Melbourne Medical School Collected Works - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 409
Genome-wide RNAi screen for genes regulating glycolytic response to vemurafenib in BRAFV600 melanoma cells.
(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-10-12)
Identification of mechanisms underlying sensitivity and response to targeted therapies, such as the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib, is critical in order to improve efficacy of these therapies in the clinic and delay onset of resistance. Glycolysis has emerged as a key feature of the BRAF inhibitor response in melanoma cells, and importantly, the metabolic response to vemurafenib in melanoma patients can predict patient outcome. Here, we present a multiparameter genome-wide siRNA screening dataset of genes that when depleted improve the viability and glycolytic response to vemurafenib in BRAFV600 mutated melanoma cells. These datasets are suitable for analysis of genes involved in cell viability and glycolysis in steady state conditions and following treatment with vemurafenib, as well as computational approaches to identify gene regulatory networks that mediate response to BRAF inhibition in melanoma.
The Transcriptomic Response of the Murine Thyroid Gland to Iodide Overload and the Role of the Nrf2 Antioxidant System
BACKGROUND: Thyroid follicular cells have physiologically high levels of reactive oxygen species because oxidation of iodide is essential for the iodination of thyroglobulin (Tg) during thyroid hormone synthesis. Thyroid follicles (the functional units of the thyroid) also utilize incompletely understood autoregulatory mechanisms to defend against exposure to excess iodide. To date, no transcriptomic studies have investigated these phenomena in vivo. Nuclear erythroid factor 2 like 2 (Nrf2 or Nfe2l2) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of numerous antioxidant and other cytoprotective genes. We showed previously that the Nrf2 pathway regulates the antioxidant defense of follicular cells, as well as Tg transcription and Tg iodination. We, thus, hypothesized that Nrf2 might be involved in the transcriptional response to iodide overload. METHODS: C57BL6/J wild-type (WT) or Nrf2 knockout (KO) male mice were administered regular water or water supplemented with 0.05% sodium iodide for seven days. RNA from their thyroids was prepared for next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Gene expression changes were assessed and pathway analyses were performed on the sets of differentially expressed genes. RESULTS: Analysis of differentially expressed messenger RNAs (mRNAs) indicated that iodide overload upregulates inflammatory-, immune-, fibrosis- and oxidative stress-related pathways, including the Nrf2 pathway. Nrf2 KO mice showed a more pronounced inflammatory-autoimmune transcriptional response to iodide than WT mice. Compared to previously published datasets, the response patterns observed in WT mice had strong similarities with the patterns typical of Graves' disease and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) also responded to iodide overload, with the latter targeting mRNAs that participate mainly in inflammation pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Iodide overload induces the Nrf2 cytoprotective response and upregulates inflammatory, immune, and fibrosis pathways similar to autoimmune hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease) and PTC.
Krill Oil Has Different Effects on the Plasma Lipidome Compared with Fish Oil Following 30 Days of Supplementation in Healthy Women: A Randomized Controlled and Crossover Study
This is a follow-up of our previous postprandial study and it focused on the plasma lipidomic responses to 30 days of krill oil (KO) versus fish oil (FO) supplementations in healthy women. Eleven women (aged 18-50 years) consumed KO or FO for 30 days in a randomized, cross-over study, with at least a four-week washout period between supplementations. The daily supplements provided 1.27 g/day of long-chain (LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from KO (containing 0.76 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 0.42 g docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) and 1.44 g/day from FO (containing 0.79 g EPA, 0.47 g DHA). Fasting plasma samples at days 0, 15, and 30 were analyzed using gas chromatography and liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry. KO resulted in a significantly greater relative area under the curve (relAUC) for plasma EPA after 30 days. Lipidomic analysis showed that 26 of 43 lipid molecular species had a significantly greater relAUC in the KO group, while 17/43 showed a significantly lower relAUC compared with the FO group. More than 38% of the lipids species which increased more following KO contained omega-3 PUFA, while where FO was greater than KO, only 12% contained omega-3 PUFA. These data show that KO and FO do not have equivalent effects on the plasma lipidome.
