University General - Research Publications
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Epididymitis rates in Australian hospitals 2009-2018: ecological analysis
(BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2021-08-01)
OBJECTIVES: To investigate rates of acute epididymitis diagnosed in Australian hospital settings. METHODS: Yearly hospital admission and emergency department (ED) rates of epididymitis as primary diagnoses were calculated for 15-44-year-old men for three states (Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland) from 2009 to 2014 using population denominators. Zero inflated Poisson regression models were used to analyse variation in rates by year, age, and residential area. Additionally, we investigated national epididymitis admission trends from 2009 to 2018 using generalised linear models. RESULTS: Between 2009 and 2014, there was a total of 7375 admissions and 17 281 ED presentations for which epididymitis was the main reason for care. Most epididymitis diagnoses (94.0% in admissions, 99.7% in EDs) were without abscess, and 2.5% of admissions were for chlamydial epididymitis. Almost a quarter (23.3%) of epididymitis diagnosed in EDs resulted in hospital admission. In 2014, the epididymitis rate per 100 000 men was 38.7 in admissions and 91.9 in EDs. Comparing 2014 with 2009, the overall epididymitis diagnosis rate increased in admissions by 32% (adjusted incident rate ratio (aIRR) 1.32, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.44) and in ED attendances by 40% (aIRR 1.40, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.49). By age, the highest rates were among men 35-44 years in admissions and men 15-24 years in EDs. National admission rates of epididymitis during 2009-2018 showed a similar pattern. CONCLUSION: Rates of epididymitis diagnosis in hospital admission and ED presentations increased. Different age-related rates in these settings suggest a different aetiology or differential severity by age group.
Intraoral human herpes viruses detectable by PCR in majority of patients
(John Wiley and Sons, 2021-03)
Objectives To identify factors which influence the intraoral prevalence of human herpes viruses (HHVs) using mucosal swabs, saliva samples and qPCR analysis. Methodology In this cross-sectional observational study, matched saliva and oral swabs were collected from a total of 115 subjects: 70 immunocompetent subjects with no mucosal abnormalities, 22 with mucosal abnormalities and 23 therapeutically immunocompromised individuals. Extracted DNA was analysed by multiplex qPCR for detection and quantification of HHVs 1–6. Results At least one human herpes virus was detected in 77.1% of immunocompetent individuals with no mucosal abnormalities, with EBV the most commonly detected at 61.4%. HHV-6 was detected in 17.1%, HSV-1 in 4.3% and CMV in 1.1%. Detection was higher in saliva than in oral swabs. There was no detection of HSV-2 or VZV. Neither presence of oral mucosal abnormality nor therapeutic immunocompromise was related to increased detection of human herpes virus. Conclusion Commensal detection rates of EBV are high, and caution in clinical correlation of positive detection is warranted. Commensal CMV rates are low, and detection is likely to be clinically relevant. This study presents a comprehensive commensal detection rate of HHVs 1–6 by qPCR in saliva and swabs.
Combined effects of continuous exercise and intermittent active interruptions to prolonged sitting on postprandial glucose, insulin, and triglycerides in adults with obesity: a randomized crossover trial
BACKGROUND: Postprandial glucose, insulin, and triglyceride metabolism is impaired by prolonged sitting, but enhanced by exercise. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a continuous exercise bout with and without intermittent active interruptions to prolonged sitting on postprandial glucose, insulin, and triglycerides. METHODS: Sedentary adults who were overweight to obese (n = 67; mean age 67 yr SD ± 7; BMI 31.2 kg∙m- 2 SD ± 4.1), completed three conditions: SIT: uninterrupted sitting (8-h, control); EX+SIT: sitting (1-h), moderate-intensity walking (30-min), uninterrupted sitting (6.5-h); EX+BR: sitting (1-h), moderate-intensity walking (30- min), sitting interrupted every 30-min with 3-min of light-intensity walking (6.5 h). Participants consumed standardized breakfast and lunch meals and blood was sampled at 13 time-points. RESULTS: When compared to SIT, EX+SIT increased total area under the curve (tAUC) for glucose by 2% [0.1-4.1%] and EX+BR by 3% [0.6-4.7%] (all p < 0.05). Compared to SIT, EX+SIT reduced insulin and insulin:glucose ratio tAUC by 18% [11-22%] and 21% [8-33%], respectively; and EX+BR reduced values by 25% [19-31%] and 28% [15-38%], respectively (all p < 0.001 vs SIT, all p < 0.05 EX+SIT-vs-EX+BR). Compared to SIT, EX+BR reduced triglyceride tAUC by 6% [1-10%] (p = 0.01 vs SIT), and compared to EX+SIT, EX+BR reduced this value by 5% [0.1-8.8%] (p = 0.047 vs EX+SIT). The magnitude of reduction in insulin tAUC from SIT-to-EX+BR was greater in those with increased basal insulin resistance. No reduction in triglyceride tAUC from SIT-to-EX+BR was apparent in those with high fasting triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS: Additional reductions in postprandial insulin-glucose dynamics and triglycerides may be achieved by combining exercise with breaks in sitting. Relative to uninterrupted sitting, this strategy may reduce postprandial insulin more in those with high basal insulin resistance, but those with high fasting triglycerides may be resistant to such intervention-induced reductions in triglycerides. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12614000737639 ).
