General Practice - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 397
Experiences of LGBTIQA+ People with Disability in Healthcare and Community Services: Towards Embracing Multiple Identities.
(MDPI AG, 2020-11-02)
Healthcare and disability support services are increasing their efforts towards inclusion and recognising the needs of different groups. This research project was conducted by academic and peer researchers (LGBTIQA+ people with disability) in Victoria, Australia using four focus groups with LGBTIQA+ people with disability. We report on two overarching themes relating to participants' experiences of accessing health services as LGBTIQA+ people with disability: difficulties in managing multiple identities and the impacts of community services and supports. Participants described having to repeatedly 'come out' in a range of ways and contexts as complex and layered processes in which it was difficult to present their full range of needs and experiences to services. We also found that the role of community in promoting a sense of belonging and resilience increased capacity to manage health service use and advocacy. Services and communities aiming to be inclusive to all have the opportunity to recognise and respond to the issues faced by LGBTIQA+ people with disability as a way to pay attention to how overt and subtle practices of discrimination continue to operate despite repeated attempts at or claims of being 'inclusive.' Our research suggests actual inclusive, accessible services can be achieved in part through policy and practice that actively responds to the specific needs of LGBTIQA+ people with disability, in addition to LGBTIQA+ education for disability services and disability and accessibility education for LGBTIQA+ focused services. As we do in this article, we argue that this work must be done by prioritising authentic participation of LGBTIQA+ people with disability in the services and research that is about them.
Community Perspectives of Complex Trauma Assessment for Aboriginal Parents: 'Its Important, butHowThese Discussions Are Held Is Critical'
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2020-09-15)
Background and Purpose: Becoming a parent can be an exciting and also challenging transition, particularly for parents who have experienced significant hurt in their own childhoods, and may be experiencing 'complex trauma.' Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Aboriginal) people also experience historical trauma. While the parenting transition is an important time to offer support for parents, it is essential to ensure that the benefits of identifying parents experiencing complex trauma outweigh any risks (e.g., stigmatization). This paper describes views of predominantly Aboriginal stakeholders regarding (1) the relative importance of domains proposed for complex trauma assessment, and (2) how to conduct these sensitive discussions with Aboriginal parents. Setting and Methods: A co-design workshop was held in Alice Springs (Central Australia) as part of an Aboriginal-led community-based participatory action research project. Workshop participants were 57 predominantly Aboriginal stakeholders with expertise in community, clinical, policy and academic settings. Twelve domains of complex trauma-related distress had been identified in existing assessment tools and through community consultation. Using story-telling and strategies to create safety for discussing complex and sensitive issues, and delphi-style methods, stakeholders rated the level of importance of the 12 domains; and discussed why, by whom, where and how experiences of complex trauma should be explored. Main Findings: The majority of stakeholders supported the importance of assessing each of the proposed complex trauma domains with Aboriginal parents. However, strong concerns were expressed regarding where, by whom and how this should occur. There was greater emphasis and consistency regarding 'qualities' (e.g., caring), rather than specific 'attributes' (e.g., clinician). Six critical overarching themes emerged: ensuring emotional and cultural safety; establishing relationships and trust; having capacity to respond appropriately and access support; incorporating less direct cultural communication methods (e.g., yarning, dadirri); using strengths-based approaches and offering choices to empower parents; and showing respect, caring and compassion. Conclusion: Assessments to identify Aboriginal parents experiencing complex trauma should only be considered when the prerequisites of safety, trusting relationships, respect, compassion, adequate care, and capacity to respond are assured. Offering choices and cultural and strengths-based approaches are also critical. Without this assurance, there are serious concerns that harms may outweigh any benefits for Aboriginal parents.
