University General - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 68
Gay and Bisexual Men's Views on Rapid Self-Testing for HIV
(SPRINGER/PLENUM PUBLISHERS, 2013-07-01)
Thirty-one gay and bisexual men were interviewed on the acceptability, potential use, benefits and limitations of rapid self-testing for HIV in Australia. The majority of men supported the introduction of rapid self-testing, and would be likely to, or would use the tests for home use. However, most reported they would use them for interim testing and not to replace conventional blood testing at health services as they could not detect other sexually transmitted infections or provide the professional expertise and support provided at health services.
Simulating Lifetime Outcomes Associated with Complications for People with Type 1 Diabetes
(ADIS INT LTD, 2013-01-01)
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop a discrete-time simulation model for people with type 1 diabetes mellitus, to estimate and compare mean life expectancy and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) over a lifetime between intensive and conventional blood glucose treatment groups. METHODS: We synthesized evidence on type 1 diabetes patients using several published sources. The simulation model was based on 13 equations to estimate risks of events and mortality. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk was obtained from results of the DCCT (diabetes control and complications trial). Mortality post-CVD event was based on a study using linked administrative data on people with diabetes from Western Australia. Information on incidence of renal disease and the progression to CVD was obtained from studies in Finland and Italy. Lower-extremity amputation (LEA) risk was based on the type 1 diabetes Swedish inpatient registry, and the risk of blindness was obtained from results of a German-based study. Where diabetes-specific data were unavailable, information from other populations was used. We examine the degree and source of parameter uncertainty and illustrate an application of the model in estimating lifetime outcomes of using intensive and conventional treatments for blood glucose control. RESULTS: From 15 years of age, male and female patients had an estimated life expectancy of 47.2 (95 % CI 35.2-59.2) and 52.7 (95 % CI 41.7-63.6) years in the intensive treatment group. The model produced estimates of the lifetime benefits of intensive treatment for blood glucose from the DCCT of 4.0 (95 % CI 1.2-6.8) QALYs for women and 4.6 (95 % CI 2.7-6.9) QALYs for men. Absolute risk per 1,000 person-years for fatal CVD events was simulated to be 1.37 and 2.51 in intensive and conventional treatment groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The model incorporates diabetic complications risk data from a type 1 diabetes population and synthesizes other type 1-specific data to estimate long-term outcomes of CVD, end-stage renal disease, LEA and risk of blindness, along with life expectancy and QALYs. External validation was carried out using life expectancy and absolute risk for fatal CVD events. Because of the flexible and transparent nature of the model, it has many potential future applications.
Diffusion-weighted MRI, C-11-choline PET and F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET for predicting the Gleason score in prostate carcinoma
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the accuracy of transrectal ultrasound-guided (TRUS) biopsy, diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), (11)C-choline (CHOL) positron emission tomography (PET), and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET in predicting the prostatectomy Gleason risk (GR). METHODS: The study included 21 patients who underwent TRUS biopsy and multi-technique imaging before radical prostatectomy. Values from five different tests (TRUS biopsy, DW MRI, CHOL PET, FDG PET, and combined DW MRI/CHOL PET) were correlated with the prostatectomy GR using Spearman's ρ. Tests that were found to have significant correlations were used to classify patients into GR groups. RESULTS: The following tests had significant correlations with prostatectomy GR: TRUS biopsy (ρ = 0.617, P = 0.003), DW MRI (ρ = -0.601, P = 0.004), and combined DW MRI/CHOL PET (ρ = -0.623, P = 0.003). CHOL PET alone and FDG PET only had weak correlations. The correct GR classification rates were 67% with TRUS biopsy, 67% with DW MRI, and 76% with combined DW MRI/CHOL PET. CONCLUSIONS: DW MRI and combined DW MRI/CHOL PET have significant correlations and high rates of correct classification of the prostatectomy GR, the strength and accuracy of which are comparable with TRUS biopsy. KEY POINTS: • Accurate determination of the Gleason score is essential for prostate cancer management. • DW MRI ± CHOL PET correlated significantly with prostatectomy Gleason score. • These correlations are similar to that between TRUS biopsy and prostatectomy.
The Contribution of Parenting Practices and Parent Emotion Factors in Children at Risk for Disruptive Behavior Disorders
The goal of this study was to examine the impact of different parenting characteristics on child disruptive behavior and emotional regulation among a sample of at-risk children. The sample consisted of 373 Australian 5- to 9-year-old children who were screened for serious behavior problems. Seven parenting variables based on self-report were evaluated, involving parenting practices, emotion beliefs and behaviors, emotion expressiveness, and mental health. Outcome variables based on parent/teacher report were child disruptive behavior problems and emotion regulatory ability. When entered simultaneously in a multiple regression analysis, inconsistent discipline, negative parental emotional expressiveness, and parent mental health demonstrated the strongest relationship to disruptive behavior problems and problems with emotion regulation. The data presented here elucidate multiple risk pathways to disruptive behavior disorders and can inform the design of prevention and early intervention programs.
