Obstetrics and Gynaecology - Research Publications

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    Older women testing positive for HPV16/18 on cervical screening and risk of high-grade cervical abnormality
    Roberts, JM ; Machalek, DA ; Butler, BC ; Crescini, J ; Garland, SM ; Farnsworth, A (Wiley, 2023-04-15)
    In Australia's HPV-based cervical screening program, we previously showed that risk of histological high-grade abnormality at 1 year post screening decreased with age in women with oncogenic HPV. In this study, we followed 878 HPV16/18 positive women aged 55 years and over for up to 3 years post screening test, to determine the proportion with histological high-grade abnormality (HGA, incorporating high-grade squamous intraepithelial abnormality (HSIL), adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma) and to correlate risk of HGA with liquid-based cytology result and with prior screening history. HGA was detected in 7.8% at 1 year and 10.0% at 3 years, with no significant difference (P = .136), despite the number of women with follow-up information significantly increasing from 82.9% to 91.0% (P < .0001). The proportion of HPV16/18 positive women with HGA at 3 years was highest in those with an HSIL cytology result (79.0%) and lowest in those with negative cytology (6.2%). Women with an adequate screening history had fewer HGA than such women with inadequate prior screening (6.6% vs 16.0%, P = .001) or with a history of an abnormality (6.6% vs 14.4%, P = .001). HPV16/18 infection in women over 55 years may have a different natural history from that in younger women, in whom HGA are more common after HPV16/18 detection. In HPV-based cervical screening programs, management algorithms for screen-detected abnormalities based on risk stratification should include factors such as age, screening history and index cytology result, so that women receive appropriate investigation and follow-up.
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    Evidence for the role of multidisciplinary team care in people with pelvic pain and endometriosis: A systematic review
    Fang, QY ; Campbell, N ; Mooney, SS ; Holdsworth-Carson, SJ ; Tyson, K (WILEY, 2023-09-27)
    BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a chronic, inflammatory condition characterised by the presence of endometrial-like tissue outside the uterine cavity. Given the multi-system nature of the disease and the potential for significant negative impact on quality of life, there has been a long-standing recognition of the need for multidisciplinary care for people with endometriosis. However, there is paucity to the data supporting this approach, and much of the evidence is anecdotal. AIM: This systematic review aims to describe recent evidence-based models and patient-centred perspectives of multidisciplinary care for endometriosis, to improve understanding of the role of an integrated, multidisciplinary team in effectively addressing patients' care needs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, Medline, Embase and Web of Science were searched for relevant articles published between 1 January 2010 to 7 July 2022. RESULTS: Nineteen studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and pinpointed a multidisciplinary team consisting of gynaecologists, pain specialists, nurses, physiotherapists, psychologists, sex therapists, nutritionists, complementary medicine practitioners, and social workers to be most commonly utilised in holistically managing people with pelvic pain and endometriosis. Furthermore, patient perspectives on care highlighted the need for reliable information, respect and validation of experiences or preferences, discussion of long-term treatment plans and social and emotional supports. CONCLUSION: The trend for multidisciplinary team care for people with endometriosis is growing. Further consumer-driven clinical studies and outcome evaluations need to be conducted to determine the effect of multidisciplinary care on improvements to quality of life for people living with endometriosis and or pelvic pain.
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    Low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia - 20 years experience of a state registry.
    McInerney, C ; McNally, O ; Cade, TJ ; Jones, A ; Neesham, D ; Naaman, Y (Wiley, 2023-11-14)
    BACKGROUND: Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is an uncommon but highly treatable condition. There is limited local evidence to guide therapy. AIMS: To report the experience of a statewide registry in the treatment of low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) over a 20-year period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of the prospectively maintained GTD registry database was conducted. There were 144 patients identified with low-risk GTN, of which 115 were analysed. Patient demographics, treatment details and outcomes, including development of resistance, toxicity or relapse were reviewed. RESULTS: The incidence of GTD was 2.6/1000 live births. There was 100% survival. The mean time from diagnosis to commencing treatment was 1.9 days (range 0-29 days). Seventy-seven percent of patients treated with methotrexate achieved complete response. Thirteen patients (11.3%) required multi-agent chemotherapy, for the treatment of resistant or relapsed disease. There was a higher rate of treatment resistance in those with World Health Organization (WHO) risk scores 5-6 (odds ratio (OR) 6.56, 95% CI 1.73-24.27, P = 0.005) and those with pre-treatment human chorionic gonadotropin >10 000 (OR 4.00 95% CI 1.73-24.27 P = 0.007). Four patients (3.5%) were diagnosed with choriocarcinoma after commencing treatment. Nine patients (7.8%) had successful surgical treatment for GTN, both alone and in combination with chemotherapy. The relapse rate was 4.3%; all were treated successfully with a combination of chemotherapy and surgery, and 93.9% of patients completed follow up through the registry. CONCLUSIONS: Methotrexate is a highly effective treatment for low-risk GTN, especially with WHO risk score ≤4. The optimal treatment for those with risk scores of 5-6 requires further investigation.