Epidemiology of heart failure: Study of Heart failure in the Australian Primary carE setting (SHAPE)
(WILEY PERIODICALS, INC, 2020-09-09)
AIMS: At present, there is no robust information on the prevalence and incidence of heart failure (HF) in the general Australian community. The present study of primary care data sought to estimate the prevalence and incidence of HF in the community and to describe the demographic and clinical profile of Australians with HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We undertook a retrospective cohort study based on analysis of anonymized medical records of adult patients cared for at 43 Australian general practices between 1 July 2013 and 30 June 2018. Data were extracted from coded and uncoded fields in electronic medical records. The prevalence and annual incidence of HF were calculated, along with 95% confidence intervals, using the 'active' population of people who were regular attenders at the practices. Age-standardized estimates were also derived using the 2017 Australian population as reference. The mean age of the population with HF was 69.8 years, 50.6% were female, and mean body mass index was 31.2 kg/m2 . The age-standardized prevalence was 2.199% [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.168-2.23%], and the age-standardized annual incidence was 0.348% (95% CI: 0.342-0.354%). These estimates accord with almost 420 000 people living with HF in Australia in 2017, and >66 000 new cases of HF occurring that year. Only 18.9% of patients with definite HF had this formally captured as a 'diagnosis' in their medical record. HF was more frequent among those of lower socio-economic status. CONCLUSIONS: HF is common in Australia. The majority of HF patients do not have this diagnosis optimally noted in their primary care medical records.
Clinical thresholds for diagnosing iron deficiency: comparison of functional assessment of serum ferritin to population based centiles.
(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-10-26)
Low serum ferritin is diagnostic of iron deficiency, yet its published lower cut-off values are highly variable, particularly for pediatric populations. Lower cut-off values are commonly reported as 2.5th percentiles, and is based on the variation of ferritin values in the population. Our objective was to determine whether a functional approach based on iron deficient erythropoiesis could provide a better alternative. Utilizing 64,443 ferritin test results from pediatric electronic health records, we conducted various statistical techniques to derive 2.5th percentiles, and also derived functional reference limits through the association between ferritin and erythrocyte parameters: hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, and red cell distribution width. We find that lower limits of reference intervals derived as centiles are too low for clinical interpretation. Functional limits indicate iron deficiency anemia starts to occur when ferritin levels reach 10 µg/L, and are largely similar between genders and age groups. In comparison, centiles (2.5%) presented with lower limits overall, with varying levels depending on age and gender. Functionally-derived limits better reflects the underlying physiology of a patient, and may provide a basis for deriving a threshold related to treatment of iron deficiency and any other biomarker with functional outcomes.
Beyond Voice: Conceptualizing Children's Agency in Domestic Violence Research Through a Dialogical Lens
(SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2020-10-14)
<jats:p> Children who live in households where domestic violence is occurring have been variously described in the literature over time as silent witnesses, witnesses, a cohort who is “exposed” to the violence, and more recently, as individual victim survivors and active agents in their own right, each with their own lived experience of violence. </jats:p><jats:p> Research methodologies in this arena have shifted from adult-focused measurements of the impacts of domestic violence on children to more qualitative attempts to understand the experience from the child’s perspective. In doing so, there have been notions of giving “voice to the voiceless” and doing no further harm through a desire to protect children from exposure. However, the relational framing of children’s voices and recognition and enabling of children’s agency is less evolved in research and professional interventions. </jats:p><jats:p> A study undertaken in Australia researched with a primary care population of 23 children and 18 mothers, children’s experiences of safety and resiliency in the context of domestic violence. The findings of the research were realized using qualitative research methods with children and the analytical framing of hermeneutical phenomenology, ethics of care and in particular dialogical ethics, to draw practical understanding and application in health care settings. </jats:p><jats:p> This article aims to demonstrate how the analytical methodology chosen was applied in the research process and reveals the elements required for children to experience agency in navigating their relationships in an unsafe world, while learning about themselves. It draws upon understandings of the child’s relational context and introduces a model of children’s agency, which may have applicability for domestic violence policy and practice settings. </jats:p>
Antiepileptic Drugs, Polypharmacy, and Quality of Life in People Living with Epilepsy Managed in General Practice
(Georg Thieme Verlag KG, 2020-04-01)
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p> Objective Recently, instances of general practitioners (GPs) prescribing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have increased. We aimed to investigate the use of AEDs in a community sample of people with epilepsy and the effect on quality of life (QoL).</jats:p><jats:p> Methods Responses from the Australian Epilepsy Longitudinal Study (AELS), Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS), and Medicare Benefit Scheme (MBS) data were used. Linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between the numbers of AEDs and QoL.</jats:p><jats:p> Results Fifty people with epilepsy were prescribed an average of two AEDs. The most common were lamotrigine, sodium valproate, and levetiracetam. Eighty-two percent were prescribed medications from two or more categories of medications. A lower QoL at wave 2 of the AELS was significantly associated with a higher number of AEDs.</jats:p><jats:p> Conclusion Given the high number of people with epilepsy being cared for in general practice, GPs must understand the risks and benefits of epilepsy monotherapy, polytherapy, and polypharmacy.</jats:p>
Increasing the uptake of long-acting reversible contraception in general practice: the Australian Contraceptive ChOice pRoject (ACCORd) cluster randomised controlled trial longitudinal follow-up protocol.
