Clinical School (Austin Health) - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 33
Perioperative blood management programme reduces the use of allogenic blood transfusion in patients undergoing total hip and knee arthroplasty
BACKGROUND: Optimisation of blood management in total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with improved patient outcomes. This study aimed to establish the effectiveness of a perioperative blood management programme in improving postoperative haemoglobin (Hb) and reducing the rate of allogenic blood transfusion. METHODS: This retrospective before and after study involves 200 consecutive patients undergoing elective TKA and THA before (Usual Care group) and after (Intervention group) the introduction of a blood management programme in an Australian teaching hospital. Patients in the Intervention group underwent preoperative treatment for anaemia and received intraoperative tranexamic acid (15 mg/kg). The primary outcomes were to compare postoperative Hb levels and the rate of blood transfusion. Secondary outcomes included measurements of total amount of allogenic blood transfused, transfusion-related complications, postoperative complications, need for inpatient rehabilitation and duration of hospital stay. RESULTS: There were no differences between baseline characteristics between groups. The mean (SD) preoperative Hb was higher in the Intervention group compared to that in the Usual Care group: 138.7 (13.9) vs. 133.4 (13.9) g/L, p = 0.008, respectively. The postoperative day 1 Hb, lowest postoperative Hb and discharge Hb were all higher in the Intervention group (p < 0.001). Blood transfusion requirements were lower in the Intervention group compared to the Usual Care group (6 vs. 20 %, p = 0.003). There were no differences in any of the secondary outcomes measured. Patients who were anaemic preoperatively and who underwent Hb optimisation had higher Hb levels postoperatively (odds ratio 5.7; 95 % CI 1.3 to 26.5; p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of a perioperative blood optimisation programme improved postoperative Hb levels and reduced the rate of allogenic blood transfusion.
The effects on coagulation of the reinfusion of unprocessed residual blood from the cardiopulmonary bypass.
(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2016-02-03)
BACKGROUND: Autologous blood transfusion is a common technique in cardiac surgery to directly re-infuse residual blood from the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit to the patient. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of reinfusion of unprocessed residual pump blood on the coagulation system after separation from the CPB circuit and reversal of systemic heparin with protamine. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: After ethics approval, 40 participants undergoing cardiac surgery were recruited in a prospective single center cohort study. Changes in coagulation were assessed with standard plasma based laboratory assays and thromboelastography. After the reinfusion of unprocessed residual pump blood there were decreases in the mean aPTT (effect size 6 s; SD: 6.05; p < 0.0001) and thrombin time (effect size 4.08 s; SD: 9.7; p = 0.01). There were no significant changes in PT, INR and D-dimer. Post reinfusion there were increases in fibrinogen, hemoglobin and platelet counts. There were improvements in the R-time (effect size 9.1 s; SD: 16.9; p = 0.0023), K-time (effect size 1.5 s; SD: 3.6 s; p = 0.0017), alpha angle (6.9°; SD: 15.8; p = 0.012), and maximum amplitude (3.0 mm; SD: 5.6, p = 0.002) on thromboelastography. CONCLUSION: The reinfusion of unprocessed residual CPB blood resulted in no deleterious effects on the coagulation system measured by both the common laboratory plasma based measurements of coagulation and thromboelastography.
Evolution of ischemic damage and behavioural deficit over 6 months after MCAo in the rat: Selecting the optimal outcomes and statistical power for multi-centre preclinical trials
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2017-02-09)
Key disparities between the timing and methods of assessment in animal stroke studies and clinical trial may be part of the reason for the failure to translate promising findings. This study investigates the development of ischemic damage after thread occlusion MCAo in the rat, using histological and behavioural outcomes. Using the adhesive removal test we investigate the longevity of behavioural deficit after ischemic stroke in rats, and examine the practicality of using such measures as the primary outcome for future studies. Ischemic stroke was induced in 132 Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats which were assessed for behavioural and histological deficits at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 days, 12 and 24 weeks (n>11 per timepoint). The basic behavioural score confirmed induction of stroke, with deficits specific to stroke animals. Within 7 days, these deficits resolved in 50% of animals. The adhesive removal test revealed contralateral neglect for up to 6 months following stroke. Sample size calculations to facilitate the use of this test as the primary experimental outcome resulted in cohort sizes much larger than are the norm for experimental studies. Histological damage progressed from a necrotic infarct to a hypercellular area that cleared to leave a fluid filled cavity. Whilst absolute volume of damage changed over time, when corrected for changes in hemispheric volume, an equivalent area of damage was lost at all timepoints. Using behavioural measures at chronic timepoints presents significant challenges to the basic science community in terms of the large number of animals required and the practicalities associated with this. Multicentre preclinical randomised controlled trials as advocated by the MultiPART consortium may be the only practical way to deal with this issue.