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    Breastfeeding Duration and Bone Mineral Density in Childhood: A Prospective Study within GUSTO Cohort
    Gridneva, Z ; Pang, WW ; Vlaskovsky, P ; McEachran, JL ; Perrella, SL ; Yap, F ; Wlodek, ME ; Chong, Y-S ; Eriksson, JG ; Geddes, DT ; Tint, MT (MDPI, )
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    Sampling Procedures for Estimating the Infant Intake of Human Milk Hormones, Glucose and Total Lipids
    Suwaydi, MA ; Lai, CT ; Gridneva, Z ; Perrella, SL ; Wlodek, ME ; Geddes, DT (MDPI, )
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    Shifting incidence and survival of epithelial ovarian cancer (1995-2014): A SurvMark-2 study.
    Cabasag, CJ ; Arnold, M ; Rutherford, M ; Ferlay, J ; Bardot, A ; Morgan, E ; Butler, J ; O'Connell, DL ; Nelson, G ; Høgdall, C ; Schnack, T ; Gavin, A ; Elwood, M ; Hanna, L ; Gourley, C ; De, P ; Saint-Jacques, N ; Mørch, LS ; Woods, RR ; Altman, AD ; Sykes, P ; Cohen, PA ; McNally, O ; Møller, B ; Walsh, P ; Morrison, DS ; Bray, F ; Soerjomataram, I (Wiley, 2023-05-01)
    The aim of the study is to provide a comprehensive assessment of incidence and survival trends of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) by histological subtype across seven high income countries (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Ireland, New Zealand, Norway and the United Kingdom). Data on invasive EOC diagnosed in women aged 15 to 99 years during 1995 to 2014 were obtained from 20 cancer registries. Age standardized incidence rates and average annual percentage change were calculated by subtype for all ages and age groups (15-64 and 65-99 years). Net survival (NS) was estimated by subtype, age group and 5-year period using Pohar-Perme estimator. Our findings showed marked increase in serous carcinoma incidence was observed between 1995 and 2014 among women aged 65 to 99 years with average annual increase ranging between 2.2% and 5.8%. We documented a marked decrease in the incidence of adenocarcinoma "not otherwise specified" with estimates ranging between 4.4% and 7.4% in women aged 15 to 64 years and between 2.0% and 3.7% among the older age group. Improved survival, combining all EOC subtypes, was observed for all ages combined over the 20-year study period in all countries with 5-year NS absolute percent change ranging between 5.0 in Canada and 12.6 in Denmark. Several factors such as changes in guidelines and advancement in diagnostic tools may potentially influence the observed shift in histological subtypes and temporal trends. Progress in clinical management and treatment over the past decades potentially plays a role in the observed improvements in EOC survival.
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    Timing of introduction of complementary foods, breastfeeding, and child cardiometabolic risk: a prospective multiethnic Asian cohort study
    Ong, YY ; Pang, WW ; Michael, N ; Aris, IM ; Sadananthan, SA ; Tint, M-T ; Choo, JTL ; Ling, LH ; Karnani, N ; Velan, SS ; Fortier, MV ; Tan, KH ; Gluckman, PD ; Yap, F ; Chong, Y-S ; Godfrey, KM ; Chan, S-Y ; Eriksson, JG ; Chong, MF-F ; Wlodek, ME ; Lee, YS (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2023-01)
    BACKGROUND: The timing of introduction of complementary foods and the duration of breastfeeding (BF) have been independently associated with child overweight and obesity; however, their combined influence on body fat partitioning and cardiometabolic risk is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations of the timing of introduction of complementary foods, the duration of BF, and their interaction with child adiposity and cardiometabolic risk markers. METHODS: We analyzed data from 839 children in the prospective Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort. Mothers reported the age at which infants were first fed complementary foods and BF duration, classified as early (≤4 mo) versus typical (>4 mo) complementary feeding (CF) and short (≤4 mo) versus long (>4 mo) duration of any BF, respectively. We measured adiposity and cardiometabolic risk markers at the age of 6 y and examined their associations with infant feeding patterns using multiple regression, adjusting for sociodemographics, parents' body mass index (BMI), maternal factors, birth weight for gestational age, and infant weight gain. RESULTS: Of 839 children, 18% experienced early CF, whereas 54% experienced short BF. Short (vs. long) BF and early (vs. typical) CF were independently associated with higher z-scores of BMI [β (95% confidence interval), short BF, 0.18 standard deviation score (SDS) (-0.01, 0.38); early CF, 0.34 SDS (0.11, 0.57)] and sum of skinfolds [short BF, 1.83 mm (0.05, 3.61); early CF, 2.73 mm (0.55, 4.91)]. Children who experienced both early CF and short BF (vs. typical CF-long BF) had synergistically higher diastolic blood pressure [1.41 mmHg (-0.15, 2.97), P-interaction = 0.023] and metabolic syndrome score [0.81 (0.16, 1.47), P-interaction = 0.081]. Early CF-long BF (vs. early CF-short BF) was associated with a lower systolic blood pressure [-3.74 mmHg (-7.01, -0.48)], diastolic blood pressure [-2.29 mmHg (-4.47, -0.11)], and metabolic syndrome score [-0.90 (-1.80, 0.00)]. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of early CF and short BF was associated with elevated child adiposity and cardiometabolic markers. Longer BF duration may protect against cardiometabolic risk associated with early CF. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875.