Does detection of fetal growth restriction improve neonatal outcomes?
AIM: Timely delivery of fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a balance between avoiding stillbirth and minimising prematurity. We sought to assess the neonatal outcomes for babies suspected of FGR, both true and false positives. METHODS: This population cohort study examined all singleton births in Victoria, Australia from 2000 to 2017 (n = 1 231 415). Neonatal morbidities associated with neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission were assessed for babies born ≥32 weeks' with severe FGR (<3rd centile) and babies with birthweight ≥10th centile who were iatrogenically delivered for suspected FGR. RESULTS: Babies with severe FGR iatrogenically delivered for suspected FGR were more likely to require NICU admission than babies with severe FGR who were not detected (3.0% vs. 1.1%, P < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds of NICU admission were increased (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.00, 95% confidence interval = 2.45-3.67; P < 0.001). Rates of NICU admission were also higher in ≥10th centile babies iatrogenically delivered for suspected FGR than for ≥10th centile babies who entered labour spontaneously (1.8% vs. 0.5%, P < 0.001). After adjustments, the odds of NICU admission were increased (aOR = 3.91, 95% confidence interval = 3.40-4.49; P < 0.001). NICU admissions were associated with morbidities related to iatrogenic prematurity. CONCLUSIONS: Detection and planned delivery of FGR reduces stillbirth but may be associated with increased neonatal morbidity related to iatrogenic prematurity.
Benefits of phone consultation for endoscopy-related clinics in the COVID-19 pandemic
BACKGROUND AND AIM: During COVID-19 outbreak, restrictions to in-person consultations were introduced with a rise in telehealth. An indirect benefit of telehealth could be better attendance. This study aimed to assess "failure-to-attend" (FTA) rate and satisfaction for two endoscopy-related compulsory telehealth clinics during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: Consecutive patients booked for endoscopy-related telehealth clinics at a tertiary hospital were prospectively assessed. In-person clinic control data were assessed retrospectively. Sample size was calculated to detect an anticipated increase in attendance of 8%. Secondary outcomes included FTA differences between clinics and evaluation of patients and doctors satisfaction. Satisfaction was assessed based on six Likert scale questions used in previous telehealth research and asked to both patients and doctors (6Q_score). This study was exempt from IRB review after institutional IRB review. RESULTS: There were 691 patients booked for appointments in our endoscopy clinics during the study periods (373 in 2020). FTA rates were lowered by half during the compulsory telehealth clinics (12.6% to 6.4%, P < 0.01). The patient 6Q_score was higher for the advanced endoscopy clinic (84.6% vs 73.8%, P < 0.01), while the doctor 6Q_score was similar between both advanced clinics and post endoscopy clinics (91.1% vs 92.5% respectively, P = 0.80). An in-person follow-up consultation was suggested for 3.5% of the appointments, while the necessity of physical examination was flagged in 5.1%. CONCLUSIONS: The use of phone consultations in endoscopy-related clinics during the COVID-19 outbreak has improved FTA rates while demonstrating high satisfaction rates. The need for in-person follow-up consultations and physical examination were low.
