Surgery (RMH) - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 661
Strategies for success: a multi-institutional study on robot-assisted partial nephrectomy for complex renal lesions
OBJECTIVE: To describe our technique, illustrated with images and videos, of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) for challenging renal tumours. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A study of 249 patients who underwent RAPN in multiple institutions was performed. Patients were identified using prospective RAPN databases. Complex renal lesion were defined as those with a RENAL nephrometry score ≥10. Data were analysed and differences among groups examined. RESULTS: A total of 31 (12.4%) RAPNs were performed for complex renal tumours. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) patient age was 57 (50.5-70.5) years and 21 patients (67.7%) were men. The median (IQR) American Society of Anesthesiologists score was 2 (2-3). The median (IQR) operating time was 200 (50-265) min, warm ischaemia time was 23 (18.5-29) min, and estimated blood loss was 200 (50-265) mL. There were no intra-operative complications. Two patients (6.4%) had postoperative complications. One patient (3.2%) had a positive surgical margin. The median (IQR) length of stay was 3.5 (3-5) days and the median (IQR) follow-up was 12.5 (7-24) months. There were no recurrences. RAPN resulted in statistically significant changes in renal function 3 months after RAPN compared with preoperative renal function (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our results showed that RAPN was a safe approach for selected patients with complex renal tumours and may facilitate tumour resection and renorrhaphy for challenging cases, offering a minimally invasive surgical option for patients who may otherwise require open surgery.
Pilot multi-centre randomised trial of the impact of pre-operative focused cardiac ultrasound on mortality and morbidity in patients having surgery for femoral neck fractures (ECHONOF-2 pilot)
Hip fracture surgery is common, usually occurs in elderly patients who have multiple comorbidities, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Pre-operative focused cardiac ultrasound can alter diagnosis and management, but its impact on outcome remains uncertain. This pilot study assessed feasibility and group separation for a proposed large randomised clinical trial of the impact of pre-operative focused cardiac ultrasound on patient outcome after hip fracture surgery. Adult patients requiring hip fracture surgery in four teaching hospitals in Australia were randomly allocated to receive focused cardiac ultrasound before surgery or not. The primary composite outcome was any death, acute kidney injury, non-fatal myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, pulmonary embolism or cardiopulmonary arrest within 30 days of surgery. Of the 175 patients screened, 100 were included as trial participants (screening:recruitment ratio 1.7:1), 49 in the ultrasound group and 51 as controls. There was one protocol failure among those recruited. The primary composite outcome occurred in seven of the ultrasound group patients and 12 of the control group patients (relative group separation 39%). Death, acute kidney injury and cerebrovascular accident were recorded, but no cases of myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism or cardiopulmonary arrest ocurred. Focused cardiac ultrasound altered the management of 17 participants, suggesting an effect mechanism. This pilot study demonstrated that enrolment and the protocol are feasible, that the primary composite outcome is appropriate, and that there is a treatment effect favouring focused cardiac ultrasound - and therefore supports a large randomised clinical trial.
Quality of handwritten surgical operative notes from surgical trainees: a noteworthy issue
BACKGROUND: Surgical operation notes are crucial for medical record keeping and information flow in continued patient care. In addition to inherent medical implications, the quality of operative notes also has important economic and medico-legal ramifications. Further, well-documented records can also be useful for audit purposes and propagation of research, facilitating the improvement of delivery of care to patients. We aimed to assess the quality of surgical operation notes written by junior doctors and trainees against a set standard, to ascertain whether these standards were met. METHOD: We undertook an audit of Urology and General Surgery operation notes handwritten by junior doctors and surgical trainees in a tertiary teaching hospital over a month period both in 2014 and 2015. Individual operative notes were assessed for quality based on parameters described by the Royal College of Surgeons of England guidelines. RESULTS: Based on the Royal College of Surgeons of England guidelines, a significant proportion of analysed surgical operative notes were incomplete, with information pertaining to the time of surgery, name of anaesthetist and deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis in particular being recorded less than 50% of the time (22.42, 36.36 and 43.03%, respectively).Overall, 80% compliance was achieved in 14/20 standards and 100% compliance was attained in only one standard. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of surgical operation notes written by junior doctors and trainees demonstrated significant deficiencies when compared against a set standard. There is a clear need to educate junior medical staff and to provide systems and ongoing education to improve quality. This would involve leadership from senior staff, ongoing audit and the development of systems that are part of the normal workflow to improve quality and compliance.