Viscoelastic testing for hepatic surgery: a systematic review with meta-analysis-a protocol
BACKGROUND: Viscoelastic tests, including thromboelastography (TEG) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), provide a global assessment of haemostatic function at the point of care. The use of a TEG or ROTEM system to guide blood product administration has been shown in some surgical settings to reduce transfusion requirements. The aim of this review is to evaluate all published evidence regarding viscoelastic testing in the setting of hepatic surgery. METHODS: We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases to identify randomised controlled trials examining the use of viscoelastic testing for hepatic surgery. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts of studies identified and will independently extract data. Any disagreements will be resolved by discussion with a third reviewer. A meta-analysis will be conducted if feasible. DISCUSSION: Viscoelastic devices such as TEG and ROTEM are increasingly available to clinicians as a bedside test. Patients undergoing hepatic surgery have a significant risk of blood loss and coagulopathy requiring transfusion. Theoretical benefits of use of a TEG or ROTEM system in the hepatic surgical setting include a rationalisation of blood products, a reduction in transfusion-related side effects, an improvement in patient outcomes including mortality, and a reduction in cost. This systematic review will summarise the current evidence regarding the use of viscoelastic testing for hepatic surgery. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016036732.
Reliability and validity of two fitness tracker devices in the laboratory and home environment for older community-dwelling people
BACKGROUND: Two-thirds of older Australians are sedentary. Fitness trackers have been popular with younger people and may encourage older adults to become more active. Older adults may have different gait patterns and as such it is important to establish whether fitness trackers are valid and reliable for this population. The aim of the study was to test the reliability and validity of two fitness trackers (Fitbit Flex and ChargeHR) by step count when worn by older adults. Reliability and validity were tested in two conditions: 1) in the laboratory using a two-minute-walk-test (2MWT) and 2) in a free-living environment. METHODS: Two 2MWTs were completed while wearing the fitness trackers. Participants were videoed during each test. Participants were then given one fitness tracker and a GENEactiv accelerometer to wear at home for 14-days. RESULTS: Thirty-one participants completed two 2MWTs and 30 completed the free-living procedure. Intra Class Correlation's of the fitness trackers with direct observation of steps (criterion validity) was high (ICC:0.86,95%CI:0.76,0.93). However, both fitness trackers underestimated steps. Excellent test-retest reliability (ICC ≥ 0.75) was found between the two 2MWTs for each device, particularly the ChargeHR devices. Good strength of agreement was found for total distance and steps (fitness tracker) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (GENEactiv) for the free-living environment (Spearman Rho's 0.78 and 0.74 respectively). CONCLUSION: Reliability and validity of the Flex and ChargeHR when worn by older adults is good, however both devices underestimated step count within the laboratory environment. These fitness trackers appear suitable for consumer use and promoting physical activity for older adults.
Globally elevating the AGE clearance receptor, OST48, does not protect against the development of diabetic kidney disease, despite improving insulin secretion
(NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-09-20)
The accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been implicated in the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). There has been interest in investigating the potential of AGE clearance receptors, such as oligosaccharyltransferase-48 kDa subunit (OST48) to prevent the detrimental effects of excess AGE accumulation seen in the diabetic kidney. Here the objective of the study was to increase the expression of OST48 to examine if this slowed the development of DKD by facilitating the clearance of AGEs. Groups of 8-week-old heterozygous knock-in male mice (n = 9-12/group) over-expressing the gene encoding for OST48, dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide-protein glycosyltransferase (DDOST+/-) and litter mate controls were randomised to either (i) no diabetes or (ii) diabetes induced via multiple low-dose streptozotocin and followed for 24 weeks. By the study end, global over expression of OST48 increased glomerular OST48. This facilitated greater renal excretion of AGEs but did not affect circulating or renal AGE concentrations. Diabetes resulted in kidney damage including lower glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In diabetic mice, tubulointerstitial fibrosis was further exacerbated by global increases in OST48. There was significantly insulin effectiveness, increased acute insulin secretion, fasting insulin concentrations and AUCinsulin observed during glucose tolerance testing in diabetic mice with global elevations in OST48 when compared to diabetic wild-type littermates. Overall, this study suggested that despite facilitating urinary-renal AGE clearance, there were no benefits observed on kidney functional and structural parameters in diabetes afforded by globally increasing OST48 expression. However, the improvements in insulin secretion seen in diabetic mice with global over-expression of OST48 and their dissociation from effects on kidney function warrant future investigation.
