The genetic basis of resistance to the Ryanodine Receptor modulator chlorantraniliprole in Drosophila melanogaster
Document TypePhD thesis
Access StatusOpen Access
© 2017 Dr. Llewellyn Green
The development of synthetic insecticides in the mid 20th century lead to a revolution in pest control. However, issues with environmental toxicity, adverse human exposure and insecticide resistance have meant new safer alternative pest control methods are required. Chlorantraniliprole belongs to a promising new class of insecticides that exert control by targeting the Ryanodine Receptor. As this class, the group 28 synthetic diamides, has a unique chemistry and a mode of action that is distinct from most insecticides, its market share has rapidly increased since it was first introduced in 2007. Here, I use genomic, transcriptomic and phenotypic analyses of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to examine the way chlorantraniliprole interacts with an insect’s biology. This research reveals that a novel muscle- associated gene, Stretchin Myosin Light Kinase, is strongly associated with resistance in the DGRP. In addition, a co-expressed set of detoxification enzymes, under control of the Cap ‘n Collar/Keap1 pathway were found to be constitutively up-regulated in a subset of the DGRP and that their transcriptional abundance was correlated with survivorship on chlorantraniliprole. Transgenic ‘knock up’ of one of these putative detoxification enzymes, Cyp12d1, confers increased resistance to chlorantraniliprole and resistance to the related compound cyantraniliprole. Furthermore, a lab selection experiment based on a large Australian population of D. melanogaster also confirms an association between Cyp12d1 and resistance. This contributes to a growing body of evidence suggesting that cytochrome P450 enzymes play a role in chlorantraniliprole resistance. Through the quantitative genetic approaches employed, it is possible to demonstrate that the genetic architecture underpinning resistance changes with dose. Furthermore, as the DGRP was established before the introduction of chlorantraniliprole this study demonstrates that alleles of large effect are pre- existing in naïve populations and such alleles may increase in frequency as this class of insecticides become more widespread. Finally, this study illustrates the systems genetic approach offers unprecedented power to understand the biology perturbed by insecticides.
Keywordsinsecticide resistance; quantitative genetics
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