Obstetrics and Gynaecology - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 539
MicroRNAs 363 and 149 are differentially expressed in the maternal circulation preceding a diagnosis of preeclampsia.
(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-10-22)
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy complication associated with angiogenic dysbalance, maternal endothelial dysfunction and end-organ injury. A predictive test to identify those who will develop preeclampsia could substantially decrease morbidity and mortality. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small RNA molecules involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. We screened for circulating miRs differentially expressed at 36 weeks' gestation in pregnancies before the development of preeclampsia. We used a case-control group (198 controls, 34 pre-preeclampsia diagnosis) selected from a prospective cohort (n = 2015) and performed a PCR-based microarray to measure the expression of 41 miRs. We found six circulating miRs (miRs 363, 149, 18a, 1283, 16, 424) at 36 weeks' had significantly reduced expression (p < 0.0001-0.04). miR363 was significantly downregulated at 28 weeks' gestation, 10-12 weeks before the onset of clinical disease. In the circulation of another cohort of 34 participants with established preterm preeclampsia (vs 23 controls), we found miRs363, 18a, 149 and 16 were significantly down regulated (p < 0.0001-0.04). Combined expression of miRs149 and 363 in the circulation at 36 weeks' gestation provides a test with 45% sensitivity (at a specificity of 90%) which suggests measuring both miRs may have promise as part of a multi-marker test to predict preeclampsia.
Influenza A virus causes maternal and fetal pathology via innate and adaptive vascular inflammation in mice.
(Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2020-10-06)
Influenza A virus (IAV) infection during pregnancy causes severe maternal and perinatal complications, despite a lack of vertical transmission of IAV across the placenta. Here, we demonstrate a significant alteration in the maternal vascular landscape that underpins the maternal and downstream fetal pathology to IAV infection in mice. In IAV infection of nonpregnant mice, the local lung inflammatory response was contained to the lungs and was self-resolving, whereas in pregnant mice, virus dissemination to major maternal blood vessels, including the aorta, resulted in a peripheral "vascular storm," with elevated proinflammatory and antiviral mediators and the influx of Ly6Clow and Ly6Chigh monocytes, plus neutrophils and T cells. This vascular storm was associated with elevated levels of the adhesion molecules ICAM and VCAM and the pattern-recognition receptors TLR7 and TLR9 in the vascular wall, resulting in profound vascular dysfunction. The sequalae of this IAV-driven vascular storm included placental growth retardation and intrauterine growth restriction, evidence of placental and fetal brain hypoxia, and increased circulating cell free fetal DNA and soluble Flt1. In contrast, IAV infection in nonpregnant mice caused no obvious alterations in endothelial function or vascular inflammation. Therefore, IAV infection during pregnancy drives a significant systemic vascular alteration in pregnant dams, which likely suppresses critical blood flow to the placenta and fetus. This study in mice provides a fundamental mechanistic insight and a paradigm into how an immune response to a respiratory virus, such as IAV, is likely to specifically drive maternal and fetal pathologies during pregnancy.
Estimating the Burden of Illness Related to Genital Warts in Russia: A Cross-Sectional Study.
(Columbia Data Analytics, 2020)
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the etiologic agents of genital warts (GW). HPV is one of the most frequent sexually transmitted viral infections, and nearly 65% of individuals with partners who have GW also develop GW. In Russia, as in many other countries, overall GW prevalence data are scarce. Given the lack of Russian data, our study estimated GW prevalence in physician practices and GW-related health care resource use in Russia among male and female patients aged 18-60 years. Methods: Russian physicians recorded daily patient logs for a two-week period and conducted a 30-minute survey to estimate GW prevalence and related resource use between January and June 2012. Age, gender, and GW diagnosis status was recorded. Prevalence was obtained for each physician and calculated into a single estimate across all physician types. Overall prevalence estimate and 95% confidence interval were weighted by the estimated number of physicians in each specialty and the proportion of total patients visiting each specialist type. Health care resource use was reported and compared among different physician specialties. Results: The overall GW prevalence estimate was 9162 cases per 100 000 for male and female patients aged 18-60 years, with 9917 for obstetrician/gynecologists (OB/GYN), 8298 for urologists (URO), and 7833 for dermatologists (DERM). For males, GW prevalence was 8769 cases per 100 000, with the highest prevalence in the 30-34 age group. In females, GW prevalence was 9304 cases per 100 000, with the highest prevalence in the 18-24 age group. Among overall existing GW cases, 63.1% were recurrent and 34.2% were resistant. For all patients in our study, GW prevalence was higher in females. Male patients had the highest prevalence for those aged 30-34 years, and female patients for those aged 18-24 years. These results are consistent with data reported in other countries. Study limitations include estimates and results representative of the urban population of Russia. Despite its limitations, this study provides a GW prevalence estimate in Russia not previously available. Conclusions: GW is a significant public health concern in Russia, and the GW prevalence was higher in female patients compared to male patients.
