Clinical School (Austin Health) - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 54
Predictors of Manuscript Rejection sYndrome (MiSeRY): a cohort study
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether specific factors predict the development of ManuScript Rejection sYndrome (MiSeRY) in academic physicians. DESIGN: Prospective pilot study; participants self-administered a questionnaire about full manuscript submissions (as first or senior author) rejected at least once during the past 5 years. SETTING: Single centre (tertiary institution). PARTICIPANTS: Eight academic physician-authors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Duration of grief. MiSeRY was pre-specified as prolonged grief (grief duration longer than the population median). RESULTS: Eight participants provided data on 32 manuscripts with a total of 93 rejections (median, two rejections per manuscript; interquartile range [IQR], 1-3 rejections per manuscript). Median age at rejection was 37 years (IQR, 33-45 years); 86% of 80 rejections involved male authors (86%), 56 of the authors providing data about these rejections were first authors (60%). The median journal impact factor was 5.9 (IQR, 5.2-17). In 48 cases of rejection (52%), pre-submission expectations of success had been high, and in 54 cases (58%) the manuscripts had been sent for external review. Median grief duration was 3 hours (IQR, 1-24 h). Multivariate analysis indicated that higher pre-submission expectation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.0; 95% CI, 1.5-18), first author status (aOR, 9.5; 95% CI, 1.1-77), and external review (aOR, 19.0; 95% CI 2.9-126) were independent predictors of MiSeRY. CONCLUSIONS: To help put authors out of their MiSeRY, journal editors could be more selective in the manuscripts they send for external review. Tempering pre-submission expectations and mastering the Coping and reLaxing Mechanisms (CaLM) of senior colleagues are important considerations for junior researchers.
Intra-operative cell salvage in urological surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate systematically the safety and efficacy of intra-operative cell salvage (ICS) in urology. METHODS: A search of Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library to August 2017 was performed using methods pre-published on PROSPERO. Reporting followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis guidelines. Eligible titles were comparative studies published in English that used ICS in urology. Primary outcomes were allogeneic transfusion rates (ATRs) and tumour recurrence. Secondary outcomes were complications and cost. RESULTS: Fourteen observational studies were identified, with a total of 4 536 patients. ICS was compared with no the blood conservation technique (seven studies), preoperative autologous donation (PAD; five studies) or both (two studies). Cohorts underwent open prostatectomy (11 studies), open cystectomy (two studies) or open partial nephrectomy (one study). Meta-analysis was possible only for ATRs within prostatectomy studies. In this setting, ICS reduced ATR compared with no the blood conservation technique (odds ratio [OR] 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15-0.76) but not PAD (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.39-1.31). In the non-prostatectomy setting, ATRs amongst patients who underwent ICS were significantly higher or similar in one and two studies, respectively. Tumour recurrence was found to be significantly less common (two studies), similar (eight studies) or not measured (four studies). All six studies reporting complications found no difference in their ICS cohorts. Regarding cost, one study from 1995 found ICS more expensive than PAD, while two more recent studies found ICS to be cheaper than no blood conservation technique. As a result of inter-study heterogeneity, meta-analyses were not possible for recurrence, complications or cost. CONCLUSION: Low-level evidence exists that, compared with other blood conservation techniques, ICS reduces ATR and cost while not affecting complications. It does not appear to increase tumour recurrence post-prostatectomy, although follow-up durations were short. Small study sizes and short follow-ups mean conclusions cannot be drawn with regard to recurrence after nephrectomy or cystectomy. Randomized trials with long-term follow-up evaluating ICS in urology are required.
