Surgery (RMH) - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 705
Lifetime Health and Economic Outcomes of Active Surveillance, Radical Prostatectomy, and Radiotherapy for Favorable-Risk Localized Prostate Cancer
(ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2021-12-01)
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the lifetime health and economic outcomes of selecting active surveillance (AS), radical prostatectomy (RP), or radiation therapy (RT) as initial management for low- or favorable-risk localized prostate cancer. METHODS: A discrete-event simulation model was developed using evidence from published randomized trials. Health outcomes were measured in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Costs were included from a public payer perspective in Australian dollars. Outcomes were discounted at 5% over a lifetime horizon. Probabilistic and scenario analyses quantified parameter and structural uncertainty. RESULTS: A total of 60% of patients in the AS arm eventually received radical treatment (surgery or radiotherapy) compared with 90% for RP and 91% for RT. Although AS resulted in fewer treatment-related complications, it led to increased clinical progression (AS 40.7%, RP 17.6%, RT 19.9%) and metastatic disease (AS 13.4%, RP 6.1%, RT 7.0%). QALYs were 10.88 for AS, 11.10 for RP, and 11.13 for RT. Total costs were A$17 912 for AS, A$15 609 for RP, and A$15 118 for RT. At a willingness to pay of A$20 000/QALY, RT had a 61.4% chance of being cost-effective compared to 38.5% for RP and 0.1% for AS. CONCLUSIONS: Although AS resulted in fewer and delayed treatment-related complications, it was not found to be a cost-effective strategy for favorable-risk localized prostate cancer over a lifetime horizon because of an increase in the number of patients developing metastatic disease. RT was the dominant strategy yielding higher QALYs at lower cost although differences compared with RP were small.
Cancer associated-fibroblast-derived exosomes in cancer progression
To identify novel cancer therapies, the tumor microenvironment (TME) has received a lot of attention in recent years in particular with the advent of clinical successes achieved by targeting immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). The TME consists of multiple cell types that are embedded in the extracellular matrix (ECM), including immune cells, endothelial cells and cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which communicate with cancer cells and each other during tumor progression. CAFs are a dominant and heterogeneous cell type within the TME with a pivotal role in controlling cancer cell invasion and metastasis, immune evasion, angiogenesis and chemotherapy resistance. CAFs mediate their effects in part by remodeling the ECM and by secreting soluble factors and extracellular vesicles. Exosomes are a subtype of extracellular vesicles (EVs), which contain various biomolecules such as nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. The biomolecules in exosomes can be transmitted from one to another cell, and thereby affect the behavior of the receiving cell. As exosomes are also present in circulation, their contents can also be explored as biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer patients. In this review, we concentrate on the role of CAFs-derived exosomes in the communication between CAFs and cancer cells and other cells of the TME. First, we introduce the multiple roles of CAFs in tumorigenesis. Thereafter, we discuss the ways CAFs communicate with cancer cells and interplay with other cells of the TME, and focus in particular on the role of exosomes. Then, we elaborate on the mechanisms by which CAFs-derived exosomes contribute to cancer progression, as well as and the clinical impact of exosomes. We conclude by discussing aspects of exosomes that deserve further investigation, including emerging insights into making treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitor blockade more efficient.
Sodium selenate as a disease-modifying treatment for progressive supranuclear palsy: protocol for a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
(BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2021-12-01)
INTRODUCTION: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative disorder for which there are currently no disease-modifying therapies. The neuropathology of PSP is associated with the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in the brain. We have previously shown that protein phosphatase 2 activity in the brain is upregulated by sodium selenate, which enhances dephosphorylation. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sodium selenate as a disease-modifying therapy for PSP. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This will be a multi-site, phase 2b, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of sodium selenate. 70 patients will be recruited at six Australian academic hospitals and research institutes. Following the confirmation of eligibility at screening, participants will be randomised (1:1) to receive 52 weeks of active treatment (sodium selenate; 15 mg three times a day) or matching placebo. Regular safety and efficacy visits will be completed throughout the study period. The primary study outcome is change in an MRI volume composite (frontal lobe+midbrain-3rd ventricle) over the treatment period. Analysis will be with a general linear model (GLM) with the MRI composite at 52 weeks as the dependent variable, treatment group as an independent variable and baseline MRI composite as a covariate. Secondary outcomes are change in PSP rating scale, clinical global impression of change (clinician) and change in midbrain mean diffusivity. These outcomes will also be analysed with a GLM as above, with the corresponding baseline measure entered as a covariate. Secondary safety and tolerability outcomes are frequency of serious adverse events, frequency of down-titration occurrences and frequency of study discontinuation. Additional, as yet unplanned, exploratory outcomes will include analyses of other imaging, cognitive and biospecimen measures. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the Alfred Health Ethics Committee (594/20). Each participant or their legally authorised representative and their study partner will provide written informed consent at trial commencement. The results of the study will be presented at national and international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12620001254987).