Secreted MicroRNA to Predict Embryo Implantation Outcome: From Research to Clinical Diagnostic Application
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2020-09-22)
Embryo implantation failure is considered a leading cause of infertility and a significant bottleneck for in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Confirmed factors that lead to implantation failure involve unhealthy embryos, unreceptive endometrium, and asynchronous development and communication between the two. The quality of embryos is further dependent on sperm parameters, oocyte quality, and early embryo development after fertilization. The extensive involvement of such different factors contributes to the variability of implantation potential across different menstrual cycles. An ideal approach to predict the implantation outcome should not compromise embryo implantation. The use of clinical material, including follicular fluid, cumulus cells, sperm, seminal exosomes, spent blastocyst culture medium, blood, and uterine fluid, that can be collected relatively non-invasively without compromising embryo implantation in a transfer cycle opens new perspectives for the diagnosis of embryo implantation potential. Compositional comparison of these samples between fertile women and women or couples with implantation failure has identified both quantitative and qualitative differences in the expression of microRNAs (miRs) that hold diagnostic potential for implantation failure. Here, we review current findings of secreted miRs that have been identified to potentially be useful in predicting implantation outcome using material that can be collected relatively non-invasively. Developing non-invasive biomarkers of implantation potential would have a major impact on implantation failure and infertility.
Clinicopathologic Diagnosis of Differentiated Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Vulvar Aberrant Maturation
(LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2020-10-01)
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the demographic, clinical, and histopathologic features of differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (dVIN) and vulvar aberrant maturation (VAM). METHODS: Specimens from 2010 to 2020 reported as dVIN or VAM were reviewed. Clinical data included age, rurality, symptoms, and evidence of lichen sclerosus (LS). Histopathologic data included epithelial thickness, keratinization, architectural and dyskeratotic features, stroma, p16, and p53. Differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and VAM were distinguished by assessment of basal nuclear chromatin, enlargement, pleomorphism, and mitoses. RESULTS: One hundred twenty women with a median age of 71 years had 179 examples of dVIN and VAM. Squamous cell carcinoma was concurrent in 66% and associated with rurality. Ten percent were asymptomatic, and all but 3 had evidence of LS. Differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia showed a range of thickness, architecture, and dyskeratosis; its unifying !feature was basal atypia. Differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia displayed hyperchromasia in 83% and easily observed mitoses in 70%. Nonkeratinizing morphology, subcategorized into basaloid and intermediate, occurred in 24% of women with dVIN. Traditional dVIN represented 62% of keratinizing cases; the remainder were atrophic (13%), hypertrophic (13%), acantholytic (8%), or subtle (5%). Vulvar aberrant maturation had abnormal stratum corneum, acanthosis, premature maturation, and enlarged vesicular nuclei. Null p53 helped distinguish dVIN from VAM and dermatoses. CONCLUSIONS: The morphology of dVIN encompasses nonkeratinizing and keratinizing types, the latter subdivided into traditional, acantholytic, atrophic, hypertrophic, and subtle. Diagnosis relies on basal atypia with supportive p16 and p53. Atypia exists on a biologic spectrum with mild abnormalities of VAM and reactive change. Identification of dVIN and VAM requires collaboration between clinicians and pathologists experienced in vulvar disorders.