Treatment efficacy for pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
(OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2020-11-01)
BACKGROUND: Rising gonorrhoea rates require highly effective treatments to reduce transmission and prevent development of antimicrobial resistance. Currently the most effective treatments for pharyngeal gonorrhoea remain unclear. This review aimed to estimate treatment efficacy for pharyngeal gonorrhoea. METHODS: Online bibliographic databases were searched for the period 1 January 2000 to 17 September 2019 for treatments of gonorrhoea. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with data on pharyngeal gonorrhoea among participants aged 15 years or above, published in English, were included. Meta-analyses (random effects) were used to estimate the treatment efficacy, defined as microbiological cure, among currently recommended monotherapies and dual therapies, previously recommended but no longer used regimens and emerging drugs under evaluation. Side effects were also summarized. The study protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020149278). RESULTS: There were nine studies that included 452 participants studying 19 treatment regimens. The overall treatment efficacy for pharyngeal gonorrhoea was 98.1% (95% CI: 93.8%-100%; I2 = 57.3%; P < 0.01). Efficacy was similar for single (97.1%; 95% CI: 90.8%-100.0%; I2 = 15.6%; P = 0.29) and dual therapies (98.0%; 95% CI: 91.4%-100%; I2 = 79.1%; P < 0.01). Regimens containing azithromycin 2 g or ceftriaxone were similarly efficacious. The summary efficacy estimate for emerging drugs was 88.8% (95% CI: 76.9%-97.5%; I2 = 11.2%; P = 0.34). Small sample sizes in each trial was a major limitation. CONCLUSIONS: Regimens containing ceftriaxone or azithromycin 2 g, alone or as part of dual therapies are the most efficacious for pharyngeal gonorrhoea. Further pharyngeal-specific RCTs with adequate sample sizes are needed.
Effects of Routine Position Changes and Tracheal Suctioning on Intracranial Pressure in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients
(Mary Ann Liebert, 2020-10-07)
Patient position change and tracheal suctioning are routine interventions in mechanically ventilated traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. We sought to better understand the impact of these interventions on intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral hemodynamics. We conducted a prospective study in TBI patients requiring ICP monitoring. The timing of position changes and suctioning episodes were recorded with concurrent blood pressure and ICP measurements. We collected data on 460 patient position changes and 204 suctioning episodes over 2404 h in 18 ventilated patients (mean age 34  years, median Glasgow Coma Score 4 [3–7]). We recorded 24 (20–31) positioning and 11 (6–18) suctioning episodes per patient, with 54% and 39% of position changes associated with ICP ≥22 mm Hg and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) <60 mm Hg, respectively, and 22% and 27% of suctioning episodes associated with an ICP ≥22 mm Hg and CPP <60 mm Hg. The median change in ICP was 11 (6–16) mm Hg after position changes and 3 (1–9) mm Hg after suctioning. Reduction in CPP to <60 mm Hg lasted ≥10 min in 17% of positioning and 11% of suctioning episodes. The baseline ICP and its amplitude were both predictive of a rise in ICP ≥22 mm Hg after positioning and suctioning episodes, whereas cerebral autoregulation was not. Baseline CPP was predictive of a decrease in CPP <60 mm Hg after both interventions. Increases in ICP and reductions in CPP are common following patient positioning and tracheal suctioning episodes. Frequently, these changes are substantial and sustained.
Domestic HPV vaccine price and economic returns for cervical cancer prevention in China: a cost-effectiveness analysis
(ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2020-10-01)
BACKGROUND: Coinciding with the release of the first Chinese domestic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Cecolin in 2019, and the substantial advancements in cervical cancer screening technology, we aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the combined strategies of cervical cancer screening programmes and universal vaccination of girls (aged 9-14 years) with Cecolin in China. METHODS: We did a cost-effectiveness analysis in China, in which we developed a Markov model of cervical cancer to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of 61 intervention strategies, including a combination of various screening methods at different frequencies with and without vaccination, and also vaccination alone, from a health-care system perspective. We did univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to assess the robustness of the model's findings. FINDINGS: Compared with no intervention, various combined screening and vaccination strategies would incur an additional cost of US$6 157 000-22 146 000 and result in 691-970 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained in a designated cohort of 100 000 girls aged 9-14 years over a lifetime. With a willingness-to-pay threshold of three times the Chinese per-capita gross domestic product (GDP), careHPV screening (a rapid HPV test) once every 5 years with vaccination would be the most cost-effective strategy with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $21 799 per QALY compared with the lower-cost non-dominated strategy on the cost-effectiveness frontier, and the probability of it being cost-effective (44%) outperformed other strategies. Strategies that combined screening and vaccination would be more cost-effective than screening alone strategies when the vaccination cost was less than $50 for two doses, even with a lower willingness-to-pay of one times the per-capita GDP. INTERPRETATION: careHPV screening once every 5 years with vaccination is the most cost-effective strategy for cervical cancer prevention in China. A reduction in the domestic HPV vaccine price is necessary to ascertain a good economic return for the future vaccination programme. The findings provide important evidence that informs health policies for cervical cancer prevention in China. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China.