INTRODUCTION: Through addressing main barriers to the uptake of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) among Australian women, the Australian Contraceptive ChOice pRoject (ACCORd) trialled an educational intervention targeting general practitioners (GPs) and provided those in the intervention group with a rapid referral service for quick insertion. The cluster randomised controlled trial resulted in greater uptake of LARC in the intervention group. This protocol paper describes a longitudinal follow-up to the ACCORd Study to assess the long-term efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Women participants (patients of ACCORd GPs) completed a baseline, 6-month and 12-month survey. These participants will be invited to complete an additional follow-up survey 3 years post completion of their baseline interview. Based on the original ACCORd Study tools, the online survey will address long-term outcomes including contraceptive continuation rates and reproductive history, any unintended pregnancies, satisfaction and concerns with their current contraceptive method, and an assessment of quality of life. We will analyse data using binary regression models with generalised estimating equations and robust standard errors to account for clustering. DISCUSSION: Demonstration of sustained use, effectiveness at reducing unwanted pregnancies and cost-effectiveness of this strategy among this cohort of Australian primary care patients, will strengthen the policy and programme urgency of addressing wider dissemination of these strategies and replicating the study elsewhere. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The ACCORd Study received approval from the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee: CF16/188-201000080. Additionally, an amendment to conduct this 3-year longitudinal follow-up survey has been approved. The trial follow-up outcomes will be disseminated through formal academic pathways, including journal articles, national and international conferences and reports as well as using more 'mainstream' strategies such as seminars, workshops and media engagement. Additionally, outcomes will be communicated through policy briefs to Australian state and federal governments. TRAIL REGISTRATION NUMBER: This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Trials Registry ACTRN12615001346561. Recruitment and data collection have been completed for the baseline, 6-month and 12-month surveys. Data collection for the 3-year survey commenced in August 2019.
What's the catch? Urine sample collection from young pre-continent children: a qualitative study in primary care.
(Royal College of General Practitioners, 2020-10)
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in young pre-continent children, but collecting urine samples is challenging. Collection methods all have limitations and international guidelines have conflicting recommendations. Choice of method must balance time, resources, invasiveness, reliability, and contamination. Evidence from primary care clinicians is limited regarding barriers and enablers to sample collection, and what factors inform the choice and use of different sample collection methods. AIM: To understand the barriers and enablers to collecting urine samples from young pre-continent children in primary care. DESIGN & SETTING: An exploratory qualitative study performed in primary care in Australia. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews explored the topic of collecting a urine sample from a child aged 6 months who presented with a fever. The interviews were undertaken with 21 GPs and four practice nurses (PNs) until data saturation was reached. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, coded, and underwent content and thematic analysis. RESULTS: Five main themes emerged including: the clinician's knowledge and expertise; patient characteristics; parent or carer's understanding and motivation; the collection process itself; and likely outcome of the chosen method. Non-invasive methods were strongly favoured; although, clean catch was considered time-consuming and urine bags were known to be often contaminated. Invasive methods (for example, catheterisation or suprapubic aspiration [SPA]) were rarely performed outside of remote settings. Key barriers included time and space constraints in clinics, and key enablers included parental motivation, education handouts, and voiding stimulation methods. CONCLUSION: This study has identified key barriers and enablers to inform education, policy, and future research for urine sample collection from pre-continent children in primary care. Guideline recommendations must consider the primary care context to ensure they are relevant and suited to real-world practice.