Changing consumption of resources for respiratory support and short-term outcomes in four consecutive geographical cohorts of infants born extremely preterm over 25 years since the early 1990s
(BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2020-01-01)
OBJECTIVES: It is unclear how newer methods of respiratory support for infants born extremely preterm (EP; 22-27 weeks gestation) have affected in-hospital sequelae. We aimed to determine changes in respiratory support, survival and morbidity in EP infants since the early 1990s. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: The State of Victoria, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: All EP births offered intensive care in four discrete eras (1991-1992 (24 months): n=332, 1997 (12 months): n=190, 2005 (12 months): n=229, and April 2016-March 2017 (12 months): n=250). OUTCOME MEASURES: Consumption of respiratory support, survival and morbidity to discharge home. Cost-effectiveness ratios describing the average additional days of respiratory support associated per additional survivor were calculated. RESULTS: Median duration of any respiratory support increased from 22 days (1991-1992) to 66 days (2016-2017). The increase occurred in non-invasive respiratory support (2 days (1991-1992) to 51 days (2016-2017)), with high-flow nasal cannulae, unavailable in earlier cohorts, comprising almost one-half of the duration in 2016-2017. Survival to discharge home increased (68% (1991-1992) to 87% (2016-2017)). Cystic periventricular leukomalacia decreased (6.3% (1991-1992) to 1.2% (2016-2017)), whereas retinopathy of prematurity requiring treatment increased (4.0% (1991-1992) to 10.0% (2016-2017)). The average additional costs associated with one additional infant surviving in 2016-2017 were 200 (95% CI 150 to 297) days, 326 (183 to 1127) days and 130 (70 to 267) days compared with 1991-1992, 1997 and 2005, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of resources for respiratory support has escalated with improved survival over time. Cystic periventricular leukomalacia reduced in incidence but retinopathy of prematurity requiring treatment increased. How these changes translate into long-term respiratory or neurological function remains to be determined.
Appropriate-for-gestational-age infants who exhibit reduced antenatal growth velocity display postnatal catch-up growth
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2020-09-08)
BACKGROUND: Postnatally, small-for-gestational-age (SGA; birthweight <10th centile) infants who are growth restricted due to uteroplacental insufficiency (UPI) demonstrate 'catch-up growth' to meet their genetically-predetermined size. Infants who demonstrate slowing growth during pregnancy are those that cross estimated fetal weight centiles at serial ultrasound examinations. These infants that slow in growth but are born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA; ≥10th centile), exhibit antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal indicators of UPI. Here, we examine if and when these infants (labelled as AGA-FGR) also demonstrate catch-up growth like SGA infants, when compared with AGA infants with normal antenatal growth velocity (AGA-NG). METHODS: We followed-up the infants of women who had previously undergone ultrasound assessment of fetal size at 28- and 36-weeks' gestation, enabling calculation of antenatal growth velocity. To assess postnatal growth, we asked parents to send their infant's growth measurements, up to two years post-birth, which are routinely collected through the state-wide Maternal-Child Health service. Infants with medical conditions affecting postnatal growth were excluded from the analysis. From the measurements obtained we calculated age-adjusted z-scores for postnatal weight, length and body mass index (BMI; weight(kg)/height(m2)) at birth and 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 months. We used linear spline regression modelling to predict mean weight, length and BMI z-scores at intervals post birth. Predicted mean age-adjusted z-scores were then compared between three groups; SGA, AGA with low antenatal growth (AGA-FGR; loss of >20 customised estimated fetal weight centiles), and AGA-NG to determine if catch-up growth occurred. In addition, we compared the rates of catch-up growth (defined as an increase in weight age-adjusted z-score of ≥0.67 over 1 year) between the groups with Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: Of 158 (46%) infant growth records received, 146 were AGA, with low antenatal growth velocity occurring in 34/146 (23.2%). Rates of gestational diabetes and SGA birthweight were higher in those lost to follow-up. Compared to AGA-NG infants, AGA-FGR infants had significantly lower predicted mean weight (p<0.001), length (p = 0.04) and BMI (p = 0.001) z-scores at birth. These significant differences were no longer evident at 4 months, suggesting that catch-up growth had occurred. As expected, the catch-up growth that occurred among the AGA-FGR was not as great in magnitude as that demonstrated by the SGA. When assessed categorically, there was no significant difference between the rate of catch-up growth among the AGA-FGR and the SGA. Catch-up growth was significantly more frequent among both the AGA-FGR and the SGA groups compared to the AGA-NG. CONCLUSIONS: AGA infants that have exhibited reduced antenatal fetal growth velocity also exhibit significant catch-up growth in the first 12 months of life. This finding represents further evidence that AGA fetuses that slow in growth during pregnancy do so due to UPI.