Germline BRCA2 mutations drive prostate cancers with distinct evolutionary trajectories
(NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2017-01-09)
Germline mutations in the BRCA2 tumour suppressor are associated with both an increased lifetime risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) and increased risk of aggressive disease. To understand this aggression, here we profile the genomes and methylomes of localized PCa from 14 carriers of deleterious germline BRCA2 mutations (BRCA2-mutant PCa). We show that BRCA2-mutant PCa harbour increased genomic instability and a mutational profile that more closely resembles metastastic than localized disease. BRCA2-mutant PCa shows genomic and epigenomic dysregulation of the MED12L/MED12 axis, which is frequently dysregulated in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This dysregulation is enriched in BRCA2-mutant PCa harbouring intraductal carcinoma (IDC). Microdissection and sequencing of IDC and juxtaposed adjacent non-IDC invasive carcinoma in 10 patients demonstrates a common ancestor to both histopathologies. Overall we show that localized castration-sensitive BRCA2-mutant tumours are uniquely aggressive, due to de novo aberration in genes usually associated with metastatic disease, justifying aggressive initial treatment.
Complement C5a Induces Renal Injury in Diabetic Kidney Disease by Disrupting Mitochondrial Metabolic Agility
(AMER DIABETES ASSOC, 2020-01-01)
The sequelae of diabetes include microvascular complications such as diabetic kidney disease (DKD), which involves glucose-mediated renal injury associated with a disruption in mitochondrial metabolic agility, inflammation, and fibrosis. We explored the role of the innate immune complement component C5a, a potent mediator of inflammation, in the pathogenesis of DKD in clinical and experimental diabetes. Marked systemic elevation in C5a activity was demonstrated in patients with diabetes; conventional renoprotective agents did not therapeutically target this elevation. C5a and its receptor (C5aR1) were upregulated early in the disease process and prior to manifest kidney injury in several diverse rodent models of diabetes. Genetic deletion of C5aR1 in mice conferred protection against diabetes-induced renal injury. Transcriptomic profiling of kidney revealed diabetes-induced downregulation of pathways involved in mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism. Interrogation of the lipidomics signature revealed abnormal cardiolipin remodeling in diabetic kidneys, a cardinal sign of disrupted mitochondrial architecture and bioenergetics. In vivo delivery of an orally active inhibitor of C5aR1 (PMX53) reversed the phenotypic changes and normalized the renal mitochondrial fatty acid profile, cardiolipin remodeling, and citric acid cycle intermediates. In vitro exposure of human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells to C5a led to altered mitochondrial respiratory function and reactive oxygen species generation. These experiments provide evidence for a pivotal role of the C5a/C5aR1 axis in propagating renal injury in the development of DKD by disrupting mitochondrial agility, thereby establishing a new immunometabolic signaling pathway in DKD.
Efficacy of Smartphone-Based Secondary Preventive Strategies in Coronary Artery Disease
(SAGE Publications, 2020-01-01)
<jats:sec><jats:title>Background:</jats:title><jats:p> Cardiac rehabilitation programs provide a comprehensive framework for the institution of secondary preventive measures. Smartphone technology can provide a platform for the delivery of such programs and is a promising alternative to hospital-based services. However, there is limited evidence to date supporting this approach. Accordingly, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis examining smartphone-based secondary prevention programs to traditional cardiac rehabilitation in patients with established coronary artery disease to ascertain the feasibility and effectiveness of these interventions. </jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Methods:</jats:title><jats:p> A systematic search of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was conducted. A meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model with the outcomes of interest being 6-minute walk test (6MWT) distance, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and body mass index (BMI). </jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Results:</jats:title><jats:p> A total of 8 studies with 1120 patients across 5 countries were included in the quantitative analysis. Follow-up ranged from 6 weeks to 12 months. Five studies examined all patients post acute coronary syndrome, 2 studies examined only patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, and 1 study examined all patients with a diagnosis of coronary artery disease, independent of intervention. Exercise capacity, as measured by the 6MWT, was significantly greater in the smartphone group (20.10 meters, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.44-33.97; P < .001; I<jats:sup>2</jats:sup> = 45.58). There was no significant difference in BMI reduction, systolic blood pressure, or LDL cholesterol levels between groups ( P value for all > .05). </jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Conclusion:</jats:title><jats:p> Publicly available smartphone-based cardiac rehabilitation programs are a convenient and easily disseminated intervention which show merit in exercise promotion in patients with established coronary artery disease. Further research is required to establish the clinical significance of recent findings favoring their use. </jats:p></jats:sec>
Salmonella typhimurium: a rare cause of mesh-related infection
(OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2017-10-01)
The use of mesh in the management of abdominal wall hernias has significantly reduced the incidences of hernia recurrences. The placement of synthetic meshes to reinforce the abdominal wall is not without caveats. Synthetic meshes are associated with a risk of infection. Common causative microorganisms for mesh-related infection range from a diversity of gram positive, gram negative and anaerobic bacteria. However, non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. mesh-related infection remains poorly described in the literature. In this case, we report the management of an immunocompromised patient who developed Salmonella typhimurium mesh-related infection that was complicated by abscess formation.