POSNOC-POsitive Sentinel NOde: adjuvant therapy alone versus adjuvant therapy plus Clearance or axillary radiotherapy: a randomised controlled trial of axillary treatment in women with early-stage breast cancer who have metastases in one or two sentinel nodes
(BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2021-12-01)
INTRODUCTION: ACOSOG-Z0011(Z11) trial showed that axillary node clearance (ANC) may be omitted in women with ≤2 positive nodes undergoing breast conserving surgery (BCS) and whole breast radiotherapy (RT). A confirmatory study is needed to clarify the role of axillary treatment in women with ≤2 macrometastases undergoing BCS and groups that were not included in Z11 for example, mastectomy and those with microscopic extranodal invasion. The primary objective of POsitive Sentinel NOde: adjuvant therapy alone versus adjuvant therapy plus Clearance or axillary radiotherapy (POSNOC) is to evaluate whether for women with breast cancer and 1 or 2 macrometastases, adjuvant therapy alone is non-inferior to adjuvant therapy plus axillary treatment, in terms of 5-year axillary recurrence. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: POSNOC is a pragmatic, multicentre, non-inferiority, international trial with participants randomised in a 1:1 ratio. Women are eligible if they have T1/T2, unifocal or multifocal invasive breast cancer, and 1 or 2 macrometastases at sentinel node biopsy, with or without extranodal extension. In the intervention group women receive adjuvant therapy alone, in the standard care group they receive ANC or axillary RT. In both groups women receive adjuvant therapy, according to local guidelines. This includes systemic therapy and, if indicated, RT to breast or chest wall. The UK Radiotherapy Trials Quality Assurance Group manages the in-built radiotherapy quality assurance programme. Primary endpoint is 5-year axillary recurrence. Secondary outcomes are arm morbidity assessed by Lymphoedema and Breast Cancer Questionnaire and QuickDASH questionnaires; quality of life and anxiety as assessed with FACT B+4 and State/Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires, respectively; other oncological outcomes; economic evaluation using EQ-5D-5L. Target sample size is 1900. Primary analysis is per protocol. Recruitment started on 1 August 2014 and as of 9 June 2021, 1866 participants have been randomised. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Protocol was approved by the National Research Ethics Service Committee East Midlands-Nottingham 2 (REC reference: 13/EM/0459). Results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN54765244; NCT0240168Cite Now.
Factors involved in treatment decision making for women diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ: A qualitative study.
(Elsevier BV, 2021-12)
Whilst some of the diversity in management of women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) may be explained by tumour characteristics, the role of patient preference and the factors underlying those preferences have been less frequently examined. We have used a descriptive qualitative study to explore treatment decisions for a group of Australian women diagnosed with DCIS through mammographic screening. Semi-structured telephone interviews were performed with 16 women diagnosed with DCIS between January 2012 and December 2018, recruited through the LifePool dataset (a subset of BreastScreen participants who have agreed to participate in research). Content analysis using deductive coding identified three themes: participants did not have a clear understanding of their diagnosis or prognosis; reported involvement in decision making about management varied; specific factors including the psychosexual impact of mastectomy and perceptions of radiotherapy, could act as barriers or facilitators to specific decisions about treatment. The treatment the women received was not simply determined by the characteristics of their disease. Interaction with the managing clinician was pivotal, however many other factors played a part in individual decisions. Recognising that decisions are not purely a function of disease characteristics is important for both women with DCIS and the clinicians who care for them.
A Polygenic Risk Score Predicts Incident Prostate Cancer Risk in Older Men but Does Not Select for Clinically Significant Disease.