Impact of depth of response on survival in patients treated with cobimetinib +/- vemurafenib: pooled analysis of BRIM-2, BRIM-3, BRIM-7 and coBRIM
(NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-10-01)
BACKGROUND: This pooled analysis investigated the prognostic value of depth of response in two cohorts of patients with BRAFV600-mutated metastatic melanoma treated with vemurafenib or cobimetinib plus vemurafenib. METHODS: The data were pooled from BRIM-2, BRIM-3, BRIM-7 and coBRIM. Association of depth of response with survival was estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for clinically relevant covariates. Depth of response was analysed in previously identified prognostic subgroups based on disease characteristics and gene signatures. RESULTS: Greater tumour reduction and longer time to maximal response were significantly associated with longer progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) when evaluated as continuous variables. Patients with the deepest responses had long-lasting survival outcomes (median PFS: 14 months; OS: 32 months with vemurafenib; not estimable with cobimetinib plus vemurafenib). Cobimetinib plus vemurafenib improved depth of response versus vemurafenib monotherapy regardless of other prognostic factors, including gene signatures. CONCLUSIONS: Greater depth of response was associated with improved survival, supporting its utility as a measure of treatment efficacy in melanoma and further evaluation of its incorporation into existing prognostic models. Cobimetinib plus vemurafenib improved outcomes across quartiles of response regardless of prognostic factors or gene signatures and provided durable survival benefits in patients with deep responses.
The role of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in promoting insulin resistance and inflammation in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: a randomised controlled trial
BACKGROUND: Approximately 50% of patients with stage 3 Chronic Kidney Disease are 25-hydroxyvitamin D insufficient, and this prevalence increases with falling glomerular filtration rate. Vitamin D is now recognised as having pleiotropic roles beyond bone and mineral homeostasis, with the vitamin D receptor and metabolising machinery identified in multiple tissues. Worryingly, recent observational data has highlighted an association between hypovitaminosis D and increased cardiovascular mortality, possibly mediated via vitamin D effects on insulin resistance and inflammation. The main hypothesis of this study is that oral Vitamin D supplementation will ameliorate insulin resistance in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease stage 3 when compared to placebo. Secondary hypotheses will test whether this is associated with decreased inflammation and bone/adipocyte-endocrine dysregulation. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is a single-centre, double-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Inclusion criteria include; estimated glomerular filtration rate 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2); aged >or=18 on entry to study; and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels <75 nmol/L. Patients will be randomised 1:1 to receive either oral cholecalciferol 2000IU/day or placebo for 6 months. The primary outcome will be an improvement in insulin sensitivity, measured by hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp. Secondary outcome measures will include serum parathyroid hormone, cytokines (Interleukin-1beta, Interleukin-6, Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha), adiponectin (total and High Molecular Weight), osteocalcin (carboxylated and under-carboxylated), peripheral blood mononuclear cell Nuclear Factor Kappa-B p65 binding activity, brachial artery reactivity, aortic pulse wave velocity and waveform analysis, and indirect calorimetry. All outcome measures will be performed at baseline and end of study. DISCUSSION: To date, no randomised controlled trial has been performed in pre-dialysis CKD patients to study the correlation between vitamin D status with supplementation, insulin resistance and markers of adverse cardiovascular risk. We remain hopeful that cholecalciferol may be a safe intervention, with health benefits beyond those related to bone-mineral homeostasis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000246280.
Quantitation of fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-specific protease activity in mouse, baboon and human fluids and organs
The protease fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a specific marker of activated mesenchymal cells in tumour stroma and fibrotic liver. A specific, reliable FAP enzyme assay has been lacking. FAP's unique and restricted cleavage of the post proline bond was exploited to generate a new specific substrate to quantify FAP enzyme activity. This sensitive assay detected no FAP activity in any tissue or fluid of FAP gene knockout mice, thus confirming assay specificity. Circulating FAP activity was ∼20- and 1.3-fold less in baboon than in mouse and human plasma, respectively. Serum and plasma contained comparable FAP activity. In mice, the highest levels of FAP activity were in uterus, pancreas, submaxillary gland and skin, whereas the lowest levels were in brain, prostate, leukocytes and testis. Baboon organs high in FAP activity included skin, epididymis, bladder, colon, adipose tissue, nerve and tongue. FAP activity was greatly elevated in tumours and associated lymph nodes and in fungal-infected skin of unhealthy baboons. FAP activity was 14- to 18-fold greater in cirrhotic than in non-diseased human liver, and circulating FAP activity was almost doubled in alcoholic cirrhosis. Parallel DPP4 measurements concorded with the literature, except for the novel finding of high DPP4 activity in bile. The new FAP enzyme assay is the first to be thoroughly characterised and shows that FAP activity is measurable in most organs and at high levels in some. This new assay is a robust tool for specific quantitation of FAP enzyme activity in both preclinical and clinical samples, particularly liver fibrosis.