Precision oncology using a clinician-directed, tailored approach to molecular profiling
AIM: Precision oncology involves molecularly matching patients to targeted agents usually in early drug development (EDD) programs. Molecular profiling (MP) identifies actionable targets. Comprehensive commercial MP platforms are costly and in resource limited environments, a more practical approach to MP is necessary to support EDD and precision oncology. We adopted a clinician-directed, tailored approach to MP to enrol patients onto molecularly targeted trials. We report the feasibility of this approach. METHODS: All patients referred to the Royal Melbourne Hospital (RMH) EDD between September 2013 and September 2015 were identified in a prospective database. Key captured data included clinicopathological data, MP platform ordered (if any), molecular targets identified and subsequent enrolment onto clinical trials. EDD-clinician decisions to order MP and the platform utilized was guided by patient consultation, tumor type, trial availability and requirement for molecular information. RESULTS: We identified 377 patients referred to RMH EDD. A total of 216 (57%) had MP ordered. The remainder had known actionable targets (19%), or were inappropriate for clinical trials (24%). In those undergoing MP, 187 genetic aberrations were found in 113 patients with 98 considered actionable targets in 86 patients. Ninety-eight (25%) patients were enrolled onto a clinical trial, including 40 (11%) receiving molecularly matched treatments. Median progression-free survival was improved in patients enrolled onto molecularly matched trials compared to those on unmatched trials (3.6 months vs 1.9 months, HR 0.58 [0.38-0.89], P = 0.013). CONCLUSION: A clinician-directed, tailored approach to the use of MP is feasible, resulting in 11% of patients enrolled onto molecularly matched trials.
Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate can evade androgen deprivation, with emergence of castrate-tolerant cells
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relevance of intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) in advanced prostate cancer by first examining whether IDC-P was originally present in patients who later developed advanced prostate cancer and then using patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) to investigate the response of IDC-P to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective pathology review of IDC-P in primary prostate biopsy or surgery specimens from 38 men who subsequently developed advanced prostate cancer. Overall survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. To demonstrate the response of IDC-P to ADT, we established PDXs from seven patients with familial and/or high-risk sporadic prostate cancer. After castration and testosterone restoration of host mice, we measured the volume and proliferation of IDC-P within PDX grafts. RESULTS: We found that IDC-P was a prominent feature in the primary prostate specimens, present in 63% of specimens and often co-existing with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Overall survival was similar in patients with or without IDC-P. In the PDXs from all seven patients, IDC-P was identified and present at a similar volume to adenocarcinoma. Residual IDC-P lesions persisted after host castration and, similar to castrate-tolerant adenocarcinoma, testosterone restoration led to tumour regeneration. CONCLUSION: The study showed that IDC-P is prevalent in aggressive prostate cancer and contains cells that can withstand androgen deprivation. Thus, IDC-P appears functionally relevant in advanced prostate cancer. The presence of IDC-P may be a trigger to develop innovative clinical management plans.
Fournier's gangrene in a man on empagliflozin for treatment of Type2 diabetes
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SLGT2) inhibitors has been associated with an increased risk of genital infections secondary to increased glycosuria. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 41-year-old man with type 2 diabetes treated with empagliflozin and metformin who presented with scrotal swelling. He described multiple preceding episodes of genital thrush for which he self-administered over-the-counter anti-fungal treatment. On examination, he was afebrile and hemodynamically stable. Perineal examination revealed grossly swollen and indurated scrotum with bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy. Investigations showed elevated inflammatory markers and HbA1c of 99 mmol/mol (11.2%). Computed tomography revealed features consistent with Fournier's gangrene. He underwent emergency exploration and debridement under anaesthetic with a later return to theatre for further exploration, washout and application of a vacuum dressing. He then received a split skin graft to his perineum. He required a 2-week course of intravenous antibiotics and was discharged home on oral antibiotics. Empagliflozin was ceased on admission and he was commenced on a basal bolus insulin regimen for glycaemic optimisation. CONCLUSION: There is a wide clinical spectrum of genital infections associated with SGLT2 inhibitors with most being generally mild and easily treated. However, risk factors such as diabetes, obesity, immunosuppressed states, smoking, alcohol abuse and end-stage renal or liver failure may increase the risk of potentially more severe infections such as Fournier's gangrene. Timely cessation of SGLT2 inhibitors in individuals with multiple risk factors may help prevent progression to more severe genital infections.
Effect of cochlear implantation on middle ear function: A three-month prospective study
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To determine if cochlear implantation has a delayed effect on the middle ear conductive hearing mechanism by measuring laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) of the tympanic membrane (TM) in both implanted and contralateral control ears preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively, and then comparing the relative change in LDV outcome measures between implanted and control ears. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Eleven preoperative adult unilateral cochlear implant recipients in previously unoperated ears with normal anatomy and aerated temporal bones were included in this study. The magnitude and phase angle of umbo velocity transfer function in response to air- conduction (AC) stimulus, and the magnitude of umbo velocity in response to bone- conduction (BC) stimulus were measured in the implant ear and the contralateral control ear preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively and compared. RESULTS: No significant changes in the magnitude or phase angle of TM velocity in response to either AC or BC stimulus were observed in the implanted ear relative to the contralateral control ear 3 months following cochlear implantation. CONCLUSIONS: From the results of LDV measurements, it can be said that cochlear implantation has no significant delayed effect on the middle ear conductive mechanism. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. Laryngoscope, 128:1207-1212, 2018.