Risk of Adverse Outcomes in Females Taking Oral Creatine Monohydrate: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
(MDPI AG, 2020-06-15)
Creatine Monohydrate (CrM) is a dietary supplement routinely used as an ergogenic aid for sport and training, and as a potential therapeutic aid to augment different disease processes. Despite its increased use in recent years, studies reporting potential adverse outcomes of CrM have been mostly derived from male or mixed sex populations. A systematic search was conducted, which included female participants on CrM, where adverse outcomes were reported, with meta-analysis performed where appropriate. Six hundred and fifty-six studies were identified where creatine supplementation was the primary intervention; fifty-eight were female only studies (9%). Twenty-nine studies monitored for adverse outcomes, with 951 participants. There were no deaths or serious adverse outcomes reported. There were no significant differences in total adverse events, (risk ratio (RR) 1.24 (95% CI 0.51, 2.98)), gastrointestinal events, (RR 1.09 (95% CI 0.53, 2.24)), or weight gain, (mean difference (MD) 1.24 kg pre-intervention, (95% CI -0.34, 2.82)) to 1.37 kg post-intervention (95% CI -0.50, 3.23)), in CrM supplemented females, when stratified by dosing regimen and subject to meta-analysis. No statistically significant difference was reported in measures of renal or hepatic function. In conclusion, mortality and serious adverse events are not associated with CrM supplementation in females. Nor does the use of creatine supplementation increase the risk of total adverse outcomes, weight gain or renal and hepatic complications in females. However, all future studies of creatine supplementation in females should consider surveillance and comprehensive reporting of adverse outcomes to better inform participants and health professionals involved in future trials.
The FZD7-TWIST1 axis is responsible for anoikis resistance and tumorigenesis in ovarian carcinoma.
Frizzled family receptor 7 (FZD7), a Wnt signaling receptor, is associated with the maintenance of stem cell properties and cancer progression. FZD7 has emerged as a potential therapeutic target because it is capable of transducing both canonical and noncanonical Wnt signals. In this study, we investigated the regulatory pathway downstream of FZD7 and its functional roles. We found that FZD7 expression was crucial to the maintenance of the mesenchymal phenotype, anoikis resistance, and spheroid and tumor formation in ovarian cancer (OC). We identified TWIST1 as the crucial downstream effector of the FZD7 pathway. TWIST1, a basic helix loop helix transcription factor, is known to associate with mesenchymal and cancer stem cell phenotypes. Manipulating TWIST1 expression mimicked the functional consequences observed in the FZD7 model, and overexpression of TWIST1 partially rescued the functional phenotypes abolished by FZD7 knockdown. We further proved that FZD7 regulated TWIST1 expression through epigenetic modifications of H3K4me3 and H3K27ac at the TWIST1 proximal promoter. We also identified that the FZD7-TWIST1 axis regulates the expression of BCL2, a gene that controls apoptosis. Identification of this FZD7-TWIST1-BCL2 pathway reaffirms the mechanism of anoikis resistance in OC. We subsequently showed that the FZD7-TWIST1 axis can be targeted by using a small molecule inhibitor of porcupine, an enzyme essential for secretion and functional activation of Wnts. In conclusion, our results identified that the FZD7-TWIST1 axis is important for tumorigenesis and anoikis resistance, and therapeutic inhibition results in cell death in OCs.
Cross-sectional study estimating the psychosocial impact of genital warts and other anogenital diseases in South Korea.
