not been systematically evaluated, rendering evidence-based decisions difficult. We identified and extracted data from studies published in the veterinary literature and developed a novel tool for evaluation of evidence quality, using it to assess study design, diagnostic criteria for IMHA, comorbidities, and causality. Succinct evidence summary statements were written, along with screening recommendations. Statements were refined by conducting 3 iterations of Delphi review with panel and task force members. Commentary was solicited from several professional bodies to maximize clinical applicability before the recommendations were submitted. The resulting document is intended to provide clinical guidelines for diagnosis of, and underlying disease screening for, IMHA in dogs and cats. These should be implemented with consideration of animal, owner, and geographical factors.
Changes in duodenal CD163-positive cells in dogs with chronic enteropathy after successful treatment
(SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2018-10-01)
Chronic enteropathy (CE) in dogs is characterized retrospectively per treatment response as food-responsive enteropathy (FRE), antibiotic-responsive enteropathy (ARE), and immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathy (IRE) - the latter most resembling inflammatory bowel disease in people. The aim of this study was to characterize duodenal macrophages (Mϕ) in CE using immunohistochemistry; with calprotectin (CAL) as a marker of early differentiated Mϕ and CD163 expression as a marker for resident Mϕ in the duodenum before and after treatment. Prior to treatment, dogs with FRE and IRE had a lower CD163+/CAL+ ratio than control dogs (CTRL) in crypts; this increased significantly and normalized compared with CTRL after treatment. Conversely, the CD163+/CAL+ ratio in dogs with ARE was comparable to that in healthy dogs before and after treatment. In summary, these results suggest that Mϕ play a role in the pathogenesis of CE in FRE and IRE, with a decrease in resident Mϕ and an increase in early differentiated Mϕ, but not in ARE dogs. Mϕ normalize after successful treatment.
Effect of immunosuppressive drugs on cytokine production in canine whole blood stimulated with lipopolysaccharide or a combination of ionomycin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate
(John Wiley & Sons, 2019-05)
A pharmacodynamic assay has been previously developed to monitor ciclosporin treatment in dogs by assessing inhibition of cytokine transcription after whole blood stimulation with 12-myristate 13-1 acetate and ionomycin (PMA/I). In this study, whole blood stimulation with either PMA/I or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to assess the effect of multiple drugs (azathioprine, ciclosporin, mycophenolate, leflunomide and prednisone) after a 7-day treatment course on production of cytokines measured with a multiplex assay in healthy dogs (n = 4 for each treatment). Interleukin-10 (IL-10), interferon gamma (IFN?) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) were significantly activated by PMA/I stimulation and IL-6, IL-10 and TNFa by LPS stimulation, in the absence of immunosuppressive drugs. After ciclosporin treatment, IL-10, IFN? and TNFa production was significantly reduced after stimulation with PMA/I compared to pre-treatment. After prednisone treatment, TNFa production was significantly reduced after stimulation with PMA/I or LPS compared to pre-treatment. No significant change was observed after treatment with azathioprine, leflunomide or mycophenolate. This methodology may be useful to monitor dogs not only treated with ciclosporin, but also with prednisone or a combination of both. Further studies are needed to assess the use of this assay in a clinical setting.