Lifetime Risk of Primary Total Hip Replacement Surgery for Osteoarthritis From 2003 to 2013: A Multinational Analysis Using National Registry Data
OBJECTIVE: To compare the lifetime risk of total hip replacement (THR) surgery for osteoarthritis (OA) between countries, and over time. METHODS: Data on primary THR procedures performed for OA in 2003 and 2013 were extracted from national arthroplasty registries in Australia, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Life tables and population data were also obtained for each country. Lifetime risk of THR was calculated for 2003 and 2013 using registry, life table, and population data. RESULTS: In 2003, lifetime risk of THR ranged from 8.7% (Denmark) to 15.9% (Norway) for females, and from 6.3% (Denmark) to 8.6% (Finland) for males. With the exception of females in Norway (where lifetime risk started and remained high), lifetime risk of THR increased significantly for both sexes in all countries from 2003 to 2013. In 2013, lifetime risk of THR was as high as 1 in 7 women in Norway, and 1 in 10 men in Finland. Females consistently demonstrated the highest lifetime risk of THR at both time points. Notably, lifetime risk for females in Norway was approximately double the risk for males in 2003 (females 15.9% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 15.6-16.1], males 6.9% [95% CI 6.7-7.1]), and 2013 (females 16.0% [95% CI 15.8-16.3], males 8.3% [95% CI 8.1-8.5]). CONCLUSION: Using representative, population-based data, this study found statistically significant increases in the lifetime risk of THR in 5 countries over a 10-year period, and substantial between-sex differences. These multinational risk estimates can inform resource planning for OA service delivery.
Survival outcomes in elderly men undergoing radical prostatectomy in Australia
BACKGROUND: To investigate the outcomes of patients older than 75 years of age in Victoria undergoing radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. METHODS: Data on all men undergoing radical prostatectomy in Victoria between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2014 were obtained from the Victorian Cancer Registry. Tumour characteristics including Gleason grade, stage of disease and cause of death were obtained. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-squared test, Cox proportional hazards method and Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS: A total of 14 686 men underwent radical prostatectomy during the defined period, with a median follow-up of 58 months. Of these, 332 were men over the age of 75. All parameters are comparisons between patients >75 years of age and men <75 years of age. Men >75 years had a higher proportion of Gleason grade ≥8 disease (16.6% versus 11.4%, P < 0.001) but had similar stage of disease. Men >75 years had lower rates of 5- and 10-year overall survival (67.3% versus 96.3% and 27.7% versus 89.1%) and lower rates of 5- and 10-year prostate cancer-specific survival (96.2% versus 99.3% and 94.3% versus 97.4%), respectively. Age was an independent risk factor for prostate cancer specific and overall mortality on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 1.49, 95% confidence interval 1.32-1.68; P < 0.001 and hazard ratio 4.26, 95% confidence interval 2.15-8.42; P < 0.001), when adjusted for stage and grade. CONCLUSION: Older men undergoing radical prostatectomy in Victoria had higher-grade disease but similar stage. Age was an independent risk factor for worse prostate cancer-specific and overall survival.
Comparison of perioperative, renal and oncologic outcomes in robotic-assisted versus open partial nephrectomy
BACKGROUND: To compare perioperative, renal and oncological outcomes after robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) versus open partial nephrectomy (OPN) for the treatment of renal tumours. METHODS: All partial nephrectomies performed at a Metropolitan Urology Centre between 2010 and 2016 were analysed. Baseline data was collected for patient demographics, tumour characteristics (tumour size, laterality and polarity, RENAL scores), and perioperative variables (e.g. warm ischaemic time, operation time, estimated blood loss (EBL), length of stay). Tumour characteristics included malignancy, clinical stage, Fuhrman nuclear grade and surgical margin status. Day-1 post-operative serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and 6-month eGFR stage were used for assessing renal function. RESULTS: Two hundred patients underwent partial nephrectomy between 2010 and 2016 (n = 200; 55 OPN versus 145 RAPN). Baseline data was similar between groups, except for lower age (P = 0.0001) and higher RENAL scores (P = 0.001) in the RAPN group. RAPN demonstrated significantly lower complication rates (P = 0.015), lesser EBL (P = <0.0001), shorter hospital stays (P = <0.001) and reduced positive tumour resection margins (P = 0.039). There was no significant difference in mean operation time between RAPN and OPN (137.2 (±48.0) OPN versus 146.07 (±35.91) RAPN; P = 0.16). No statistical difference was shown for post-operative eGFR stage between groups at Day-1 and 6-month post-surgery (P = 0.15 and P = 0.861, respectively). CONCLUSION: We present the largest reported Australian series on partial nephrectomy, confirming that a robotic-assisted approach is equivalent to OPN, with reduced complications, EBL, length of hospital stays and fewer positive margins, even when resecting more complex tumours.