Zinc ion dyshomeostasis increases resistance of prostate cancer cells to oxidative stress via upregulation of HIF1α.
(Impact Journals, 2018-02-02)
Zinc ions (Zn2+) are known to influence cell survival and proliferation. However the homeostatic regulation of Zn2+ and their role in prostate cancer (PC) progression is poorly understood. Therefore the subcellular distribution and uptake of Zn2+ in PC cells were investigated. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy and fluorescent microscopy with the Zn2+-specific fluorescent probe FluoZin-3 were used to quantify total and free Zn2+, respectively, in the normal prostate epithelial cell line (PNT1A) and three human PC cell lines (PC3, DU145 and LNCaP). The effects of Zn2+ treatment on proliferation and survival were measured in vitro using MTT assays and in vivo using mouse xenografts. The ability of Zn2+ to protect against oxidative stress via a HIF1α-dependent mechanism was investigated using a HIF1α knock-down PC3 model. Our results demonstrate that the total Zn2+ concentration in normal PNT1A and PC cells is similar, but PC3 cells contain significantly higher free Zn2+ than PNT1A cells (p < 0.01). PNT1A cells can survive better in the presence of high concentrations of Zn2+ than PC3 cells. Exposure to 10 µM Zn2+ over 72 hours significantly reduces PC3 cell proliferation in vitro but not in vivo. Zn2+ increases PC3 cell survival up to 2.3-fold under oxidative stress, and this protective effect is not seen in PNT1A cells or in a HIF1α-KD PC3 cell model. A state of Zn2+ dyshomeostasis exists in PC. HIF1α is an integral component of a Zn2+-dependent protective mechanism present in PC3 cells. This pathway may be clinically significant through its contribution to castrate-resistant PC survival.
Translating genomics into practice for real-time surveillance and response to carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: evidence from a complex multi-institutional KPC outbreak
(PEERJ INC, 2018-01-03)
Background: Until recently, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae were rarely identified in Australia. Following an increase in the number of incident cases across the state of Victoria, we undertook a real-time combined genomic and epidemiological investigation. The scope of this study included identifying risk factors and routes of transmission, and investigating the utility of genomics to enhance traditional field epidemiology for informing management of established widespread outbreaks. Methods: All KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates referred to the state reference laboratory from 2012 onwards were included. Whole-genome sequencing was performed in parallel with a detailed descriptive epidemiological investigation of each case, using Illumina sequencing on each isolate. This was complemented with PacBio long-read sequencing on selected isolates to establish high-quality reference sequences and interrogate characteristics of KPC-encoding plasmids. Results: Initial investigations indicated that the outbreak was widespread, with 86 KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates (K. pneumoniae 92%) identified from 35 different locations across metropolitan and rural Victoria between 2012 and 2015. Initial combined analyses of the epidemiological and genomic data resolved the outbreak into distinct nosocomial transmission networks, and identified healthcare facilities at the epicentre of KPC transmission. New cases were assigned to transmission networks in real-time, allowing focussed infection control efforts. PacBio sequencing confirmed a secondary transmission network arising from inter-species plasmid transmission. Insights from Bayesian transmission inference and analyses of within-host diversity informed the development of state-wide public health and infection control guidelines, including interventions such as an intensive approach to screening contacts following new case detection to minimise unrecognised colonisation. Conclusion: A real-time combined epidemiological and genomic investigation proved critical to identifying and defining multiple transmission networks of KPC Enterobacteriaceae, while data from either investigation alone were inconclusive. The investigation was fundamental to informing infection control measures in real-time and the development of state-wide public health guidelines on carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae surveillance and management.