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    Variation in clinical practice guideline recommendations for medication use in pregnancy in Australia: A systematic review
    Cron, HT ; Simm, P ; Said, JM ; Cheong, JLY ; Cranswick, N ; Hu, YJ (WILEY, 2023-12-17)
    BACKGROUND: Medication use in pregnancy is common; however, it is unknown if clinical practice guideline (CPG) prescribing recommendations referred to in Australia at the state, national and international level are consistent. AIMS: This systematic review aimed to: (1) identify sources of CPGs that inform prescribing during pregnancy in Australia; (2) assess CPG quality; and (3) evaluate variation within CPG recommendations for medication use in three common conditions in pregnancy: prophylactic antibiotics following premature rupture of membranes (PROM) at term, antidepressants in pregnancy and metformin in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was conducted across PubMed, Scopus and EMBASE databases. Grey literature was identified through publicly available Australian policy statements. Prescribing recommendations for prophylactic antibiotics following PROM at term, antidepressants in pregnancy and metformin in GDM, were compared at the state, national and international levels. CPG quality was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument. RESULTS: We identified 39 CPG sources that inform prescribing during pregnancy in Australia. CPG quality varied between resources. There was minor variation in recommendations for antibiotic prophylaxis in PROM at term. Recommendations regarding metformin use in GDM were also variable, with CPGs either recommending its use as a first-line agent when lifestyle modifications are not effective or when insulin therapy is not practicable. Recommendations for antidepressant use were consistent across CPGs analysed. CONCLUSION: Multiple CPGs exist to inform prescribing during pregnancy in Australia, with variation present within CPG quality and recommendations. These findings offer insight into potential sources of variation in maternal and neonatal health outcomes.
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    Chemically-Induced Lipoprotein Breakdown for Improved Extracellular Vesicle Purification.
    Iannotta, D ; A, A ; Lai, A ; Nair, S ; Koifman, N ; Lappas, M ; Salomon, C ; Wolfram, J (Wiley, 2023-12-15)
    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized biomolecular packages involved in intercellular communication. EVs are released by all cells, making them broadly applicable as therapeutic, diagnostic, and mechanistic components in (patho)physiology. Sample purity is critical for correctly attributing observed effects to EVs and for maximizing therapeutic and diagnostic performance. Lipoprotein contaminants represent a major challenge for sample purity. Lipoproteins are approximately six orders of magnitude more abundant in the blood circulation and overlap in size, shape, and density with EVs. This study represents the first example of an EV purification method based on the chemically-induced breakdown of lipoproteins. Specifically, a styrene-maleic acid (SMA) copolymer is used to selectively breakdown lipoproteins, enabling subsequent size-based separation of the breakdown products from plasma EVs. The use of the polymer followed by tangential flow filtration or size-exclusion chromatography results in improved EV yield, preservation of EV morphology, increased EV markers, and reduced contaminant markers. SMA-based EV purification enables improved fluorescent labeling, reduces interactions with macrophages, and enhances accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity to detect EV biomarkers, indicating benefits for various downstream applications. In conclusion, SMA is a simple and effective method to improve the purity and yield of plasma-derived EVs, which favorably impacts downstream applications.
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    Interventions to improve oncofertility knowledge and decision-making in patients with low health literacy: A systematic review.
    Ong, C ; Li, AD ; Marino, JL ; Peate, M (Elsevier BV, 2024-02)
    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of interventions that improve knowledge, health and decision-related outcomes in cancer, fertility or the intersection of both among low health literacy (LHL) patients. METHODS: Articles published from 2000 to March 2022 in English were identified through searching MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and Embase databases on 29/03/2022. Studies were independently screened against eligibility criteria and appraised for quality. A narrative synthesis of data was presented. RESULTS: Of 235 citations, 11 studies (2585 participants) investigating three categories were included: decision-support tools (n = 8), mobile health applications (n = 2) and communication tools (n = 1). No eligible study was identified for fertility or oncofertility. All interventions integrated multimedia or interactivity to supplement plain-language text. Decision aids and mobile health applications improved knowledge, reduced decisional conflict and increased clarity around cancer-related choices. Overall, findings favoured the use of online interventions tailored for LHL patients. CONCLUSION: There is a lack of data on LHL interventions in fertility and oncofertility. In cancer, LHL interventions improved knowledge and decision-making outcomes. The ideal intervention remains inconclusive. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Lack of engagement with LHL needs in oncofertility and fertility settings have implications for informed treatment decision-making. In cancer, further research is required to ascertain most effective intervention format.