(MDPI AG, 2021-11-19)
Despite the high prevalence of prostate cancer in older men, the predictive value of a polygenic risk score (PRS) remains uncertain in men aged ≥70 years. We used a 6.6 million-variant PRS to predict the risk of incident prostate cancer in a prospective study of 5701 men of European descent aged ≥70 years (mean age 75 years) enrolled in the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) clinical trial. The study endpoint was prostate cancer, including metastatic or non-metastatic disease, confirmed by an expert panel. After excluding participants with a history of prostate cancer at enrolment, we used a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model to assess the association between the PRS and incident prostate cancer risk, adjusting for covariates. Additionally, we examined the distribution of Gleason grade groups by PRS group to determine if a higher PRS was associated with higher grade disease. We tested for interaction between the PRS and aspirin treatment. Logistic regression was used to independently assess the association of the PRS with prevalent (pre-trial) prostate cancer, reported in medical histories. During a median follow-up time of 4.6 years, 218 of the 5701 participants (3.8%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The PRS predicted incident risk with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.52 per standard deviation (SD) (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-1.74, p < 0.001). Men in the top quintile of the PRS distribution had an almost three times higher risk of prostate cancer than men in the lowest quintile (HR = 2.99 (95% CI 1.90-4.27), p < 0.001). However, a higher PRS was not associated with a higher Gleason grade groups. We found no interaction between aspirin treatment and the PRS for prostate cancer risk. The PRS was also associated with prevalent prostate cancer (odds ratio = 1.80 per SD (95% CI 1.65-1.96), p < 0.001).While a PRS for prostate cancer is strongly associated with incident risk in men aged ≥70 years, the clinical utility of the PRS as a biomarker is currently limited by its inability to select for clinically significant disease.
Reproducibility of an Intraoperative Pressure Sensor in Total Knee Replacement.
(MDPI AG, 2021-11-18)
Appropriate soft tissue tension in total knee replacement (TKR) is an important factor for a successful outcome. The purpose of our study was to assess both the reproducibility of a modern intraoperative pressure sensor (IOP) and if a surgeon could unconsciously influence measurement. A consecutive series of 80 TKRs were assessed with an IOP between January 2018 and December 2020. In the first scenario, two blinded sequential measurements in 48 patients were taken; in a second scenario, an initial blinded measurement and a subsequent unblinded measurement in 32 patients were taken while looking at the sensor monitor screen. Reproducibility was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). In the first scenario, the ICC ranged from 0.83 to 0.90, and in the second scenario it ranged from 0.80 to 0.90. All ICCs were 0.80 or higher, indicating reproducibility using a IOP and that a surgeon may not unconsciously influence the measurement. The use of a modern IOP to measure soft tissue tension in TKRs is a reproducible technique. A surgeon observing the measurements while performing IOP may not significantly influence the result. An IOP gives additional information that the surgeon can use to optimize outcomes in TKR.
The Mutational Landscape of Metastatic Castration-sensitive Prostate Cancer: The Spectrum Theory Revisited
BACKGROUND: Emerging data suggest that metastasis is a spectrum of disease burden rather than a binary state, and local therapies, such as radiation, might improve outcomes in oligometastasis. However, current definitions of oligometastasis are solely numerical. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the somatic mutational landscape across the disease spectrum of metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC) to elucidate a biological definition of oligometastatic CSPC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a retrospective study of men with mCSPC who underwent clinical-grade sequencing of their tumors (269 primary tumor, 25 metastatic sites). Patients were classified as having biochemically recurrent (ie, micrometastatic), metachronous oligometastatic (≤5 lesions), metachronous polymetastatic (>5 lesions), or de novo metastatic (metastasis at diagnosis) disease. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We measured the frequency of driver mutations across metastatic classifications and the genomic associations with radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and time to castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The frequency of driver mutations in TP53 (p = 0.01), WNT (p = 0.08), and cell cycle (p = 0.04) genes increased across the mCSPC spectrum. TP53 mutation was associated with shorter rPFS (26.7 vs 48.6 mo; p = 0.002), and time to CRPC (95.6 vs 155.8 mo; p = 0.02) in men with oligometastasis, and identified men with polymetastasis with better rPFS (TP53 wild-type, 42.7 mo; TP53 mutated, 18.5 mo; p = 0.01). Mutations in TP53 (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.45; p = 0.004) and DNA double-strand break repair (IRR 1.61; p < 0.001) were associated with a higher number of metastases. Mutations in TP53 were also independently associated with shorter rPFS (hazard ratio [HR] 1.59; p = 0.03) and the development of CRPC (HR 1.71; p = 0.01) on multivariable analysis. This study was limited by its retrospective nature, sample size, and the use of commercially available sequencing platforms, resulting in a limited predefined set of genes examined. CONCLUSIONS: Somatic mutational profiles reveal a spectrum of metastatic biology that helps in redefining oligometastasis beyond a simple binary state of lesion enumeration. PATIENT SUMMARY: Oligometastatic prostate cancer is typically defined as less than three to five metastatic lesions and evidence suggests that using radiation or surgery to treat these sites improves clinical outcomes. As of now, treatment decisions for oligometastasis are solely defined according to the number of lesions. However, this study suggests that tumor mutational profiles can provide a biological definition of oligometastasis and complement currently used numerical definitions.
Correction to: Tumour draining lymph node-generated CD8 T cells play a role in controlling lung metastases after a primary tumour is removed but not when adjuvant immunotherapy is used.
(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-11)
A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00262-021-02970-z