Prospective Whole-Genome Sequencing Enhances National Surveillance of Listeria monocytogenes
(AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY, 2016-02-01)
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has emerged as a powerful tool for comparing bacterial isolates in outbreak detection and investigation. Here we demonstrate that WGS performed prospectively for national epidemiologic surveillance of Listeria monocytogenes has the capacity to be superior to our current approaches using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), binary typing, and serotyping. Initially 423 L. monocytogenes isolates underwent WGS, and comparisons uncovered a diverse genetic population structure derived from three distinct lineages. MLST, binary typing, and serotyping results inferred in silico from the WGS data were highly concordant (>99%) with laboratory typing performed in parallel. However, WGS was able to identify distinct nested clusters within groups of isolates that were otherwise indistinguishable using our current typing methods. Routine WGS was then used for prospective epidemiologic surveillance on a further 97 L. monocytogenes isolates over a 12-month period, which provided a greater level of discrimination than that of conventional typing for inferring linkage to point source outbreaks. A risk-based alert system based on WGS similarity was used to inform epidemiologists required to act on the data. Our experience shows that WGS can be adopted for prospective L. monocytogenes surveillance and investigated for other pathogens relevant to public health.
Testosterone levels increase in association with recovery from acute fracture in men
(SPRINGER LONDON LTD, 2014-08-01)
UNLABELLED: In this longitudinal case-control study, acute fracture was associated with low serum testosterone, which was transient in 43% of men. While assessment of gonadal status is part of the assessment of bone fragility, measurement of testosterone in the early period after fracture may overestimate the prevalence of androgen deficiency. INTRODUCTION: Measurement of circulating testosterone is recommended in the evaluation of bone fragility in men. Since acute illness can transiently decrease circulating testosterone, we quantified the association of acute fracture and serum testosterone levels. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted involving 240 men with a radiologically confirmed minimal trauma fracture presenting to a tertiary referral hospital and 89 age-matched men without a history of minimal trauma fracture serving as controls. Follow-up testosterone levels 6 months after baseline were available for 98 cases and 27 controls. Results were expressed as the median and interquartile (IQR) range. RESULTS: Compared to controls, cases had lower total testosterone [TT, 7.2 (3.5, 10.8) vs 13.6 (10.9, 17.1) nmol/L, p < 0.001]. The 143 cases treated as inpatients had lower testosterone levels than the 97 cases treated as outpatients [TT 4.7 (2.3, 8.1) vs 10.3 (7.5, 12.7) nmol/L, p < 0.001]. Group differences in calculated free testosterone (cFT) were comparable to the group differences in TT. At follow-up, in 98 cases, median TT increased from 6.5 nmol/L (3.2, 8.5) to 9.6 nmol/L (6.9, 12.0) p < 0.0001, and SHBG remained unchanged. Of cases with low testosterone, 43% with TT <10 nmol/L and/or cFT <230 pmol/L at presentation were reclassified as androgen sufficient at follow-up. TT was unchanged in the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Low testosterone levels in men presenting with an acute fracture may, at least in part, be due to an acute, fracture-associated, stress response. To avoid over diagnosis, evaluation for testosterone deficiency should be deferred until recovery from the acute event.
Current role of salvage robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy.
(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2013-06)
OBJECTIVES: Salvage Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy (sRALP) is a treatment option for biochemical recurrence (BCR) in prostate cancer. It is a new and presently uncommonly performed procedure, which may be technically challenging. We aim to summarise the current literature regarding sRALP with specific reference to patient selection, complications and peri-operative functional and oncological outcomes. METHODS: A comprehensive and critical review of all peer-reviewed publications regarding sRALP. RESULTS: Within the body of literature, we identified six low-volume case-series studies analysing outcomes of sRALP. Overall, peri-operative outcomes were encouraging with low complication rates and estimated blood loss (EBL) equivocal to open and laparoscopic salvage radical prostatectomy (sRP). Long-term follow-up for functional and oncological outcomes was limited. From the limited follow-up data, the current sRALP studies show similar BCR compared to large-volume open sRP series. Potency outcomes were poor post-sRALP. CONCLUSIONS: Salvage Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy is a technically feasible operation with a low risk of significant associated complications. Robotic technology can aid the surgeon in salvage prostatectomy. Data on functional and oncological outcomes lack long-term information but initial results are encouraging. Larger series with longer follow-up periods are necessary to draw significant conclusions about the efficacy of sRALP.