Design considerations for an eHealth decision support tool in inflammatory bowel disease self-management
BACKGROUND: Electronic health (eHealth) decision support tools have the potential to: facilitate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) self-management, reduce health care utilisation and alleviate the pressure on overburdened outpatient clinics. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of key stakeholders on the potential use of a decision support tool for IBD patients. METHODS: A qualitative study using focus group methodology was conducted at a tertiary IBD centre in Melbourne, Australia in February 2015. Key stakeholders, including physicians, nurses and patients, were included in the study. Two independent reviewers undertook inductive coding and generated themes. RESULTS: In total, 31 participants were included in the study (including 16 males; 11 physicians; 6 nurses). An eHealth decision support tool was thought to be beneficial to facilitate IBD self-management. Four themes emerged: (i) Framework for the decision support tool - the tool should be an adjunct to current models of care and facilitate shared decision-making and patient engagement; (ii) Target population - stable patients with mild to moderate disease; (iii) Functionalities of the intervention - a web-based platform encompassing patient-reported outcomes, objective markers of disease and clinical algorithms based on international guidelines; and (iv) Design and Implementation - patients should be involved in the design. CONCLUSIONS: eHealth interventions are thought to be an important strategy to facilitate self-management for patients with IBD. A multi-stage iterative approach should be adopted in the design and implementation process of eHealth interventions. Patient perspectives need to be sought prior to and throughout the development of an eHealth decision support tools for IBD.
Radiotherapy-related complications presenting to a urology department: a more common problem than previously thought?
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the burden of the side effects of radiotherapy on a tertiary referral urology department. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study of all urology admissions to a public urology department at a tertiary hospital in a 6-month period was performed. Patients admitted with complications attributable to radiotherapy were included in the study. Data obtained included patient demographics, radiotherapy details, complication type and management required. RESULTS: A total of 1198 patients were admitted; 921 (77%) were elective and 277 (23%) were emergency admissions. Thirteen out of the 921 (1.4%) elective admissions and 20 out of the 277 (7.2%) emergency admissions were attributable to radiotherapy complications. Radiotherapy complications was the fourth most common reason for emergency admission, ahead of acute urinary retention. These 33 admissions were accounted for by 21 patients. A total of 39 separate complications attributable to radiotherapy were diagnosed, with some patients having multiple complications. The median (interquartile range) time to onset of complications was 4 (1-9) years. The surgical intervention rate was 67%. The commonest procedures were washout with/without clot evacuation or diathermy in theatre (15.8%) and urethral dilatation/bladder neck incision (15.8%). Two urinary diversions and two cystoprostatectomies plus urinary diversion were performed. CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy complications are consequential and account for a substantial proportion of a tertiary urology department's emergency workload. These complications generally occur years after radiotherapy and frequently require surgical intervention.
Effect of QT interval prolongation on cardiac arrest following liver transplantation and derivation of a risk index
Liver transplantation (LT) has a 4-fold higher risk of periprocedural cardiac arrest and ventricular arrhythmias (CA/VAs) compared with other noncardiac surgeries. Prolongation of the corrected QT interval (QTc) is common in patients with liver cirrhosis. Whether it is associated with an increased risk of CA/VAs following LT is unclear. Rates of 30-day CA/VAs post-LT were assessed in consecutive adults undergoing LT between 2010 and 2017. Pretransplant QTc was measured by a cardiologist blinded to clinical outcomes. Among 408 patients included, CA/VAs occurred in 26 patients (6.4%). QTc was significantly longer in CA/VA patients (475 ± 34 vs 450 ± 34 ms, P < .001). Optimal QTc cut-off for prediction of CA/VAs was ≥480 ms. After adjustment, QTc ≥480 ms remained the strongest predictor for the occurrence of CA/VAs (odds ratio [OR] 5.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2-12.6). A point-based cardiac arrest risk index (CARI) was derived with the bootstrap method for yielding optimism-corrected coefficients (2 points: QTc ≥480, 1 point: Model for End-Stage Liver Disease [MELD] ≥30, 1 point: age ≥65, and 1 point: male). CARI score ≥3 demonstrated moderate discrimination (c-statistic 0.79, optimism-corrected c-statistic 0.77) with appropriate calibration. QTc ≥480 ms was associated with a 5-fold increase in the risk of CA/VAs. The CARI score may identify patients at higher risk of these events. Whether heightened perioperative cardiac surveillance, avoidance of QT prolonging medications, or beta blockers could mitigate the risk of CA/VAs in this population merits further study.