The effectiveness of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against hypoxic pneumonia in children in Lao People's Democratic Republic: An observational hospital-based test-negative study
Background: Pneumococcal pneumonia is a leading cause of childhood mortality. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been shown to reduce hypoxic pneumonia in children. However, there are no studies from Asia examining the effectiveness of PCVs on hypoxic pneumonia. We describe a novel approach to determine the effectiveness of the 13-valent PCV (PCV13) against hypoxia in children admitted with pneumonia in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Methods: A prospective hospital-based, test-negative observational study of children aged up to 59 months admitted with pneumonia to a single tertiary hospital in Vientiane was undertaken over 54 months. Pneumonia was defined using the 2013 WHO definition. Hypoxia was defined as oxygen saturation <90% in room air or requiring oxygen supplementation during hospitalisation. Test-negative cases and controls were children with hypoxic and non-hypoxic pneumonia, respectively. PCV13 status was determined by written record. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated using logistic regression. Propensity score and multiple imputation analyses were used to handle confounding and missing data. Findings: There were 826 children admitted with pneumonia, 285 had hypoxic pneumonia and 377 were PCV13-vaccinated. The unadjusted, propensity-score adjusted and multiple-imputation adjusted estimates of vaccine effectiveness against hypoxic pneumonia were 23% (95% confidence interval: -9, 46%; p=0•14); 37% (6, 57%; p=0•02) and 35% (7, 55%; p=0•02) respectively. Interpretation: PCV13 is effective against hypoxic pneumonia in Asia, and should be prioritised for inclusion in national immunisation programs. This single hospital-based, test-negative approach can be used to assess vaccine effectiveness in other similar settings. Funding: Funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Disparities in characteristics in accessing public Australian sexual health services between Medicare-eligible and Medicare-ineligible men who have sex with men
OBJECTIVES: Accessible health services are a key element of effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) control. This study aimed to examine whether there were any differences in accessing sexual health services between Medicare-eligible and Medicare-ineligible men who have sex with men (MSM) in Melbourne, Australia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study of MSM attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between 2016 and 2019. Demographic characteristics, sexual practices, HIV testing practices and STI diagnoses were compared between Medicare-eligible and Medicare-ineligible MSM. RESULTS: We included 5,085 Medicare-eligible and 2,786 Medicare-ineligible MSM. Condomless anal sex in the past 12 months was more common in Medicare-eligible compared to Medicare-ineligible MSM (74.4% vs. 64.9%; p<0.001) although the number of partners did not differ between groups. There was no difference in prior HIV testing practices between Medicare-eligible and Medicare-ineligible MSM (76.1% vs. 77.7%; p=0.122). Medicare-ineligible MSM were more likely to have anorectal chlamydia compared to Medicare-eligible MSM (10.6% vs. 8.5%; p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Medicare-ineligible MSM have less condomless sex but a higher rate of anorectal chlamydia, suggesting they might have limited access to STI testing or may be less willing to disclose high-risk behaviour. Implications for public health: Scaling up access to HIV and STI testings for Medicare-ineligible MSM is essential.
Assessing the risk of viral infection from gases and plumes during intra-abdominal surgery: a systematic scoping review
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify the current evidence regarding the risk of acquiring viral infections from gases or plumes during intra-abdominal surgery. Peritoneal fluids may contain cellular material and virus particles. Electrocautery smoke and plumes from energy devices may aerosolize harmful substances and viral particles. Insufflation and desufflation during laparoscopic surgery may also aerosolize and distribute biological material. A systematic scoping review was performed to assess the evidence and inform safe surgical practice. METHODS: A systematic search of the PubMed and Medline databases was undertaken until June 2020, observing Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses methodology, to identify articles associating viral infection of operating room staff from surgical gases and plumes. All evidence levels were included. The search strategy utilized the search terms 'surgery', 'laparoscopy', 'laparoscopic' 'virus', 'smoke', 'risk', 'infection'. RESULTS: The literature search identified 74 articles. Eight articles relevant to the subject of this review were included in the analysis, two of which specifically related to intra-abdominal surgery. Of the remaining six, four involved gynaecological surgery and two were in-vitro studies. No evidence that intra-abdominal surgery was associated with an increased risk of acquiring viral infections from exsufflated gas or smoke plumes was identified. CONCLUSION: There is currently no evidence that respiratory viruses can be found in the peritoneal fluid. Whilst there is currently no evidence that desufflated carbon dioxide or surgical smoke plumes present a significant infectious risk, there is not a wealth of literature to inform current practice. Further clinical research in this area is required.