Chlamydia sentinel surveillance in Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services finds higher testing and positivity rates among younger people
OBJECTIVE: To measure chlamydia testing and positivity rates among 16-39 year olds attending Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs). METHODS: Retrospective non-identifiable computerised records containing consultation and chlamydia testing data were collected for patients (16-39 years) attending eight ACCHSs during 2008-09 in urban, regional and remote settings for the Australian Collaboration for Chlamydia Enhanced Sentinel Surveillance (ACCESS) system. Annual chlamydia testing and positivity rates were estimated. RESULTS: Over two years, 13,809 patients aged 16-39 years (57.8% female, 82.3% Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander) attended. The annual overall chlamydia testing rate was 13.0% (2008) and 16.0% (2009). Testing rates were higher among females (p<0.001) and among patients aged 16-29 than 30-39 years (males: p=0.01; females: p<0.001). Chlamydia positivity was 8.5% overall; similar in females (8.7%) and males (7.8%) (p=0.46); highest among 16-19 years (females: 17.4%; males: 13.0%), declining to 1.5% among females 35-39 years (p<0.001) and 4.8% among males 30-34 years (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Chlamydia testing at these ACCHSs approached recommended levels among some patient groups, however, it should increase. High positivity among younger people highlights they should be targeted. IMPLICATIONS: Young people should be targeted for sexual health interventions. ACCHSs are well placed to provide enhanced sexual health services if appropriately resourced.
Let’s Improvise! iPad-based music therapy with functional electrical stimulation for upper limb stroke rehabilitation
(Australian Music Therapy Association, 2018)
This retrospective clinical case report will examine the implementation of a novel intervention combining a Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) protocol with an iPad application. A 74-year-old female retired pianist and Professor of Music was admitted to a rehabilitation hospital following a left pontine stroke. On assessment, she was unable to use her right upper limb functionally. Conventional occupational therapy commenced soon after admission and consisted of functional retraining, including FES to the wrist and finger extensors. At week 4, the Registered Music Therapist (RMT) and Occupational Therapist (OT) collaborated to commence a trial of forearm FES in combination with an iPad-based music making application; ThumbJam. This application was used to encourage the patient to participate in touch sensitive musical improvisation using the affected hand in an attempt to promote engagement in complex motor patterns and non-verbal expression. Within 3 weeks, the patient was able to use ThumbJam without the FES, progressed to the keyboard in 4 weeks and has since commenced independent scales on the piano at home (21 weeks), as well as successful use of the upper limb in Activities of Daily Living (ADLs). On follow up (7 months), the patient reflected on the motivating elements of the intervention that helped her to achieve a functional outcome in her upper limb. This retrospective clinical case report will review the evidence with regard to FES and music therapy, outline the treatment protocol used and make recommendations for future research of “FES+ThumbJam” in upper limb stroke rehabilitation.
Momelotinib decreased cancer stem cell associated tumor burden and prolonged disease-free remission period in a mouse model of human ovarian cancer.
Despite a good initial response to front-line chemotherapy, majority of the ovarian cancer patients relapse with consecutive phases of recurrences; and nearly 60% die within 5 years due to the development of a chemoresistant disease. This study investigated whether inhibition of the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway by momelotinib is sufficient in suppressing tumor burden and prolonging the disease-free survival period in a mouse model of ovarian cancer. We demonstrate that paclitaxel treatment enhanced JAK2/STAT3 activation which resulted in the enrichment of cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotype in the surviving ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in in vivo mouse xenografts. Combined treatment with paclitaxel and momelotinib inhibited paclitaxel-induced JAK2/STAT3 activation and CSC-like development in mice xenografts, and consequently reduced the tumor burden significantly greater than that achieved by paclitaxel-treatment alone. However, robust recurrent tumor growth with enhanced JAK2/STAT3 activation and CSC-like phenotype was observed in all mice groups after termination of treatments, but was delayed significantly in the paclitaxel and momelotinib treated group compared to other treatment groups. Daily oral gavage of momelotinib after termination of paclitaxel treatment showed sustained inhibition of tumor growth and a prolonged disease-free survival period in 50% of the mice. The other 50% of mice that developed tumors with ongoing momelotinib treatment also showed significantly increased survival benefit and a smaller tumor burden. These preliminary findings may have a profound clinical impact in developing an effective momelotinib-based 'maintenance-therapy' in ovarian cancer patients' post-chemotherapy treatment.