High Frequency, Low Background Rate Extrapleural Programmed Intermittent Bolus Ropivacaine Provides Superior Analgesia Compared with Continuous Infusion for Acute Pain Management Following Thoracic Surgery: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
(Kowsar Medical Institute, 2019-10)
Background: Thoracic surgery often results in severe postoperative pain. Regional analgesia via surgically placed extrapleural local anaesthetic (LA) and continuous infusion (CI) is an effective technique, however usually requires supplemental opioid to achieve satisfactory patient analgesia. We hypothesized that high frequency, low background rate extrapleural programmed intermittent boluses (PIB) of LA by could achieve superior patient analgesia and reduced oral morphine equivalent daily dosage (OMEDD) requirements for up to 3 days after thoracic surgery vs. CI. Methods: We retrospectively analysed data from 84 adult patients receiving extrapleural analgesia after thoracic surgery in a single tertiary teaching hospital. The primary outcome measure was the effect of PIB vs. CI on maximum daily 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS-11) ratings as determined by multivariate linear regression analysis, corrected for OMEDD use, total daily LA dose, surgery type, age, opioid type, and use of ketamine analgesia. Secondary outcome measures were the effect on OMEDD use, the effect of total 'rescue' LA boluses, and univariate analyses of the above outcomes and variables. Results: PIB on day 0, and a higher proportion of LA given as rescue boluses on day 1 were associated with reduced maximum NRS-11 ratings [standardized/ [unstandardized] beta coefficient -0.34/ [-0.92 NRS-11 if PIB] (P = 0.007); and -0.26/ [-0.029 NRS-11 per mg/kg extrapleural ropivacaine] (P = 0.03)], respectively. Only patient age was associated with reduced OMEDD use [day 0: -0.58/ [-4.4 OMEDDs per year of age] (P ≤ 0.005); day 1: -0.49/ [-3.56 OMEDDs per year of age] (P ≤ 0.005); day 2: -0.32/ [-1.9 OMEDDs per year of age] (P = 0.04)]. OMEDD use on day 2, however, was associated with slightly higher maximum NRS-11 ratings [+0.28/ +0.006 NRS-11 per mg OMEDD (P = 0.036)]. On univariate analysis, PIB patients achieved the largest difference in OMEDD use [-98 mg (95% CI -73 to -123 mg)] and NRS-11 ratings [-1.1 (-0.4 to -1.8)] against CI patients on day 3. Conclusions: Use of high frequency, low background rate PIB extrapleural LA after thoracic surgery appears to have a modest beneficial effect on acute pain, but not OMEDD use, over CI when adjusted for patient, surgical and other analgesic factors after thoracic surgery. Further work is required to elucidate the potential magnitude of effect that extrapleural LA given by PIB over CI can achieve.
Advances in ureteroscopy.
Ureteroscopy (URS) is a procedure which has been constantly evolving since the development of first generation devices 40 years ago. Progress towards smaller and more sophisticated equipment has been particularly rapid in the last decade. We review the significant steps that have been made toward improving outcomes and limiting morbidity with this procedure which is central to the management of urolithiasis and other upper urinary tract pathology.
A multilingual evaluation of current health information on the Internet for the treatments of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
(Elsevier BV, 2014-12)
PURPOSE: To compare the quality of current Internet information on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and its surgical and medical managements across four Western languages and a comparative analysis of website sponsors. BPH Internet information quality is particularly relevant in an era of expanding, minimally invasive and surgical therapies. However, no comprehensive analysis exists. METHODS: World Health Organization Health on the Net (HON) principles may be applied to websites using an automated toolbar function. Using a search engine (www.google.com), 9,000 websites were assessed using keywords related to BPH and its medical and surgical treatment in English, French, German, and Spanish. The first 150 websites in each language had HON principles measured whilst a further analysis of site sponsorship was undertaken. RESULTS: Very few BPH websites had greater than ten per cent HON accredited with significant differences (P<0.001) based on terms used for BPH, its medical and surgical management. Tertiles (thirds) of the first 150 websites returned differences in accredited websites (P<0.0001). English language had most accredited websites. Odds ratios for different terms returning accredited websites also were significantly different across terms (P<0.001). Websites were largely commercially sponsored. CONCLUSIONS: A lack of validation of most BPH sites should be appreciated with discrepancies in quality and number of websites across diseases, languages and also between medical and alternate terms. Physicians should participate in and encourage the development of informative, ethical and reliable health websites on the Internet and direct patients to them.