Living well after breast cancer randomized controlled trial protocol: evaluating a telephone-delivered weight loss intervention versus usual care in women following treatment for breast cancer
BACKGROUND: Obesity, physical inactivity and poor diet quality have been associated with increased risk of breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality as well as treatment-related side-effects in breast cancer survivors. Weight loss intervention trials in breast cancer survivors have shown that weight loss is safe and achievable; however, few studies have examined the benefits of such interventions on a broad range of outcomes and few have examined factors important to translation (e.g. feasible delivery method for scaling up, assessment of sustained changes, cost-effectiveness). The Living Well after Breast Cancer randomized controlled trial aims to evaluate a 12-month telephone-delivered weight loss intervention (versus usual care) on weight change and a range of secondary outcomes including cost-effectiveness. METHODS/DESIGN: Women (18-75 years; body mass index 25-45 kg/m2) diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer in the previous 2 years are recruited from public and private hospitals and through the state-based cancer registry (target n = 156). Following baseline assessment, participants are randomized 1:1 to either a 12-month telephone-delivered weight loss intervention (targeting diet and physical activity) or usual care. Data are collected at baseline, 6-months (mid-intervention), 12-months (end-of-intervention) and 18-months (maintenance). The primary outcome is change in weight at 12-months. Secondary outcomes are changes in body composition, bone mineral density, cardio-metabolic and cancer-related biomarkers, metabolic health and chronic disease risk, physical function, patient-reported outcomes (quality of life, fatigue, menopausal symptoms, body image, fear of cancer recurrence) and behaviors (dietary intake, physical activity, sitting time). Data collected at 18-months will be used to assess whether outcomes achieved at end-of-intervention are sustained six months after intervention completion. Cost-effectiveness will be assessed, as will mediators and moderators of intervention effects. DISCUSSION: This trial will provide evidence needed to inform the wide-scale provision of weight loss, physical activity and dietary interventions as part of routine survivorship care for breast cancer survivors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ANZCTR) - ACTRN12612000997853 (Registered 18 September 2012).
Hospital Librarians' Contributions to Health Services' Accreditation: An Account of the Health Libraries for the National Safety and Quality in Health Services Standards (HeLiNS) Research Project, 2016-18
(ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2020-03-31)
This article documents the Health Libraries for the National Standards (HeLiNS) research project. The project received the ALIA 2016 research award and was undertaken by a collaboration of the ALIA/Health Libraries Australia and Health Libraries Inc groups. The research aimed to explore the contributions made by Australian hospital libraries to assist their organisations to achieve accreditation against the National Safety and Quality for Health Services (NSQHS) Standards. The research clearly demonstrates that hospital libraries are integral to a hospital’s quality and safety systems. They make substantial and essential contributions through their professional information/knowledge management services and by ensuring access to evidence-based resources. The research found that there are varying levels of contributions, however, and it is suggested that these differences may be influenced by variables such as location and size of hospital. It is further suggested that for hospitals without a library service, or those with libraries that have limited capacity to deliver professional services and resources, there is likely to be an ‘evidence-accessibility gap’, and they may be at risk and not performing as well as they could in regard to NSQHS accreditation standards, and safety and quality systems.
Health information work - a scoping review protocol
Background: The work of managing health data, health information or health knowledge is a vital, yet unacknowledged, function in our current health system. This protocol is for a literature review which explores the evolution and development of the concept of health information work. Methodology: A scoping review of published literature in the domains of health sciences, information technology and information sciences has been carried out. A thematic and bibliometric analysis of the resulting set of publications is currently being undertaken. Results: The review results will shed light on the responsibilities and the contribution of the health information workforce, with a synthesis of themes identified in the literature, and analysis of publication year spans, prominent authors, institutions and source journals.