OBJECTIVES: To estimate self-reported human papillomavirus (HPV) disease-related psychosocial impact among male and female patients in South Korea. DESIGN: In this multicentre cross-sectional study, psychosocial impacts were estimated using a one-time survey capturing HPV Impact Profile (HIP) results, CuestionarioEspecifico en Condilomas Acuminados (CECA; in Spanish)-'Specific questionnaire for Condylomata Acuminata' and the EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) surveys. Student's t-tests or Mann-Whitney U tests were used for continuous comparisons; χ2 or Fisher's exact tests were applied for categorical comparisons. SETTING: 5098 clinics throughout Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Kwangju and Daejeon (South Korea). PARTICIPANTS: Patients with and without genital warts (GW) (males) and selected HPV diseases (females) visiting primary care physicians, obstetricians/gynaecologists, urologists and dermatologists with 2-30 years experience. RESULTS: Of 150 male and 250 female patients, HIP scores showed 85.3% of male patients with GW and 32.0% without reported moderate psychological impact (p<0.0001). In categorised total scores, 88.5% of female patients with and 66.0% without selected HPV-related diseases reported moderate or high psychological impacts (p=0.0004). In the CECA questionnaire, male patients had mean (SD) scores of 10.51 (3.79) in 'emotional health' and 15.90 (6.13) in 'sexual activity'. Female patients with GW reported lower scores in both dimensions with mean scores of 7.18 (4.17) in 'emotional health' and 10.97 (5.80) in 'sexual activity' (p<0.0001), indicating worse health-related quality of life (HRQoL). For the EQ-5D, male patients with GW reported lower mean Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores than those without (75.1 vs 81.13, p<0.0135). Mean VAS score and utility values were lower for females with HPV-related diseases than those without (72.18 vs 76.86 and 0.90 vs 0.94, respectively). CONCLUSION: In South Korea, GW in men and HPV-related diseases in women negatively impact patient well-being and HRQoL scores. Among women, those with GW suffered a greater psychosocial impact than those with other selected HPV-related diseases.
Decidua Basalis Mesenchymal Stem Cells Favor Inflammatory M1 Macrophage Differentiation In Vitro
Placental mesenchymal stem cells from maternal decidua basalis tissue (DBMSCs) are promising cells for tissue repair because of their multilineage differentiation and ability to protect endothelial cells from injury. Here, we examined DBMSC interaction with macrophages and whether this interaction could modulate the characteristics and functions of these macrophages. We induced monocytes to differentiate into M1-like macrophages in the presence of DBMSCs. DBMSC effects on differentiation were evaluated using microscopy, flow cytometry, and ELISA. DBMSC effects on M1-like macrophage induction of T cell function were also examined. The culture of DBMSCs with monocytes did not inhibit monocyte differentiation into M1-like inflammatory macrophages. This was confirmed by the morphological appearance of M1-like macrophages, increased expression of inflammatory molecules, and reduced expression of anti-inflammatory molecules. In addition, DBMSCs did not interfere with M1-like macrophage phagocytic activity; rather, they induced stimulatory effects of M1-like macrophages on CD4⁺ T cell proliferation and subsequent secretion of inflammatory molecules by T cells. We showed that DBMSCs enhanced the differentiation of M1-like inflammatory macrophages, which function as antitumor cells. Therefore, our findings suggest that DBMSCs are inflammatory cells that could be useful in cancer treatment via the enhancement of M1- like macrophages.
Patients Allergic to Fish Tolerate Ray Based on the Low Allergenicity of Its Parvalbumin
(ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2019-02-01)
BACKGROUND: Clinical reactions to bony fish species are common in patients with allergy to fish and are caused by parvalbumins of the β-lineage. Cartilaginous fish such as rays and sharks contain mainly α-parvalbumins and their allergenicity is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the allergenicity of cartilaginous fish and their α-parvalbumins in individuals allergic to bony fish. METHODS: Sensitization to cod, salmon, and ray among patients allergic to cod, salmon, or both (n = 18) was explored by prick-to-prick testing. Clinical reactivity to ray was assessed in 11 patients by food challenges or clinical workup. IgE-binding to β-parvalbumins (cod, carp, salmon, barramundi, tilapia) and α-parvalbumins (ray, shark) was determined by IgE-ELISA. Basophil activation tests and skin prick tests were performed with β-parvalbumins from cod, carp, and salmon and α-parvalbumins from ray and shark. RESULTS: Tolerance of ray was observed in 10 of 11 patients. Prick-to-prick test reactions to ray were markedly lower than to bony fish (median wheal diameter 2 mm with ray vs 11 mm with cod and salmon). IgE to α-parvalbumins was lower (median, 0.1 kU/L for ray and shark) than to β-parvalbumins (median, ≥1.65 kU/L). Furthermore, α-parvalbumins demonstrated a significantly reduced basophil activation capacity compared with β-parvalbumins (eg, ray vs cod, P < .001; n = 18). Skin prick test further demonstrated lower reactivity to α-parvalbumins compared with β-parvalbumins. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients allergic to bony fish tolerated ray, a cartilaginous fish, because of low allergenicity of its α-parvalbumin. A careful clinical workup and in vitro IgE-testing for cartilaginous fish will improve patient management and may introduce an alternative to bony fish into patients' diet.