Clinical responses observed with imatinib or sorafenib in melanoma patients expressing mutations in KIT
(NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2010-04-13)
BACKGROUND: Mutations in KIT are more frequent in specific melanoma subtypes, and response to KIT inhibition is likely to depend on the identified mutation. METHODS: A total of 32 patients with metastatic acral or mucosal melanoma were screened for mutations in KIT exons 11, 13 and 17. RESULTS: KIT mutations were found in 38% of mucosal and in 6% of acral melanomas. Three patients were treated with imatinib and one with sorafenib. All four patients responded to treatment, but three have since progressed within the brain. CONCLUSION: The observed clinical responses support further investigation of KIT inhibitors in metastatic melanoma, selected according to KIT mutation status.
Bench-to-bedside review: Inotropic drug therapy after adult cardiac surgery - a systematic literature review
Many adult patients require temporary inotropic support after cardiac surgery. We reviewed the literature systematically to establish, present and classify the evidence regarding choice of inotropic drugs. The available evidence, while limited in quality and scope, supports the following observations; although all beta-agonists can increase cardiac output, the best studied beta-agonist and the one with the most favourable side-effect profile appears to be dobutamine. Dobutamine and phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDIs) are efficacious inotropic drugs for management of the low cardiac output syndrome. Dobutamine is associated with a greater incidence of tachycardia and tachyarrhythmias, whereas PDIs often require the administration of vasoconstrictors. Other catecholamines have no clear advantages over dobutamine. PDIs increase the likelihood of successful weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass as compared with placebo. There is insufficient evidence that inotropic drugs should be selected for their effects on regional perfusion. PDIs also increase flow through arterial grafts, reduce mean pulmonary artery pressure and improve right heart performance in pulmonary hypertension. Insufficient data exist to allow selection of a specific inotropic agent in preference over another in adult cardiac surgery patients. Multicentre randomized controlled trials focusing on clinical rather than physiological outcomes are needed.
An Investigation of the Basic Physics of Irrigation in Urology and the Role of Automated Pump Irrigation in Cystoscopy
(HINDAWI PUBLISHING CORPORATION, 2012-01-01)
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of height, external pressure, and bladder fullness on the flow rate in continuous, non-continuous cystoscopy and the automated irrigation fluid pumping system (AIFPS). MATERIALS: Each experiment had two 2-litre 0.9% saline bags connected to a continuous, non-continuous cystoscope or AIFPS via irrigation tubing. Other equipment included height-adjustable drip poles, uroflowmetry devices, and model bladders. METHODS: In Experiment 1, saline bags were elevated to measure the increment in flow rate. In Experiment 2, saline bags were placed under external pressures to evaluate the effect on flow rate. In Experiment 3, flow rate changes in response to variable bladder fullness were measured. RESULTS: Elevating saline bags caused an increase in flow rates, however the increment slowed down beyond a height of 80 cm. Increase in external pressure on saline bags elevated flow rates, but inconsistently. A fuller bladder led to a decrease in flow rates. In all experiments, the AIFPS posted consistent flow rates. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional irrigation systems were susceptible to changes in height of irrigation solution, external pressure application, and bladder fullness thus creating inconsistent flow rates. The AIFPS produced consistent flow rates and was not affected by any of the factors investigated in the study.
Acute Flaccid Paralysis: The New, The Old, and The Preventable
(OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2016-12-01)
Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) has a changing epidemiology with ongoing polio outbreaks and emerging causes such as nonpolio enteroviruses and West Nile virus (WNV). We report a case of AFP from the Horn of Africa that was initially classified as probable polio but subsequently found to be due to WNV.